Category Archives: difference

NHK

男女はなぜ惹かれあうのか。脳科学はいま、恋のメカニズムを解明しつつある。その中心はドーパミンという脳内物質。快楽を司るドーパミンの大量分泌が恋する二人の絆となっているのだ。ところが脳科学は同時に、皮肉な状況も浮かび上がらせている。高い代謝を要求するドーパミンの大量分泌は身体への負担が大きく、長く続かない。そのため、“恋愛の賞味期間”はせいぜい3年ほどだというのだ。
そこで、男女関係はどうすれば長続きするのかという科学的な探求がさまざま進められている。アメリカでは30年に及ぶ家族の長期研究を通して、長続きしない男女関係では、男女差が大きな障害になっている事実が浮かび上がってきた。たとえば、女は、相手の顔の表情から感情を簡単に読み解くが、男は必死に脳を働かせてもハズす。女が悩みを相談するとき、話を聞いてもらいたいだけなのに、男は解決策を示そうとしてしまう。
こうした男女の違いは、長い狩猟採集時代の遺物ではあるが、無意識のなかに深く根ざしており、日常生活のなかで深刻な影響を与えやすいという。違いをちゃんと意識して、相手の気持ちを理解する努力が欠かせないのだ。

Daron Acemoglu, James Robinson

coverKorea is a remarkably homogeneous nation, yet the people of North Korea are among the poorest on earth while their brothers and sisters in South Korea are among the richest. The south forged a society that created incentives, rewarded innovation, and allowed everyone to participate in economic opportunities. The economic success thus spurred was sustained because the government became accountable and responsive to citizens and the great mass of people. Sadly, the people of the north have endured decades of famine, political repression, and very different economic institutions—with no end in sight. The differences between the Koreas is due to the politics that created these completely different institutional trajectories.

足利義政

西暦 天皇 将軍 年齢 出来事
1436
1437
1438
1439
1440
1441
1442
1443
1444
1445








0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
義政誕生
(祖父は第3代将軍・義満、父は第6代将軍・義教)

 

嘉吉の乱 (義教が暗殺される)
兄の第7代将軍・義勝が9歳で将軍位に就く
義勝が在位8ヶ月で早世、義政が8歳で将軍職に就く
世阿弥死没

1446
1447
1448
1449
1450
1451
1452
1453
1454
1455






10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
茶の湯 (村田珠光、24歳)
生け花
連歌 (心敬、43歳)
義政が元服を迎え、正式に第8代将軍に就任
猿楽が栄え、茶の湯・生け花・連歌などが流行
勘合貿易の復活 (1401-1411; 1432-1441; 1451-)
 明銭 (永楽通宝) 、生糸、織物、書物の流入
 鉱物 (硫黄、銅)、扇子、刀剣、漆器、屏風などを輸出
水墨画 (雪舟、25歳;周防で活動を始める)
禅 (一休、62歳;「自戒集」を著す)
1456
1457
1458
1459
1460
1461
1462
1463
1464
1465










20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29

寛正の大飢饉
池坊12世池坊専慶
(草花数十枝を金瓶に挿し、六角堂に供えた)

猿楽 (能や狂言;観阿弥・世阿弥はもういない)

1466
1467
1468
1469
1470
1471
1472
1473
1474
1475









30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
文正の政変
応仁の乱 (1467-68)
雪舟が明に渡る
公家や僧侶が戦乱をのがれて地方に下り、京都文化が地方に広がる。

文明大噴火 (桜島・御岳;1471-76)
次男:第9代将軍・義尚が8歳で将軍位に就く
心敬 (連歌師) 死没

1476
1477
1478
1479
1480
1481
1482
1483
1484
1485






40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49

応仁の乱が終わって武将が帰国し、戦乱が地方に広がる。

義政出家、山城の国一揆

1486
1487
1488
1489
1490
1491
1492
1493
1494
1495













50
51
52
53
54





加賀の一向一揆
銀閣完成、義尚早世に伴い義政が将軍代理
足利義政死没、甥:第10代将軍・義材が将軍位に就く

明応の政変
甥:第11代将軍・義澄が将軍位に就く

1496
1497
1498
1499
1500
1501













明応地震 (東海・南海地震;M 8.2〜8.4) ・東海道大津波 (死者3万〜4万人)
朝廷がおとろえ、公家・貴族などが多く地方に下る。

横山緑

日本プロ麻雀連盟の第30期十段戦で堀内正人氏が、生中継されていた試合にて悪質極まりない行為でプロ失格処分させられていたことが判明した。状況を説明すると次の通りである。

  1. Mahjong堀内プロがツモってきた3索を卓に叩きつける。
  2. 困ったような表情で溜息をつく。
  3. 手の内にある3索を切り出した。
  4. その後テンパイが入った瀬戸熊プロが1索を切って堀内プロに放縦した。
  5. 本来であれば審判の藤原氏がすぐに止めるべきだったが、生放送であったため躊躇した。
  6. 対局後の審議で堀内プロの失格を満場一致で決めた。

2番目と3番目の行為が三味線と見なされ麻雀連盟からプロにあるまじき行為としてプロ失格の処分を受けたのだという。

afp/Newsnet

FrancsSuissesChacun devrait recevoir en Suisse quelque 2500 francs par mois, qu’il travaille ou non. L’idée d’un revenu de base inconditionnel est défendue via une initiative populaire. Les partisans de ce nouveau concept social ont présenté jeudi leurs arguments.
Chaque personne, active ou non, vivant légalement en Suisse devrait toucher une certaine somme, qu’elle soit riche ou pauvre, en santé ou malade, qu’elle vive seule ou en communauté. Il s’agit de donner la possibilité à tout le monde de s’engager comme il l’entend, dans le social ou dans la culture par exemple, a expliqué devant la presse l’une des initiantes, Ursula Piffaretti.
Pour le comité d’initiative, qui compte notamment l’ancien vice- chancelier de la Confédération Oswald Sigg, il faut casser le dogme qui fait rimer actuellement revenu et travail. De nombreuses tâches, comme les travaux ménagers, ne sont d’ailleurs actuellement pas rémunérées.

AFP

GreenPeaceGreenpeace crew members detained in Russian jails for two months over their open-sea protest against Arctic oil drilling are “close to shock” over their conditions, a rights activist said.
The 30 detained are being held in pre-trial detention centres in the cities of Murmansk and Apatity, which are nearly 2,000 kilometres (1,250 miles) north of Moscow and above the Arctic Circle.
All but four of the activists are non-Russians from countries including Britain, the United States, Finland and Argentina.
Russia has jailed the activists from Greenpeace’s Arctic Sunrise protest ship without charge pending an investigation into alleged piracy, after several scaled a state-owned oil rig on September 18.
The activists have complained of cold cells and a lack of suitable clothing and food, said Irina Paikacheva, the head of a state-connected regional prisoners’ rights watchdog.
“Many of them are in a state close to shock,” she told AFP after visiting the prisoners. “They had never expected that they would face such consequences for their peaceful protest in a democratic state.”

Michelle Higgins

harrisplotFYEONo open houses, no advertising and not a single online photo. And yet a $27 million town house on the Upper East Side and an $850,000 two-bedroom co-op in Lower Manhattan had no problem finding buyers in the past six months. Neither home was listed on the open market.
Off-market deals, known as whisper listings, have long been the purview of the ultra-high-end market. Certain properties, often with price tags of $20 million or more, are shopped with a shroud of mystery among a small circle of well-connected agents instead of being put on the market for the world to see.
Now this hush-hush approach has spread to many price points, including apartments below $1 million, as sellers realize the advantage they have, thanks to the lack of apartments available for sale in Manhattan.

Christopher Lloyd

I remember talking about Alan Shepherd – one of the men on the moon – who took a golf shot. I asked the children how much further the ball would have travelled than if he has taken a shot on the Earth. After a while we worked out it was SIX times further as there is SIX times less gravity on the moon because it is SIX times smaller than the Earth. Then one girl, her name was Naomi, piped up from the back ”Excuse me Sir, but did he go and pick it up or is it still there?” I had no idea! But what a fabulous question, what beautiful curiosity!!! I have since researched this matter and apparently he never did bother to pick it up – so next time you look up into the night sky marvel at the fact that somewhere up there on the moon is a 44 year old golf-ball!

Marketing Joint

HansonTo even a technology neophyte, Windows is synonymous with Microsoft and vice versa. To a tech marketer, Rowland Hanson is a name that is the stuff of legend. The story of how Windows got its name has been mentioned in numerous books, articles, and countless departmental discussions around branding, naming, and marketing strategies. You can Google “Rowland Hanson Microsoft Windows” and read about how Bill Gates personally recruited Rowland from Neutrogena to serve as Microsoft’s first marketing executive. And, upon joining, how Rowland convinced Gates to name its GUI based MS-DOS extension or add-on as “Windows” instead of “interface manager.”
I never met Rowland in person. I first reached out to him in 2001 to get some advice on career direction and marketing. Although I was a complete stranger, he gave me invaluable suggestions and always offered to help any way he could. If there’s one dominant characteristic I’ve seen in successful people it is in their desire and willingness to share, teach, and help. This is their “edge” as well as gift.

Jennie Runk

JRe
JRf

JRd
JR7
JR8
JRg
JRw

JRx

I had no idea that my H&M beachwear campaign would receive so much publicity. I’m the quiet type who reads books, plays video games, and might be a little too obsessed with her cat.So, suddenly having a large amount of publicity was an awkward surprise at first. I found it strange that people made such a fuss about how my body looks in a bikini, since I don’t usually give it much thought.
When my Facebook fan page gained about 2,000 new likes in 24 hours, I decided to use the attention as an opportunity to make the world a little nicer by promoting confidence. I’ve since been receiving lots of messages from fans, expressing gratitude.
Some even told me that my confidence has inspired them to try on a bikini for the first time in years. This is exactly the kind of thing I’ve always wanted to accomplish, showing women that it’s OK to be confident even if you’re not the popular notion of “perfect”.
This message is especially important for teenage girls. Being a teenage girl is incredibly difficult. They need all the help and support they can get.
When our bodies change and we all start to look totally different, we simultaneously begin feeling pressured to look exactly the same. This is an impossible goal to achieve and I wish I had known that when I was 13. At 5ft 9in and a US size eight (usually either a UK 10 or 12), I envied the girls whose boyfriends could pick them up and carry them on their shoulders.
Gym class was a nightmare. While the thin girls were wearing shorts, I was wearing sweat pants because my thighs were the size of their waists, and those pants were embarrassingly short because I was taller than the average adult, but still shopped at (pre-teen clothing store) Limited Too.
I also had thick, curly hair that only drew more attention to me, hiding behind my braces and beige, wire-rimmed glasses. On top of all this I’ve always been rather clumsy, so to say that my adolescence was awkward is an understatement.
Having finally survived it, I feel compelled to show girls who are going through the same thing that it’s acceptable to be different. You will grow out of this awkwardness fabulously. Just focus on being the best possible version of yourself and quit worrying about your thighs, there’s nothing wrong with them.
After all, I never thought of myself as model material but then I was discovered at a Petsmart, while volunteering in my too-short sweat pants no less.
I was given the option to lose weight and try to maintain a size four (a UK six or eight), or to gain a little – maintain a size 10 (a UK 12 or 14) – and start a career as a plus-size model. I knew my body was never meant to be a size four, so I went with plus.
People assume “plus” equates to fat, which in turn equates to ugly. This is completely absurd because many women who are considered plus-sized are actually in line with the American national average, or a US size 12/14 (somewhere between a UK size 14-18).
I can’t argue that some styles look better on one size than another.
While the idea of separating women into size categories seems stigmatising, clothing companies do this in order to offer their customers exactly what they’re looking for, making it easier for people of all sizes to find clothes that fit their bodies as well as their own unique stylistic expression.
The only problem is the negative connotations that remain stubbornly attached to the term “plus-size”. There shouldn’t be anything negative about being the same size as the average American woman, or even being a little bigger. Some women are perfectly healthy at a size 16 (a UK 18 or 20).
There are also negative connotations associated with thinness. Just as bigger women get called fat or chunky, thin women get called gangly or bony.
There’s no need to glamorise one body type and slam another. We need to stop this absurd hatred towards bodies for being different sizes. It doesn’t help anyone and it’s getting old.

AFP, Testerpublic

EndoJordan denied accusations that lasers were shone in Japanese players’ faces during their 2-1 World Cup qualifier loss to the kingdom, saying the claims seek to justify their loss.
“Personally, I am surprised at these accusations. We did not hear or notice anything about laser,” Salah Sabra, vice-president of the Jordan Football Association, told AFP.

Ian Fleming

All the greatest men are maniacs. They are possessed by a mania which drives them forward towards thier goal. The great scientists, the philosophers, the religious leaders – all maniacs. What else but a blind singlenee of purpose could have given focus to thier genius, would have kept them in the groove of purpose. Mania … is as priceless as genius.

Michel Albert

Les relations avec les pouvoirs publics peuvent être traités ici sous l’angle du social. En effet, chez nous, la majorité des actions sociales sont de l’ordre de l’Etat. Celui-ci fait appliquer toute les règles qui y sont soumises. On peut citer comme exemple les assurances sociales, qui dans le modèle rhénan, sont des prélèvements obligatoires, la sécurité qui est fournie par l’Etat, prise en compte des inégalités sociales, etc.
Au niveau américain, tout ceci est très différent. Premièrement, toutes les assurances sociales ne sont pas obligatoires, tout est réglé selon la loi du marché, donc bien de personnes ne sont pas assurées. Deuxièmement, les USA comptent de fortes inégalités du fait que l’Etat ne s’occupe pas du tout de la redistribution des revenus et tout ce qui s’en suit. On peut dire que l’Etat n’est pas concerné par ces problèmes. De plus, pour terminer, nous sentons très bien que les USA sont défavorable envers des prélèvements d’impôts trop élevés, car ils constituent selon eux un frein à l’économie et au travail. D’un certain point de vue, ils n’ont pas tout tort mais ils sont peut-être un peu trop à l’extrème. Faut-il donc prélever des impôts?
Pour conclure, le modèle rhénan est sans aucun doute le plus performant que ce soit socialement ou économiquement parlant mais au niveau du rêve et de la gloire, le modèle néo-américain l’emporte largement.

清沢洌

考え方が違っても愛国者であり得、また意見が相違しても団結することができる。そう我国の「愛国者」は考うることができぬ。

橘子译

そういえば、ロシア語の中に Гулять так гулять (遊ぶならとことんと遊ぼう)という決まり文句があります。要するにパーティーなどでハメをはずすことですけれども、そのときたとえ人に迷惑をかけたとしても、それはむしろ「しっかり遊んだ」証拠になるようで、ちっともかまわないようです。
日本人にとって「ちょうどいい」状態がロシア人にとっては「中途半端」だったり「物足りなかったり」するという感性の違いもありますけれども、実は、もう一つ、ロシア人の性格・性質から来る問題もあります。「ちょうどいい」という状態は案外絶妙なバランスを必要とする場合が多いのですが、それを達成したり維持したりするには日本人のような「きめ細かさ」や「丁寧さ」が必要なのです。ところが、豪快なロシア人はそういうのが大の苦手。ロシア人はどちらかというと、「細かいことは気にしない」、「大枠で考える天才肌」の人が多いのです。
・・・これだけ性格が違うと、日本人とロシア人との間で誤解やトラブルがあっても不思議はないでしょうけれども、付き合い方によっては案外お互い補い合える部分はいくらでもあるのではないかと思います。

坂根シルク

人と違うことは当たり前のはずなのに、友達と同じでないと不安を感じることが多い今のこどもたち。人に合わせることが必要なこともありますが、自分らしさを見つけ出し、それを認めることができると、自分と違う人の事も認めることができるようになり、人間関係も楽になります。ムーミンの住む世界が平和なのはムーミンたちがお互いの違いを認めているからなのです。 そして実はそれこそが本当の「国際人」になるためにも必要なことなのです。
日本では知らない人がいないムーミン。フィンランド人の作者が書いたムーミントロールの話は実はフィンランドとロシアが戦争中に作者が自分自身を慰めるために書いた物語でした。
ムーミンに登場する人物はみんな個性の強い、それぞれ違った性格や考え方、体つきをしています。人はお互いに異なって当たり前なのです。
その違いを認めることができると自分自身を認めるようになり、友達や周りの人だけでなく、世界のいろいろな文化や人を認めることができるようになるのです。

>Alan Wolfe

>

When instead we discuss human purpose and the meaning of life, Adam Smith and John Maynard Keynes are on the same side. Both of them possessed an expansive sense of what we are put on this earth to accomplish. Both were on the side of enlightenment. Both were optimists who believed in progress but were dubious about grand schemes that claimed to know all the answers. For Smith, mercantilism was the enemy of human liberty. For Keynes, monopolies were. It makes perfect sense for an eighteenth-century thinker to conclude that humanity would flourish under the market. For a twentieth century thinker committed to the same ideal, government was an essential tool to the same end.

>Samantha Smith

>

Dear Mr. Andropov,
My name is Samantha Smith. I am ten years old. Congratulations on your new job. I have been worrying about Russia and the United States getting into a nuclear war. Are you going to vote to have a war or not? If you aren’t please tell me how you are going to help to not have a war. This question you do not have to answer, but I would like to know why you want to conquer the world or at least our country. God made the world for us to live together in peace and not to fight.
Sincerely,
Samantha Smith

>Koenraad Elst

>The common denominator in all these costly mistakes was a lack of realism. Gandhi refused to see the realities of human nature; of Islamic doctrine with its ambition of domination; of the modern mentality with its resentment of autocratic impositions; of people’s daily needs making them willing to collaborate with the rulers in exchange for career and business opportunities; of the nationalism of the Hindus who would oppose the partition of their Motherland tooth and nail; of the nature of the Pakistani state as intrinsically anti-India and anti-Hindu.

>C. P. Snow

>

A good many times I have been present at gatherings of people who, by the standards of the traditional culture, are thought highly educated and who have with considerable gusto been expressing their incredulity at the illiteracy of scientists. Once or twice I have been provoked and have asked the company how many of them could describe the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The response was cold: it was also negative. Yet I was asking something which is the scientific equivalent of: Have you read a work of Shakespeare’s?

>Caitlin M. Fausey

>

In English, if I knock this cup off the table, even accidentally, you would likely say, “She broke the cup.” However, in Japanese or Spanish, intent matters. If one deliberately knocks the cup, there is a verb form to indicate as much. But if the act were an accident, the speaker would essentially say, “The cup broke itself.”
(“コップが割れた” in Japanese; “La taza se rompió” in Spanish.)

>Lera Boroditsky

>

… the mechanics of using a language such as English, which tends to assign an agent to an action regardless of the agent’s intent, also tends to more vividly imprint that agent in the speaker’s memory. Other linguistic differences help young children in aboriginal cultures achieve powers of navigation that would confound a Harvard professor.
Boroditsky’s own journey began in Belarus, where she was the only child of parents who were both engineers. At 12, she says, she spoke Russian and struggled with Belarusian and Ukrainian. She was learning English in school when her parents got the opportunity to emigrate. A close friend had preceded them by three months and settled in Skokie, Ill., where they went as well. Boroditsky’s background and passion for argument earned her the nickname “Red Fury” in high school, she says with a laugh. She recalls thinking even as a teenager about the degree to which language could shape an argument and exaggerate the differences between people.

>Luna Filipovic

>

Spanish-speaking suspect’s non-agentive (and appropriate in Spanish) description of events (“se me cayó”, roughly “to me it happened that she fell”) was translated into English for the broader court into the agentive (and appropriate in English) “I dropped her.”

>J.M.G. Le Clézio

>Pourquoi écrit-on ? J’imagine que chacun a sa réponse à cette simple question. Il y a les prédispositions, le milieu, les circonstances. Les incapacités aussi. Si l’on écrit, cela veut dire que l’on n’agit pas. Que l’on se sent en difficulté devant la réalité, que l’on choisit un autre moyen de réaction, une autre façon de communiquer, une distance, un temps de réflexion.

>Всеволод Овчинников

>Умывальник без пробки и ванна без душа – лишь один из множества примеров, которые иллюстрируют непреложную истину: сталкиваясь за рубежом с чем-то необычным и непривычным, люди порой превратно судят о нём из-за инстинктивной склонности мерить всё на свой аршин. Следует от этого отказаться и разобраться в системе представлений, мерок и норм, присущих данному народу.

____
В каждой главе, посвященной отдельной теме, автор всё время исследует дуализм, присущий этому миру в настоящее время, в котором так лихо переплетаются …