Category Archives: development

社会インフラ

社会インフラという言葉がある
まず頭に浮かぶのがコンクリートにケーブル
上下水道管 電線 ガス管 道路 鉄道 通信網
橋 トンネル ダム 港湾 工場 商店 食堂 銭湯
学校 病院 図書館 住宅 集会所 公園
競技場 美術館 劇場 音楽ホール

社会インフラは 後世に遺跡として残る
闘技場や劇場が残っていれば
格闘技や演劇が盛んだったのだろうと想う
公共浴場が残っていれば
落ち着いた社会を思い浮かべる
巨大な壁が続けば 外敵が思い浮かばれ
城や神社仏閣からは 権力が偲ばれる

遺跡は そこにいた人たちが
どんな人たちだったのかを語る
何を大切にしていたのか
どんな社会を作りたかったのか
そんな諸々を 見せてくれる
上下水道管が陶器でできていて
そのひとつひとつに花が描かれていれば
心豊かな人たちを想像するし
図書館の棚が延々と続いていれば
本を愛した人たちが浮かんでくる

どんな社会も永遠には続かず
最後は必ず滅びる
豊かな社会も貧しい社会も
最後は必ず滅びる
社会インフラは必ず老朽化し
そして朽ちる
でもだからといって
社会インフラが疎かにされるのは悲しい

個人の場所しかなくて
みんなの場所がないのは悲しい
海辺や湖畔が外の人たちに占領され
地元の人たちが行けないというのはおかしい
個人の図書館しかなくて
みんなの図書館がないのは悲しい
スポーツや音楽が金持ちだけのものになり
普通の人たちが楽しめないのはおかしい

学校が消えて予備校が残り
学ぶことがなくなり受験テクニックだけが生き延びる
農業や工業が消えて商業と金融が残り
サービスとマネーゲームだけが栄える
人々の心がすさみ
社会インフラは立ち行かなくなる
人々の心がなくなってゆけば
社会インフラは消えてゆく

どんなこともカネに換算され
なにをするにもカネが要る
息をするのにもカネの要る社会が
目の前まで来ている

もう十分

遺伝情報を赤ん坊の細胞の核に埋め込んで
赤ん坊の存在そのものを変えてしまう
遺伝情報を埋め込まれた人は
人といえるのか

誰かを好きになっても遺伝情報のせい
過ちを犯しても遺伝情報のせい

知的な活動をしても遺伝情報のなせるわざ
人生を築いたとしても遺伝情報がなせるわざ
いったい誰なのか
遺伝情報なのか 人なのか

遺伝情報を埋め込まれた人に 私は誰なのかと聞かれたら
なんて答えるのだろうか

優生学 異種移植 エンハンスメント 体外受精
デザイナーベビー 遺伝子組み換え ゲノム編集
遺伝子治療 着床前遺伝子診断 クローンES細胞
ips細胞 遺伝子ターゲティング 絶滅動物再生
知らないことを書き並べてみて
何がいいのか 何が悪いのか
何がいったい問題なのか
誰がやってもいいと やってはいけないと決めるのか
ほんとうに なんにも わからない

もうこれ以上 前に進まなくてもいいじゃないか
もう十分ではないか
もういいじゃないか

SDGs fan

気候変動の影響は、

    • 農作物への影響
    • 畜産の品質への影響
    • 豪雨の発生による土砂崩れ等の山地災害増加
    • 海洋生物の分布域変化による漁獲量の変化
    • 水温上昇による湖の水質悪化
    • 天然林の適域変化による自然遺産への影響
    • 熱中症による搬送者数の増加
    • 感染症の拡大

など、多岐に渡ります。それに伴い、課題解決のために多くのビジネスが生まれる可能性もあると考えられます。

Tina Rosenberg

A fixed address matters — and in most countries, large numbers of homes don’t have one. Addresses don’t exist in the jumbles of self-built houses ringing most major cities in poor countries. Nomadic people have no way to describe where they’ve pitched their tents as they drive their livestock from place to place. Even permanent homes in some rural areas have no address.

Francesca Carnibella

Surely wanting to help people is a good thing? Not necessarily so according to Mexican thinker and activist Gustavo Esteva. He is an advocate of post-development; an academic movement which calls for the dismantling of ‘development’ from the World Bank to international NGOs.
Esteva’s essay Development asks “what does development actually mean?” He traces the history of the word to illustrate that ‘development’ is not something that has always existed. Rather it is an idea, something that has been invented.
… I remember leaving school with ‘trade not aid’ scrawled on my exercise book and thinking that working for the UN would be the best job in the world for helping people. Esteva really makes you question what are in hindsight very simplified convictions. His historical analysis and interrogation of ‘development’ I find particularly useful – I don’t think I would have ever asked “where does development come from?” had I not been prompted.

Orio Giarini

The paradise is usually defined as a place where people would live happily supported by an indefinite amount of freely available resources. No effort, labour or production would be needed so that economic activity as we have traditionally understood it would cease to exist. The immediate consequence would be that there would be no payment of wages and, as a result, an infinite level of unemployment would be obtained. Industrial technological progress has been promoted and has brought us some way to achieving the goal of paradise. Indeed, increasing productivity through the production of goods (the electronics industry is a case in point) provides precisely an example of falling production prices. Extrapolation of these trends to industrial manufacturing as a whole could produce a situation of, on the one hand, great plenty and, on the other, of zero employment and zero availability of money. As can be seen, the road to paradise is beginning to look very much the road to hell. And hell is, of course, the inevitable terminus of all extrapolation. This is an instance of the apparently rational driving us towards the most irrational of situations.

Oxfam

oxfam01GROW   Already a billion of us go to bed hungry every night. Not because there isn’t enough, but because of the deep injustice in the way the system works.


oxfam02Health & Education For All   The world needs six million more well-trained and well-paid teachers, doctors and nurses for poor countries. And to make this happen, the world needs you.


oxfam03Conflicts and Disasters   Conflict, disasters and emergencies are frequent, but their devastating impact on ordinary people can often be avoided.


oxfam04Agriculture campaign   Food prices are rising. Bio-fuel crops are competing for land with food crops. The risk of widespread hunger is increasing across the world. Why is this happening?


oxfam05Climate Change campaign   Climate change is driving many of the world’s poorest people dangerously close to the edge of survival. You can help stop this.

Ivan Illich

スクリーンショット 2013-08-25 11.11.07I was recently told, ‘You’re a liar!’ when I said to somebody I walked down the spine of the Andes. Every Spaniard in the sixteenth, seventeenth century did that. The idea that somebody could just walk! He can jog perhaps in the morning, but he can’t walk anywhere! The world has become inaccessible because we drive there.

Carry a candle in the dark, be a candle in the dark, know that you’re a flame in the dark.

Man must choose whether to be rich in things or in the freedom to use them.

School is the advertising agency which makes you believe that you need the society as it is.

Christopher J. Coyne, Peter T. Leeson

We have argued that successful economic development is characterized by widespread coordination. Toward this end, the development of a free media is critical for shifting games of conflict to games of coordination. We can therefore put forth some general guidelines for the achievement of a free media toward the ends of successful economic development:

  1. Privatize all aspects of the media industry
  2. Open borders to foreign investment and media
  3. Consumer demand is critical

As economics and history teaches us, these guidelines give the best chance for media to serve as a coordination-enhancing mechanism in achieving sustainable economic development.

Karl Marx

The worker becomes all the poorer the more wealth he produces, the more his production increases in power and range. The worker becomes an ever cheaper commodity the more commodities he creates. With the increasing value of the world of things proceeds in direct proportion to the devaluation of the world of men. Labor produces not only commodities; it produces itself and the worker as a commodity — and does so in the proportion in which it produces commodities generally.

Carol Off

ChocolateCarolOff…the children who struggle to produce the small delights of life in the world I come from have never known such pleasure, and most likely, never will. It’s a measure of the separation in our worlds, a distance now so staggeringly vast…the distance between the hand that picks the cocoa and the hand that reaches for the chocolate bar.
Bitter Chocolate traces the fascinating origins and evolution of chocolate from the banquet table of Montezuma’s Aztec court in the early sixteenth century to the bustling factories of Hershey, Cadbury, and Mars today, revealing that slavery and injustice have always been key ingredients. The heart of the book takes place in West Africa inside the Ivory Coast—the world’s leading producer of cocoa beans—where, as Off discovers, profits from the multibillion-dollar chocolate industry fuel bloody civil war and widespread corruption. Faced with pressure from a crushing “cocoa cartel” demanding more beans for less money, poor farmers have turned to the cheapest labor pool possible: thousands of indentured children who pick the beans but have never themselves known the taste of chocolate.

Doug Gunzelmann

The Q Drum allows a child to pull the full capacity of 50 liters of water over flat terrain with comparative ease.

The Q Drum was designed to be simple, cost effective, keep the weight on the ground, be durable, and to have no moving parts or handles that could break.

Typical methods of water transport include a sundry of containers that must be carried, carted, driven, or hauled by animal or bicycle to and from the water source. This can often mean unhygienic conditions with inappropriate containers and exposure to pathogens, requires high energy output, and is labor intensive and time consuming.

Charlotte Chatelle, Chafik Allal

Dix idées reçues sur la corruption
« La corruption est une question de culture » et neuf autres fausses vérités

  1. L’Occident a depuis longtemps lutté contre la corruption
  2. Les plus gros volumes de corruption proviennent des pays du Sud
  3. La corruption est le facteur prépondérant de la mauvaise gouvernance
  4. La corruption est une question de culture
  5. Le système démocratique est le plus à même de combattre et diminuer le degré de corruption
  6. La corruption pèse négativement sur la croissance au travers d’investissements trop bas
  7. La corruption est bonne pour un pays car elle permet une meilleure redistribution des richesses et du pouvoir
  8. Les programmes de lutte contre la corruption sont particulièrement efficaces dans les pays fortement corrompus
  9. Transparency International est une ONG militante qui mesure le niveau de corruption des pays et élabore des programmes de lutte contre la corruption au sein des populations de base
  10. La corruption permet « d’huiler les rouages » d’une administration rigide

Anna Persson, Bo Rothstein, Jan Teorell

If you drive on the beautiful roads in the mountains surrounding Cape Town in South Africa, you will eventually – and in the middle of nowhere – reach a road toll station with a sign on it stating that “This is a corruption-free zone”. Similar signs can be found outside the Ministry of Water and Irrigation in the Kenyan capital of Nairobi, on the main campus of University of Nairobi, on the doors of the Kilwa district office and the Mwanza health office in Tanzania, as well as in many other places on the African continent. While these signs do not necessarily tell us the truth, they still give us an important key to understanding the real-life context of many African societies. If you have to explicitly state that a certain place is a corruption-free zone, this should say a lot about how epidemic corruption is perceived to be in society at large. More specifically, this should lead us to suspect that corruption is not the exception to the rule, but the rule.

Anna Persson, Bo Rothstein, Jan Teorell

With an increased awareness of the detrimental effects of corruption on development, strategies to fight it are now a top priority in policy circles around the world. Since Africa is home to most of the thoroughly corrupt countries in the world, it is no coincidence that the African continent has been the major target of this movement. To date, however, few successes have resulted from the investment. In fact, in some countries corruption even seems to have become more entrenched in step with the efforts to curb it. Contemporary anti-corruption reforms in Africa have largely failed because they are based on a mischaracterization of the problem of corruption in contexts with systematic corruption. While contemporary anti-corruption reforms are based on a conceptualization of corruption as a principal-agent problem, in the African context corruption rather seems to resemble a collective action problem, making the short-term costs of fighting corruption outweigh the benefits. Consequently, even if most individuals morally disapprove of corruption and are fully aware of the negative consequences for the society at large, very few actors show a sustained willingness to fight it.

C. ダグラス ラミス

  • 「正当な暴力」を使う権利は、国民が国家に持たせたものだ
    ー 国家によって殺さた人の数はこの百年間で 203,319,000
  • 国家は国民を守ってくれない
    ー 国家によって殺されているのは、外国人より自国民のほうが圧倒的に多い
  • みんなが経済発展すると地球がもたない
    ー 経済発展で貧困は解消しない。そればかりか経済発展は自然を破壊しつくす
  • 経済成長がなければ私たちは豊かになれないのだろうか
    ー 国家が信用できるとか、政府が正義の体現者であるとか、政治家が智恵を持っているとか、会社の経営者が公共心を持っているとか、軍隊が平和を守るとか、そういうことを信じるような、子供だましのロマンティシズムのなかにいる時ではない。今こそやらなくてはならないことは、想像上の世界ではなく、現実の世界について考えることなのだ。
    多くの人がこのように現実的に(非タイタニック的に)考えるようになって初めて、パークが言う理想社会に近づくことが可能になる。つまり、もちろん智恵や倫理について考えなくてもいい社会などはありえないのだが、少なくとも、普通の日常生活を送ってもそれが危険で破壊的ではないような社会に切り換わる可能性(保証ではないが)が現れてくるだろう。

C. Douglas Lummis

The ideological power of the concepts of ‘modernization’ and ‘development’ comes from their use of retroactive teleology. Put bluntly, this means redefining something so that what you are about to do to it appears as its predetermined destiny. For example, we call a certain kind of stone ‘iron ore’, which means that if we crush it to powder and subject it to intense heat, it will yield iron. It wasn’t ‘ore’ until this technology was discovered. But once we have the technology, we redefine the stone such that extracting iron from it is seen as the actualization of its latent potential, its fated end, its telos. Not only that: the dictionary defines ‘ore’ as ‘native metal from which precious or useful metal may be profitably extracted’. Even the market system is retroactively implanted into our definition of this natural object: when the market value drops, what was ore today may be stone tomorrow.
‘Underdeveloped society’ is a word like ‘ore’. It is a redefinition made possible by the fact that the leaders in the industrial capitalist countries believe they have the power and the technology to smash such a society, melt it down and remold it on the industrial capitalist model. At the same time, the word gives the impression that to do this is to fulfill that society’s predetermined destiny. This conceals the violently antidemocratic nature of development.

Eduardo Borensztein, Ugo Panizza

Sovereign debt is different from private debt because creditors do not have a well defined claim on the sovereign’s assets. The lack of a procedure for enforcing sovereign debt contracts is partly due to the principle of sovereign immunity. However it also relates to the fact that, even when creditors obtain a favorable ruling, they cannot attach assets which are located within the borders of the defaulting country, and in fact have had limited success in going after assets located abroad.

開発援助を考え直す

開発のための財政援助は本当にいいことなのだろうか?その疑問についてずっと考えてきた。

ピーター・トマス・バウアーは、開発援助とは「豊かな国の貧しい人びとから、貧しい国の豊かな人びとへ、富を移すための素晴らしい方法だ(an excellent method for transferring money from poor people in rich countries to rich people in poor countries)」と言った。

国内のホームレスや食べるものもなく死んでいく人たちにまわるはずのお金が、開発途上国の権力者や特権階級に行ってしまうのでは、釈然としない。それが開発援助なら、すぐに止めてほしい。

ジェフリー・サックスは「豊かな国々が国民所得の0.7%を途上国への援助に振り向ければ世界中の極度の貧困を終わらせることができる」と繰り返し言う。たった0.7%をまわすだけで世界が良くなるというのだ。日本にも、10年前に約束したとおり、0.7%(今の4倍の3兆円)を毎年出せと言う。三兆円あったら、外国のかわいそうな人たちを助けるより、まずは日本のなかの弱い立場にいる人たちを助けたい。そう思うのは私だけなのだろうか。

西ヨーロッパの人たちには自分たちが植民地でやってきたことに対する後ろめたさがあり、アメリカ人は奴隷売買のことを忘れららない。だから、援助をする。
それよりもなによりも、西ヨーロッパの人たちには、自分たちの植民地だったところの利権を手放したくないという事情があり、アメリカ人には新しいマーケットを開発するという戦略がある。援助は必要なのだ。
でも、日本が、アフリカまで行って、なにかしてあげるって、本当に必要なのだろうか。

外務省や援助団体、それにNGOやNPOの人たちは、援助が必要だって言うだろうけれど、援助してもらう側のコラプションはマネージできないようだし、「ムバラクのポケットマネーは日本の援助から」みたいなのは、もうやめてもいいと思う。

(右下の写真のような)道端に放り出された人たち、川沿いのテントで暮らす人たち、仕事が見つからない人たち、食べるものもなく死んでいく人たち、そんな日本という国のなかの人たちに目を向けるのが正常なのであって、(左下の写真のような)ユニセフや国境なき医師団のポスターのなかの子供を助けようというのは、なにかが違う気がする。

シメオン・ジャンコフ、ホセ・モンタルボ、マルタ・レイナル-ケロル(Simeon Djankov, Jose G. Montalvo, Marta Reynal-Querol)の3人の研究によれば、外国からの援助は、援助を受ける国の民主主義に悪影響を与えてしまう。実際、援助を受けすぎている国ではデモクラシー・インデックスが低下している。開発途上国にとって援助は石油以上に不幸の種なのだ。

アフリカから来た友人達に「今アフリカで一番大きな問題はなにか?」と聞くと、誰もがコラプションと答える。ジェームス・シクワティは、もし先進国が本当にアフリカを助けたいのなら今すぐ援助を停止するべきだと言った。受ける援助額が大きいほど状況は悪くなる。何十億ドルものお金をアフリカに注ぎ込んでも、その全部がコラプションで消え、ほとんどのアフリカ人は貧しいままでいる。

援助に携わる善意の人たちというのもやっかいだ。援助がなくなれば仕事を失うだろう人たちが、あの手この手でお金を集める。そのあたりの感じを高野秀行が上手に描写している。
「 でも、そんな笑顔の写真を出したら誰も援助してくれないし、新聞や雑誌、テレビとしても、インパクトに欠ける。だから、苦労して、不自然な写真や映像を流しているのだろう」
「もちろん、私だって、難民の人たちに食料が行き渡ってほしいから、『だから援助するな』とは言わない。しかし、情報操作あるいは捏造があまりにもひどいのではないか」

ジョン・ストッセルが言っているように)多くの人たちが、援助が貧困をなくすと信じている。
U2のボノは、コンサートで演奏を中断し、我々は最貧国の貧困を停めることができるのだと訴える。我々にはお金がある、貧困を終わらせるノウハウもある、そんなことを言う。でも、援助のためのコンサートを何回やったって、貧困は終わらない。
アンジェリーナ・ジョリーは、UNHCRの親善大使として世界中を飛び回り、貧困絶滅を訴える。ジェフリー・サックスがアフリカに作った「模範的な村」を訪れ、先進国の政府にもっと援助額を増やすよう訴える。でも、援助額を増やしても、政治家たちだけが豊かになり、貧しい人たちは貧しいままでいる。

援助は、先進国の賢い政治家たちにとって、大事な道具なのだ。そして、受益者は、貧困にあえぐ人たちではなく、開発途上国の政治家たちなのだ。

Simeon Djankov, Jose G. Montalvo, Marta Reynal-Querol

Using data for 108 recipient countries in the period 1960 to 1999, we find that foreign aid has a negative impact on democracy. In particular, if the foreign aid over GDP that a country receives over a period of five years reaches the 75th percentile in the sample, then a 10-point index of democracy is reduced between 0.6 and one point, a large effect. For comparison, we also measure the effect of oil rents on political institutions. The fall in democracy if oil revenues reach the 75th percentile is smaller, (0.02). Aid is a bigger curse than oil.

S.K.B. Asante

Summing up the experience of African countries both at the national and at the regional levels it is no exaggeration to suggest that, on balance, foreign assistance, especially foreign capitalism, has been somewhat deleterious to African development. It must be admitted, however, that the pattern of development is complex and the effect upon it of foreign assistance is still not clearly determined. But the limited evidence available suggests that the forms in which foreign resources have been extended to Africa over the past twenty-five years, insofar as they are concerned with economic development, are, to a great extent, counterproductive.

James Shikwati

If the industrial nations really want to help the Africans, they should finally terminate this awful aid. The countries that have collected the most development aid are also the ones that are in the worst shape. Despite the billions that have poured in to Africa, the continent remains poor.
Huge bureaucracies are financed, corruption and complacency are promoted, Africans are taught to be beggars and not to be independent. In addition, development aid weakens the local markets everywhere and dampens the spirit of entrepreneurship that we so desperately need. As absurd as it may sound: Development aid is one of the reasons for Africa’s problems. If the West were to cancel these payments, normal Africans wouldn’t even notice. Only the functionaries would be hard hit. Which is why they maintain that the world would stop turning without this development aid.
If they really want to fight poverty, they should completely halt development aid and give Africa the opportunity to ensure its own survival. Currently, Africa is like a child that immediately cries for its babysitter when something goes wrong. Africa should stand on its own two feet.

John Stossel, Patrick McMenamin

Will more foreign aid end global poverty? This myth may really rattle your brain. Lots of well-meaning people believe foreign aid will cure poverty.

U2’s lead singer, Bono, stops almost every concert to tell his fans that Western governments can end poverty. “We have the resources, we have the know-how to end extreme poverty,” he said last year in Chicago.

Angelina Jolie visited a model village in Africa to promote what she believes would be possible if our governments would just give more. The village she visited is the creation of Jeffrey Sachs, director of the U.N. Millennium Project and author of the best-selling “The End of Poverty.” He’s also America’s most vocal promoter of giving more foreign aid to Africa. “How can we go another day when 20,000 children are going to be dying of these stupid reasons that are utterly preventable?” he asked.

foreign aid often just makes politicians rich — but leaves their people poor.

槙本直子、石川久美、川田基生

高校2年 選択総合人間科「国際理解と平和」2学期中間テスト
I 日本の政府開発援助ODA額は約100億ドル、国民1人あたり約1万円に相当する。「外務省では今年の援助予算約1兆2千億円のうち、100億円が予算未消化で残ってしまった。いつもならお役所仕事で適当に配分するのだが、近年はODAに対する関心も高まり、今年は広く国民に100億円の使途について意見を求めることになった。」と想定して、次のようなA~Iの援助内容について優先順位をつけて、解答欄に記号で答えなさい。また理由を述べよ。
A) 援助しない
援助は政府を通じて行われるので、開発途上国の権力者や特権階級を豊かにするだけで、現地の住民に届かない。さらに援助は実は日本に利益が還元されるだけで途上国の自立に役立っているわけではない。日本国内の社会福祉のために回した方がよい。