Wade Meredith

A cognitive bias is something that our minds commonly do to distort our own view of reality. Here are the 26 most studied and widely accepted cognitive biases:

bandwagon effect; bias blind spot; choice-supportive bias; confirmation bias; congruence bias; contrast effect; déformation professionnelle; disconfirmation bias; endowment effect; focusing effect; hyperbolic discounting; illusion of control; impact bias; information bias; loss aversion; meglect of probability; mere exposure effect; omission bias; outcome bias; planning fallacy; post-purchase rationalization; pseudocertainty effect; selective perception; status quo bias; Von Restorff effect; zero-risk bias.

Oh and, by the way, you’ll never be able to truly gauge any of the biases you might be operating under since it’s not possible to accurately observe a system you’re part of. Now, get out there and delude yourself!

3 thoughts on “Wade Meredith

  1. shinichi Post author

    26 Reasons What You Think is Right is Wrong

    by Wade Meredith

    http://www.blisstree.com/2007/02/14/mental-health-well-being/26-reasons-what-you-think-is-right-is-wrong/

    1. Bandwagon effect – the tendency to do (or believe) things because many other people do (or believe) the same. Related to groupthink, herd behaviour, and manias. Carl Jung pioneered the idea of the collective unconscious which is considered by Jungian psychologists to be responsible for this cognitive bias.

    2. Bias blind spot – the tendency not to compensate for one’s own cognitive biases.

    3. Choice-supportive bias – the tendency to remember one’s choices as better than they actually were.

    4. Confirmation bias – the tendency to search for or interpret information in a way that confirms one’s preconceptions.

    5. Congruence bias – the tendency to test hypotheses exclusively through direct testing.

    6. Contrast effect – the enhancement or diminishment of a weight or other measurement when compared with recently observed contrasting object.

    7. Déformation professionnelle – the tendency to look at things according to the conventions of one’s own profession, forgetting any broader point of view.

    8. Disconfirmation bias – the tendency for people to extend critical scrutiny to information which contradicts their prior beliefs and uncritically accept information that is congruent with their prior beliefs.

    9. Endowment effect – the tendency for people to value something more as soon as they own it.

    10. Focusing effect – prediction bias occurring when people place too much importance on one aspect of an event; causes error in accurately predicting the utility of a future outcome.

    11. Hyperbolic discounting – the tendency for people to have a stronger preference for more immediate payoffs relative to later payoffs, the closer to the present both payoffs are.

    12. Illusion of control – the tendency for human beings to believe they can control or at least influence outcomes which they clearly cannot.

    13. Impact bias – the tendency for people to overestimate the length or the intensity of the impact of future feeling states.

    14. Information bias – the tendency to seek information even when it cannot affect action.

    15. Loss aversion – the tendency for people to strongly prefer avoiding losses over acquiring gains (see also sunk cost effects)

    16. Neglect of probability – the tendency to completely disregard probability when making a decision under uncertainty.

    17. Mere exposure effect – the tendency for people to express undue liking for things merely because they are familiar with them.

    18. Omission bias – The tendency to judge harmful actions as worse, or less moral, than equally harmful omissions (inactions).

    19. Outcome bias – the tendency to judge a decision by its eventual outcome instead of based on the quality of the decision at the time it was made.

    20. Planning fallacy – the tendency to underestimate task-completion times.

    21. Post-purchase rationalization – the tendency to persuade oneself through rational argument that a purchase was a good value.

    22. Pseudocertainty effect – the tendency to make risk-averse choices if the expected outcome is positive, but make risk-seeking choices to avoid negative outcomes.

    23. Selective perception – the tendency for expectations to affect perception.

    24. Status quo bias – the tendency for people to like things to stay relatively the same.

    25. Von Restorff effect – the tendency for an item that “stands out like a sore thumb” to be more likely to be remembered than other items.

    26. Zero-risk bias – preference for reducing a small risk to zero over a greater reduction in a larger risk.

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  2. shinichi Post author

    List of cognitive biases

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cognitive_biases

    Cognitive biases are tendencies to think in certain ways. Cognitive biases can lead to systematic deviations from a standard of rationality or good judgment, and are often studied in psychology and behavioral economics.

    Although the reality of these biases is confirmed by replicable research, there are often controversies about how to classify these biases or how to explain them. Some are effects of information-processing rules (i.e. mental shortcuts), called heuristics, that the brain uses to produce decisions or judgments. Such effects are called cognitive biases. Biases in judgment or decision-making can also result from motivation, such as when beliefs are distorted by wishful thinking. Some biases have a variety of cognitive (“cold”) or motivational (“hot”) explanations. Both effects can be present at the same time.

    There are also controversies as to whether some of these biases count as truly irrational or whether they result in useful attitudes or behavior. For example, when getting to know others, people tend to ask leading questions which seem biased towards confirming their assumptions about the person. This kind of confirmation bias has been argued to be an example of social skill: a way to establish a connection with the other person.

    The research on these biases overwhelmingly involves human subjects. However, some of the findings have appeared in non-human animals as well. For example, hyperbolic discounting has also been observed in rats, pigeons, and monkeys.

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  3. shinichi Post author

    思考を歪める心理効果 認知バイアス

    http://ronri2.web.fc2.com/shinri.html

    勝ち馬に乗れ (バンドワゴン効果)

    赤信号みんなで渡れば怖くない (リスキーシフト)

    不快な事実は認めたくない (感情バイアス)

    印象は基準により変化する (アンカー効果)

    都合の良い事実しか見ない (確証バイアス)

    成功は自分の力、失敗は他人のせい (自己奉仕バイアス)

    もう聞きたくないから黙れ! (認知的不協和)

    今やめたらこれまでの投資が無駄になる (コンコルド効果)

    堅実性を選ぶか、賭けに出るか (プロスペクト理論)

    表現が変われば印象も変わる (フレーミング効果)

    占いはなぜ当たるのか (バーナム効果)

    後光が差す (ハロー効果)

    俺は最初から分かってたよ (あと知恵バイアス)

    見られていることを意識してしまう (観察者効果)

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    論理的思考力と論理的な討論 議論 ディベート ディスカッション

    http://ronri2.web.fc2.com/index.html

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