Émilie du Châtelet (1706–1749) was a French mathematician, physicist and author.
Voltaire, one of her lovers, declared in a letter to his friend King Frederick II of Prussia that du Châtelet was “a great man whose only fault was being a woman”.
Laura Bassi (1711-1778) was an Italian scientist. She received a doctoral degree from the University of Bologna in May 1732, only the third academic qualification ever bestowed on a woman by a European university, and the first woman to earn a professorship in physics at a university in Europe.
Maria Gaetana Agnesi (1718–1799) was an Italian mathematician and philosopher and the second woman ever to be granted professorship at a university.
She is credited with writing the first book discussing both differential and integral calculus and was an honorary member of the faculty at the University of Bologna.