Piero Marchetti, Marco Bugliani, Vincenzo De Tata, Mara Suleiman, Lorella Marselli

The pancreatic beta cells are endocrine cells that synthetize, store, and release insulin, the anti-hyperglycemic hormone that antagonizes glucagon, growth hormone, glucocorticosteroids, epinephrine, and other hyperglycemic hormones, to maintain circulating glucose concentrations within a narrow physiologic range. Beta cells have an average diameter of 10 μm, contain about 20 pg insulin per cell, and are the predominant cell type in the pancreatic islets (50–80% of all islet endocrine cells). In the human pancreas, beta cell mass has been reported to vary from 0.6 to 2.1 g, and the amount of insulin in the gland has been observed to range from 50 to 250 ug/g. In an adult human being, beta cells release ~30–70 U insulin per day (mainly depending on body weight), half of which is secreted after meals and the rest under basal conditions. The release of this hormone is regulated by a complex network of many different triggering, potentiating or inhibiting signals, which allows the supply of the hormone in amount, kinetics and adaptability to match the minute-by-minute variable needs of the body.

2 thoughts on “Piero Marchetti, Marco Bugliani, Vincenzo De Tata, Mara Suleiman, Lorella Marselli

  1. shinichi Post author

    Pancreatic Beta Cell Identity in Humans and the Role of Type 2 Diabetes

    by Piero Marchetti, Marco Bugliani, Vincenzo De Tata, Mara Suleiman, and Lorella Marselli

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5440564/

    Pancreatic beta cells uniquely synthetize, store, and release insulin. Specific molecular, functional as well as ultrastructural traits characterize their insulin secretion properties and survival phentoype. In this review we focus on human islet/beta cells, and describe the changes that occur in type 2 diabetes and could play roles in the disease as well as represent possible targets for therapeutical interventions. These include transcription factors, molecules involved in glucose metabolism and insulin granule handling. Quantitative and qualitative insulin release patterns and their changes in type 2 diabetes are also associated with ultrastructural features involving the insulin granules, the mitochondria, and the endoplasmic reticulum.

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  2. shinichi Post author

    (sk)

    1 Billion(10億)もの膵臓ベータ細胞が、インスリンを合成し、保存し、放出する。
    ひとつの細胞の大きさ(直径)は 10 μm。10億の細胞を全部合わせても 0.6g から 2.1 g。
    ベータ細胞は1日あたり約30〜70Uのインスリンを放出する。
    小さかったりたくさんありすぎたりして、イメージが湧いてこないけれど、
    血糖値の数値で一喜一憂するのは、なんか変だ。

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