Michael Haenlein and Andreas Kaplan

Frequently, when a technique reaches mainstream use, it is no longer considered artificial intelligence; this phenomenon is described as the AI effect, which occurs when onlookers discount the behavior of an AI program by arguing that it is not real intelligence. As the British science fiction writer Arthur Clarke once said, “Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic.” Yet when one understands the technology, the magic disappears.

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  1. shinichi Post author

    A Brief History of Artificial Intelligence:On the Past, Present, and Future of Artificial Intelligence

    by Michael Haenlein and Andreas Kaplan
    California Management Review 61(4):000812561986492
    July 2019

    This introduction to this special issue discusses artificial intelligence (AI), commonly defined as “a system’s ability to interpret external data correctly, to learn from such data, and to use those learnings to achieve specific goals and tasks through flexible adaptation.” It summarizes seven articles published in this special issue that present a wide variety of perspectives on AI, authored by several of the world’s leading experts and specialists in AI. It concludes by offering a comprehensive outlook on the future of AI, drawing on micro-, meso-, and macro-perspectives.


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