Suzanne Labin

全国性饥荒和大面积非正常死亡接连出现,许多地方甚至发生了人吃人的惨剧。关于具体死亡人数,至今未有精确统计数据公布。當時由於中國內地的消息封鎖,一般專家不易精確的統計死亡人數,各种渠道公布的非自然死亡人数是2000万左右,其中光是四川的非正常死亡人数就达1000万,这也成为二十世纪人类历史上最严重的饥荒之一。中国大陆徐涤新主编《当代中国的人口》提供的数据,1959年到1961年非正常死亡人数约为2144万人。而早在1958年非正常死亡就已出现,如四川、山东、河南、甘肃当年则高达21.11‰、个别省份则延续到1962年(四川省1958-1962年平均死亡率达34.03‰。普通死亡率则仅为7.02‰)据此,中共中央党校教授林蕴晖做出结论,从1958年到1962年间,中国因大跃进运动导致的非正常死亡人数,约在3000万左右。另外,根据另外一位新华社记者杨继绳的计算,大饥荒饿死国人为3600万。香港大學人文學院講座教授馮客 (Frank Dikotter),在2010年9月出版的《Mao’s Great Famine》指出,他用了4年遍閱全國解封檔案,認為大跃进造成4500万人非正常死亡。国家计生委和国家统计局下达的国家级课题,以及西安交大的蒋正华计算结果,是1700多万。

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  1. shinichi Post author

    The Anthill: The Human Condition in Communist China
    By: Suzanne Labin; Edward Fitzgerald

    La condition humaine en Chine Communiste
    par Suzanne Labin

    Numerous books on Communist China have already been published, but to my knowledge not one of them has fully utilised the richest mine of information available–and the most cogent: the evidence of the refugees themselves. That is an omission I propose to remedy in this book.

    China offers us an example of a phenomenon very rare in the history of revolutions; not a class emigration but a mass emigration; not an emigration made up of ci-devants who have lost their privileges, and whose evidence might therefore be coloured by their resentments, but an emigration of ordinary people fleeing from the new order after living under it for a number of years. It seemed to me unforgivable that no attempt should be made to take advantage of this extraordinary exodus in order to get at the truth. The stories of ordinary people of all trades and occupations who have experienced the conditions of everyday life under the new régime provide us with the most revealing information concerning the nature of the régime–information which is much more significant than the shallow data which is all that the casual visitor can provide.

    In order to get that information straight from the mouths of those first-hand witnesses I went to Hongkong, the town on which the main flood of refugees converges. There I questioned fifty-four of them, of all ages and both sexes, of a variety of trades and occupations and coming from all parts of China. This book presents the evidence of these first-hand witnesses as to the truth about Chinese Communism.

    Except where the refugees in question could speak English or French, I questioned them through interpreters helpfully provided by the free trade unions of Hongkong. I took voluminous notes at the time, and at the end of my interrogations, in order that my memory should not fail me, I made a draft and added notes on the character of the man or woman I had questioned and on the background of his or her experience. In my final revision I did my best to reflect the authentic atmosphere of their stories.

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