H1: Human Rater 1
H2: Human Rater 2
AIR: American Institutes for Research
CMU: Carnegie Mellon University
CTB: CTB McGraw-Hill
ETS: Educational Testing Service
MI: Measurement, Inc.
PKT: Pearson Knowledge Technologies
PM: Pacific Metrics
VL: Vantage Learning
The results demonstrated that overall, automated essay scoring was capable of producing scores similar to human scores for extended-response writing items.