Category Archives: human being

Denis Diderot

Diderot’s scarlet robe was beautiful. So beautiful, in fact, that he immediately noticed how out of place it seemed when surrounded by the rest of his common possessions. In his words, there was “no more coordination, no more unity, no more beauty” between his robe and the rest of his items. The philosopher soon felt the urge to buy some new things to match the beauty of his robe. He replaced his old rug with a new one from Damascus. He decorated his home with beautiful sculptures and a better kitchen table. He bought a new mirror to place above the mantle and his “straw chair was relegated to the … Continue reading

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

Science Photo Library

Posted in human being | 2 Comments

Hans Rosling

The overdramatic worldview in people’s heads creates a constant sense of crisis and stress. The urgent “now or never” feelings it creates leads to stress or apathy. “We must do something drastic. Let’s not analyze.” Or, “It’s all hopeless. There’s nothing we can do. Time to give up.” Either way, we stop thinking, give in to our instincts, and make bad decisions. ** We are subjected to never-ending cascades of negative news from across the world: wars, famines, natural disasters, political mistakes, corruption, budget cuts, diseases, mass layoffs, acts of terror. Journalists who reported flights that didn’t crash or crops that didn’t fail would quickly lose their jobs. Stories about … Continue reading

Posted in human being | 2 Comments

Max Roser

Posted in human being | 2 Comments

Clifford Geertz

It is here, to come round finally to my title, that the concept of culture has its impact on the concept of man. When seen as a set of symbolic devices for controlling behavior, extra-somatic sources of information, culture provides the link between what men are intrinsically capable of becoming and what they actually, one by one, in fact become. Becoming human is becoming individual, and we become individual under the guidance of cultural patterns, historically created systems of meaning in terms of which we give form, order, point, and direction to our lives. And the cultural patterns involved are not general but specific—not just “marriage” but a particular set … Continue reading

Posted in human being | 2 Comments

Robert Lowell

Leave him alone for a moment or two, and you’ll see him with his head bent down, brooding, brooding, eyes fixed on some chip, some stone, some common plant, the commonest thing, as if it were the clue. The disturbed eyes rise, furtive, foiled, dissatisfied from meditation on the true and insignificant.

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

Barry Schwartz

False ideas about human beings will not go away if people believe that they’re true. Because if people believe that they’re true, they create ways of living and institutions that are consistent with these very false ideas.

Posted in human being | 2 Comments

Abraham Maslow

A musician must make music, an artist must paint, a poet must write, if he is to be ultimately at peace with himself. What a man can be, he must be. This need we may call self-actualization. This term, first coined by Kurt Goldstein, is being used in this paper in a much more specific and limited fashion. It refers to the desire for self-fulfillment, namely, to the tendency for him to become actualized in what he is potentially. This tendency might be phrased as the desire to become more and more what one is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming.

Posted in human being | 2 Comments

Matt Groening

Posted in human being | 2 Comments

Christof Koch

Consciousness does not appear in the equations that make up the foundations of physics, nor in chemistry’s periodic table, nor in the endless ATGC molecular sequences of our genes. Yet both of us—I, the author of these lines, and you, the reader—are sentient. That is the universe in which we find ourselves, a universe in which particular vibrations of highly organized matter trigger conscious feelings. It seems as magical as rubbing a brass lamp and having a djinn emerge who grants three wishes.

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

Jimo Borjigin

ENDOGENOUS HALLUCINOGENS: It has been proposed that exceptional states of consciousness in humans such as psychosis may involve the brain synthesis of serotonin analogs exhibiting potent psychoactive properties. One such compound, N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), has been found naturally in several plants, in the bodily fluids of animals including humans, and in elevated levels in psychiatric patients. Exogenously administered DMT elicits intense visual and mental hallucinations in healthy humans. Our lab demonstrated the natural presence of DMT within the living rodent pineal gland and occipital cortex. More recently, we have begun to analyze regulatory mechanisms of endogenous DMT synthesis, secretion, and signaling. In addition, we plan to examine functional impact of exogenous … Continue reading

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

Alan Turing

Some human behaviour is unintelligent Some intelligent behaviour is inhuman

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

Hans Rosling, Anna Rosling Ronnlund

So why is the misconception of a gap between the rich and the poor so hard to change? I think this is because human beings have a strong dramatic instinct toward binary thinking, a basic urge to divide things into two distinct groups, with nothing but an empty gap in between. We love to dichotomize. Good versus bad. Heroes versus villains. My country versus the rest. Dividing the world into two distinct sides is simple and intuitive, and also dramatic because it implies conflict, and we do it without thinking, all the time. Journalists know this. They set up their narratives as conflicts between two opposing people, views, or groups. … Continue reading

Posted in human being | 3 Comments

Hans Rosling, Anna Rosling Ronnlund

The human brain is a product of millions of years of evolution, and we are hard-wired with instincts that helped our ancestors to survive in small groups of hunters and gatherers. Our brains often jump to swift conclusions without much thinking, which used to help us to avoid immediate dangers. We are interested in gossip and dramatic stories, which used to be the only source of news and useful information. We crave sugar and fat, which used to be life-saving sources of energy when food was scarce. We have many instincts that used to be useful thousands of years ago, but we live in a very different world now.

Posted in human being | 2 Comments

Rezzan Hussey

We’ll use my own introvert to illustrate the kinds of differences you see (we’ll call him A). A — who for the record, is more sociable than me — likes to be in his head. For him, this is where life happens. There is an independence and self-referential quality to his way of operating. His intuits come through reflection, rather than external stimulus. It’s awfully subtle — and you’d never know from his LBC radio habit — but A doesn’t go to the outer world for his sense of what is real: he asks himself. Compared to me, he has a little less energy to go around. He is not quick to translate ideas into plans. A is … Continue reading

Posted in human being | 2 Comments

F. Scott Fitzgerald

There are only the pursued, the pursuing, the busy, and the tired.

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

Arthur Schopenhauer

The assumption that animals are without rights and the illusion that our treatment of them has no moral significance is a positively outrageous example of Western crudity and barbarity. Universal compassion is the only guarantee of morality.

Posted in human being | 2 Comments

鶴川台ウィメンズクリニック

女性ホルモンと言えばこのエストロゲンです。このホルモンの安定した周期的な分泌は、女性として子孫を残せることのなによりの証になります。 本来の役割は妊娠を成立させることにありますから、子宮内膜を増殖させて、受精卵のためにフカフカのベッドを作るのが得意技です。 しかしなんと申しますか、妊娠は相手があってこそ成立するものですから、ただ待っているだけでなく殿方に好意を持っていただかなくてはなりません。そう考えると排卵の直前に一番分泌量が増えるのがなんとも意味深です。 エストロゲンには女性を美しくしてくれる効果があり、俗に「美人ホルモン」とも呼ばれてます。肌や髪の毛をつやつやにし、女性らしいふくよかなバストとむっちりヒップを作り、しかも自律神経も安定させてくれるので概ね排卵時期の女性は穏やかで優しいです。でもそれと同時に脳が活発化して頭の回転も早くなってますから要注意ですよ。 それにしても、ここ一番の時期を狙いすまして勝負に出るとは、エストロゲン恐るべしですね。 とにもかくにもエストロゲンは女性として健康でたおやかに生きるためのエッセンスといえるでしょう。

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

特徴.COM

綺麗な花や輝く宝石など、見惚れることが多かったり、思わず見とれてしまう瞬間が多いのは、間違いなく女性が多いということが分かっており、これはホルモンの作用によるものであると考えられます。 エストロゲンというホルモンが豊富にある女性は、エストロゲンが脳に働きかけることにより、嗅覚が強まった結果、穏やかな気持ちになることができます。 そして穏やかな気持ちになることができると、綺麗な花の匂いに幸福感を感じたり、宝石のような美しい光に敏感となりやすく、夢中になってしまうというわけです。 このエストロゲンには様々な働きが見られ、基礎体温を下げる、女性らしい丸みのある体を作る、妊娠に関する良い働きをするのも、このエストロゲンが深く関係していて、男性よりも女性の方が綺麗なものが好きという人が多いのは、男性にエストロゲンが少なく、女性に多いことが原因となります。

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

Peachy

足のむくみの解消法  ・入浴  ・マッサージ  ・リンパマッサージ  ・ストレッチ  ・ツボ押し(足三里、豊隆、太衝)  ・ふくらはぎのエクササイズ  ・栄養(カリウム、クエン酸、ビタミンE、塩分を控えめに)

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

ウィキペディア, Wikipedia

生物時計(biological clock)とは、生物が生まれつきそなえていると考えられる時間測定機構。体内時計、生理時計(physiolosical clock)とも言う。生物の睡眠や行動の周期に影響を与える。哺乳類では脳の視交叉上核によるとみなされている。 ** Biological clock may refer to: Age and female fertility, decrease of female fertility with advancing maternal age Ageing, biological program that limits the lifespan of an individual Circadian clock, a molecular mechanism that results in a circadian rhythm in a living organism Circadian rhythm, biological process that displays an oscillation about 24 hours, such as the human sleep-wake cycle (the “body clock”) Epigenetic clock, a set of DNA sites whose methylation levels can be used to measure aging throughout the body Molecular clock, a technique that uses the mutation rate of a biomolecule to deduce the time in prehistory when two life forms diverged Vernalisation, the … Continue reading

Posted in human being | 2 Comments

Amy Cuddy

Usually we think that a person we’ve just met is either more warm than competent or more competent than warm, but not both in equal measure. We like our distinctions to be clear—it’s a human bias. So we classify new acquaintances into types: lovable fools or competent jerks. Occasionally we see people as incompetent and cold—foolish jerks—or as warm and competent—lovable stars. The latter is the golden quadrant, because receiving trust and respect from other people allows you to interact well and get things done. But we don’t value the two traits equally. First we judge warmth or trustworthiness, which we consider to be the more important of the two … Continue reading

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

西田幾多郎

動物から人間に進化したと云っても人間は動物でなくなったのではない。動物の生命と云っても、既に自己矛盾的である。私は人間は動物を反極として有ち、動物は人間を反極として有つと云う所以である。人間も動物も創造物である。衆生である。 但人間は作られたものから作るものといふ歴史的生命の極致に立つものである。神其像の如くに人を創造したまへりと云ふ如く、矛盾的自己同一の頂点に立つのである。そこに人間は絶対矛盾的自己同一に面する。神に対して立つと云ひ得るのである。   

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

Amartya Sen

Human beings are thoroughly diverse. We differ from each other not only in external characteristics (e.g. in inherited fortunes, in the natural and social environment in which we live), but also in our personal characteristics (e.g. age, sex, proneness to illness, physical and mental abilities). The assessment of the claims of equality has to come to terms with the existence of pervasive human diversity.

Posted in human being | 2 Comments

Leo Tolstoy

Everyone thinks of changing the world, but no one thinks of changing himself.   All happy families resemble one another, each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way.   The only thing that we know is that we know nothing — and that is the highest flight of human wisdom.   Seize the moments of happiness, love and be loved! That is the only reality in the world, all else is folly.

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

NHK

「子育てで孤立を感じる」というニッポンの母親は7割。「産後うつ」は、一般的なうつの5倍以上。なぜ産後のママたちは、孤独や不安を感じやすいのか。 鍵を握るのは、女性ホルモンのひとつ「エストロゲン」。胎児を育む働きを持つエストロゲンは、妊娠から出産にかけて分泌量が増え、出産を境に急減する。すると母親の脳では神経細胞の働き方が変化し、不安や孤独を感じやすくなる。 なぜそんな仕組みが体に備わっているのか?その原因とも考えられているのが、人類が進化の過程で確立した「共同養育」という独自の子育てスタイルだ。人間の母親たちは、今なお本能的に「仲間と共同養育したい」という欲求を感じながら、核家族化が進む現代環境でそれがかなわない。その大きな溝が、いわゆる“ママ友”とつながりたい欲求や、育児中の強い不安・孤独感を生み出している。

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

Alysson Muotri

A team of researchers led by neuroscientist Alysson Muotri of the University of California, San Diego, coaxed human stem cells to form tissue from the cortex — a brain region that controls cognition and interprets sensory information. They grew hundreds of brain organoids in culture for 10 months, and tested individual cells to confirm that they expressed the same collection of genes seen in typical developing human brains1. Muotri and his colleagues continuously recorded electrical patterns, or electroencephalogram (EEG) activity, across the surface of the mini brains. By six months, the organoids were firing at a higher rate than other brain organoids previously created, which surprised the team. The EEG … Continue reading

Posted in human being | 2 Comments

Alysson Muotri

A slice through a brain organoid shows more mature cortical neurons on the outer edge of the structure.

Posted in human being | 2 Comments

Jessica Wildfire

We perform different selves for different people. Your coworkers see one side of you. Your friends another. Your lovers still another. You’re all of these, and none of these — all at the same time. You can understand yourself in lots of ways. Your job does say something about you. So do your habits. And your likes and dislikes. Your fashion sense. The way you talk. You’re the sum of all that, plus what different people think about you. Don’t waste your life trying to construct the full picture.

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

Eric Berne

No man is a hero to his wife’s psychiatrist.

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

Wendell Wallach

Social disruptions, public health and economic crises, environmental damage, and personal tragedies all made possible by the adoption of new technologies will increase dramatically over the next twenty years. If a convergence of multiple crises takes place, many of which result from unaddressed, foreseen problems, the answer could be the rapid onset of a dystopian future.

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

philo-marie

恋愛におけるホルモンの動きを俯瞰してみると、 ① 恋愛の特攻隊長♡フェニルエチルアミン(やっと覚えれた!!)略してPEAが、何の加減かで好きになりそうな相手と関わると出る。恋は盲目ホルモン。あなたしか見えない。。 ② 快楽ホルモン♡エンドルフィン:PEAは、麻薬のモルヒネに似た構造を持つ脳内麻薬で、高揚感、陶酔感などの快感をもたらすエンドルフィンを分泌させる。 でもエンドルフィンは、その後も出続け安定した関係にも寄与。ストレスを感じた時も出るから、複雑な人。 ③ 愛情ホルモン♡オキシトシン:性的な触れ合いで、特に子宮頸部の刺激で、女性に大量に放出されるホルモン。このホルモンの恐ろしいところは、その対象の相手への愛が一生持続するところ!ヒエ~~~!! ④ 興奮ホルモン☆ドーパミン:強力麻薬ドーパミン。ウキウキワクワクが止まらない。ずっと出し続けるのは無理。もっともっとと中毒症状。大騒ぎです。はい、恋愛の一番良くて苦しい状態を作り出しますね。 ⑤ 落ち着けホルモン♡セロトニン:これが恋愛中は不足する(特に女子)ので、1~4までの暴走を止められない。苦しみを和らげる鍵はこのホルモン! ⑥ ブチ切れホルモン☆ノルアドレナリン:あまりにもきつい状況が続くと、これが分泌され、キレがちに。

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

Lucy Foulkes

All brains are different Recognising that all adolescents are different has really important implications for things like education or advertising. If, for example, the way in which adolescents learn is dependent on their specific pattern of brain development, then educational strategies that are based on averages will only have limited use. Similarly, advertising campaigns for things like sexual health, if based on the studies that are averaged across participants, will work for some adolescents but not others. The sooner we understand the difference between adolescents, the sooner we can integrate this information into schools and policy. This is important, because after all, there’s no such thing as an average teenager, … Continue reading

Posted in human being | 2 Comments

Bari Weiss

Women are hypocrites. Women are opportunists. Women are liars. They are abusers and bullies and manipulators. They are capable of cruelty, callousness and evil. Just like men.

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

Yorke Zhang, Jerod L. Ptacin, Emil C. Fischer, Hans R. Aerni, Carolina E. Caffaro, Kristine San Jose, Aaron W. Feldman, Court R. Turner & Floyd E. Romesberg

Since at least the last common ancestor of all life on Earth, genetic information has been stored in a four-letter alphabet that is propagated and retrieved by the formation of two base pairs. The central goal of synthetic biology is to create new life forms and functions, and the most general route to this goal is the creation of semi-synthetic organisms whose DNA harbours two additional letters that form a third, unnatural base pair. Previous efforts to generate such semi-synthetic organisms culminated in the creation of a strain of Escherichia coli that, by virtue of a nucleoside triphosphate transporter from Phaeodactylum tricornutum, imports the requisite unnatural triphosphates from its medium … Continue reading

Posted in human being | 2 Comments

Yuval Noah Harari

Why is liberal democracy in crisis? Is God back? What can we do about the epidemic of fake news? Which civilisation dominates the world? Should Europe keep its doors open to immigrants? Can nationalism solve the problems of inequality and climate change? What should we do about terrorism? What should we teach our kids? Billions of us can hardly afford the luxury of investigating these questions, because we have more pressing things to do: we have to go to work, take care of the kids, or look after elderly parents. Unfortunately, history makes no concessions. If the future of humanity is decided in your absence, because you are too busy … Continue reading

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

Chinmay Jadhav

We know that exercise boosts memory and thinking skills. But now, researchers have shown for the first time that physical activity can increase the size of children’s brains and improve academic performance.

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

嶋守恵之

1967年 北海道釧路市生まれ。 外務省で対米外交や国連外交などに携わる。 2008年 インドでALSを発症。 2011年 気管切開し24時間人工呼吸器を装着。声を失う。 2015年 手の指が動かなくなる。 2016年 視線入力で短編ミステリー小説「情報協力」を書きあげる。 「情報協力」が東京都北区内田康夫ミステリー文学賞審査員特別賞を受賞。 パソコンは視線でカーソルを動かし、口にくわえたスイッチを噛んでクリックする。 パソコン関係の頼りは元パチンコプログラマーのヘルパー。 「ALSはいつかきっと治る病気になる」と信じ、患者の立場から治療研究を促進するなどの患者活動に取り組む。

Posted in human being | 2 Comments

Wikipedia

The prisoner’s dilemma is a standard example of a game analyzed in game theory that shows why two completely rational individuals might not cooperate, even if it appears that it is in their best interests to do so. It was originally framed by Merrill Flood and Melvin Dresher while working at RAND in 1950. Albert W. Tucker formalized the game with prison sentence rewards and named it “prisoner’s dilemma”, presenting it as follows: Two members of a criminal gang are arrested and imprisoned. Each prisoner is in solitary confinement with no means of communicating with the other. The prosecutors lack sufficient evidence to convict the pair on the principal charge, … Continue reading

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

Peter Kropotkin

In the animal world we have seen that the vast majority of species live in societies, and that they find in association the best arms for the struggle for life: understood, of course, in its wide Darwinian sense – not as a struggle for the sheer means of existence, but as a struggle against all natural conditions unfavourable to the species. The animal species, in which individual struggle has been reduced to its narrowest limits, and the practice of mutual aid has attained the greatest development, are invariably the most numerous, the most prosperous, and the most open to further progress. The mutual protection which is obtained in this case, … Continue reading

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

安岡正篤

我々の生活を支配しておる、あるいはその内容を成しておるこのエネルギーの作用には、潜在エネルギーと顕在エネルギーの二種があるのであります。 我々の体格とか肉づき、栄養といったようなものは、これは現われておるエネルギーであります。ところが、そのように現われ、明らかに外面に出ておるエネルギーは、その人に存する全エネルギーの極めて一小部分でありまして、むしろ顕在エネルギーよりも潜在しておるエネルギーの方が遥かに強い力、大きな存在であるのであります。それはちょうど氷山と同じことで、水面に現われておる部分はごく一小部分であって、水面下に潜在しておる部分の方が、少なくとも水面に現われているものの八倍くらいはある。そこでうっかりしてよく氷山にぶつかって船が沈没するそうであります。それだけ潜在面が大きい。我々の潜在エネルギーも、このような非常に強い力を持っておるのであります。 ところが、見かけはまことに弱そうに見えながら、何かやらせると非常に精力的な不屈不撓の人もおります。これは顕在エネルギーは貧弱であるけれども、氷山みたいに潜在エネルギーが旺盛なのです。どうも人間は自然の物質よりも複雑で、どちらかというと、見てくれのいい人よりも、見てくれのさほどでない人に潜在エネルギーの旺盛な人が多いものであります。「柳に雪折れなし」などというのも、そういう意味において相通ずるものがあります。 歴史を見ましても、英雄とか哲人とかいわれる人に、案外見てくれのそれほどでない人が多いものであります。

Posted in human being | 2 Comments

BBC

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

VPRO

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

Yuval Noah Harari

The milder forms of nationalism have been among the most benevolent of human creations. Nations are communities of millions of strangers who don’t really know each other. For example, I don’t know the eight million people who share my Israeli citizenship. But thanks to nationalism, we can all care about one another and cooperate effectively. This is very good. Some people, like John Lennon, imagine that without nationalism, the world will be a peaceful paradise. But far more likely, without nationalism, we would have been living in tribal chaos. If you look today at the most prosperous and peaceful countries in the world, countries like Sweden and Switzerland and Japan, … Continue reading

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

HEART & DESIGN FOR ALL

Posted in human being | 2 Comments

Albert Camus

Du port obscur montèrent les premières fusées des réjouissances officielles. La ville les salua par une longue et sourde exclamation. Cottard, Tarrou, ceux et celle que Rieux avait aimés et perdus, tous, morts ou coupables, étaient oubliés. Le vieux avait raison, les hommes étaient toujours les mêmes. Mais c’était leur force et leur innocence et c’est ici que, par-dessus toute douleur, Rieux sentait qu’il les rejoignait. Au milieu des cris qui redoublaient de force et de durée, qui se répercutaient longuement jusqu’au pied de la terrasse, à mesure que les gerbes multicolores s’élevaient plus nombreuses dans le ciel, le docteur Rieux décida alors de rédiger le récit qui s’achève ici, … Continue reading

Posted in human being | 4 Comments

あざなえるなわのごとし

もともと人間の情動は定量化できない。 なぜかと言えば人間の脳や感性は全ての個体が等質ではないし、同じものを見て誰かは「気持ち悪い」と感じ誰かは「カワイイ」といい誰かは「格好いい」という可能性は充分にある(もちろん感性をアウトプットする感覚言語の選択の問題である可能性は鑑みた上で)。 キティちゃんはカワイイ。 ではそのかわいさは林檎何個分か?という定量化はできない。 仮にキティちゃんがリンゴ3個分カワイイとして(この時点でおかしいが)、では橋本環奈の可愛さはリンゴ何個分か?と他に適用するのも難しい。 ひとつの定規を他に対しても適用し比較するのが定量化だが、感性や感覚は絶対的ではないからこそ定量化できない。 感覚とは、対象の絶対値ではない。 あくまで受け取り手により一程度変動する曖昧なものでしかない。 そもそも言語は、脳内の概念を定量的に置き変えるための擬似的な手段でしかない。 強力ではあるが、絶対的なツールではない。 共通コミュニケーションの手段であり、かつ人間の膨大な思考を擬似的に捕まえるためのツール。 人間の内的世界の抽象を、外的に定量化するための文字や数字に還元することは難しいし、出力した時点でそれは内的な抽象と等価ではない。 人間は0や1を入力すればそのまま0や1で出力する単純な仕組みではない。 感想、批評だと言うが、ひとつの物語・作品に含まれる膨大な情報の中のごく一部だけを、独りの人間が己の感性という装置を通し、さらに言語に変換したものはその人間のものでしかなく、作品とは関係ない。 作品が良いか悪いか? それはその作品を同じように観るしかない。 個々の感性により判断は異なり、価値もまた然り。 「誰かが○○と感じた作品(物語)だからそういう風に考える可能性が高いだろう」という目安にはなるが。 仮に可能であれば、作品を見ている脳の電位を直接計るしかないだろうが、それにしろさまざまなノイズが多く(少しでも他のことを考えればそれがノイズになりえる)実際的ではないだろう。 人間の美的感覚というのは定量化できず感覚を計るのに感覚を持って行うからこそ抽象的。 ファッションは、文字言語化できない感覚的な抽象を言語や数字などの言語記号に変換せず、直接的に形として表現し心理的効果として昇華したもの。

Posted in human being | 2 Comments

Journal of Neuroscience and Neuroengineering

Journal of Neuroscience and Neuroengineering deals with all branches of neurosciences and engineering including neurobiology, neurochemistry, neuroanatomy, regenerative medicine, brain-computer (machine) interface, cognitive neuroscience, neural engineering, neuro-electronics and neural circuits/interfacing, neuroimaging using various modalities such as electroencephalography, ultrasound, x-rays computed tomography, magnetic resonance, fluorescence and optical microscopy, molecular and cellular neuroscience, neuro-immunology, neuro-oncology, neuro-pharmaceutics, neuro-physiology, neuropsychology, neuroprotection, neuroradiology, neuroregeneration, brain disorders and diseases, cerebrovascular disease, cerebrovascular/gene regulation, neurosensors, neurosurgery, neurotransmitters, nanoscale neuroscience, novel techniques for neuroscience applications, medical engineering technologies for nervous system, neurochips, biomedical engineering, rehabilitation, systems neuroscience/biology, laser and optoelectronics technologies for neuroscience applications, theoretical and computational neuroscience, metabolic networks, translational neuroscience and translational medicine, neuroendocrinology, neuroepidemiology, neuroergonomics, … Continue reading

Posted in human being | 2 Comments

Wikipedia

The Weber–Fechner law refers to two related laws in the field of psychophysics, known as Weber’s law and Fechner’s law. Both laws relate to human perception, more specifically the relation between the actual change in a physical stimulus and the perceived change. This includes stimuli to all senses: vision, hearing, taste, touch, and smell. Both Weber’s law and Fechner’s law were formulated by Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801–1887). They were first published in 1860 in the work Elemente der Psychophysik (Elements of psychophysics). This publication was the first work ever in this field, and where Fechner coined the term psychophysics to describe the interdisciplinary study of how humans perceive physical magnitudes.

Posted in human being | 4 Comments

Richard Schwartz

Loneliness is bad for you. When you’re disconnected, your immune system goes to hell. If we know that loneliness affects our immune response, it’s not surprising that it would happen at the level of DNA expression. Few higher mammals are solitary. Humans are relatively helpless as individuals in the natural world. Part of what makes us so powerful is that we’ve banded together in small groups. And part of the pain of loneliness is the recognition that without other people we simply can’t survive.

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

Steven W. Cole

The conceptual relationship between genes and the social world has shifted significantly during the past 20 years. As genes have come to be understood in concrete molecular terms, rather than as abstract heritability constructs, it has become clear that social factors can play a significant role in regulating the activity of the human genome. DNA encodes the potential for cellular behavior, but that potential is only realized if the gene is expressed—if its DNA is transcribed into RNA. RNA and its translated proteins are what mediate cellular behaviors such as movement, metabolism, and biochemical response to external stimuli (e.g., neurotransmission or immune response). Absent their expression in the form of … Continue reading

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

女向けの究極セックス講座

女性はデリケートな生き物です。中には肉食系女子と呼ばれる人もいますが、大半はセックスに対してそれほど積極的ではありません。元々媚薬は、性欲があまりない女性のために開発されたと言われています。主に「性的刺激を受けても興奮しない」「オーガニズムに達しない」などと悩んでる女性が使うと効果があります。 女性の体はとても複雑で精神は繊細です。物理的な感情だけでオーガニズムに達することは難しく、精神的な感情も必要になります。媚薬は性的刺激を受けても興奮しない女性のために、オーガニズムに達するのを助長してくれます。また催淫作用により性欲を高め、精神的にもオーガニズムに達しやすい状態になります。気持ちの良いセックスをするには、ムードも大変重要です。媚薬はそのムード作りにも、一役買ってくれます。

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

Naomi Wolf

The vulva, clitoris, and vagina are just the most superficial surfaces of what is really going on with us. The real activity is literally far, and far more complexly, under these tactile surfaces. The vulva, clitoris, and vagina are actually best understood as the surface of an ocean that is shot through with vibrant networks of underwater lightning – intricate and fragile, individually varied neural pathways. All these networks are continually sending their impulses to the spinal cord and brain, which then send new impulses back down through other fibers in the same nerves to produce various effects. This dense set of neural pathways extends throughout the entire pelvis, far … Continue reading

Posted in human being | 3 Comments

Roy Andersson

Posted in human being | 3 Comments

Karin Jones

After being married for 23 years, I wanted sex but not a relationship. This is dicey because you can’t always control emotional attachments when body chemicals mix, but with the married men I guessed that the fact that they had wives, children and mortgages would keep them from going overboard with their affections. And I was right. They didn’t get overly attached, and neither did I. We were safe bets for each other. I was careful about the men I met. I wanted to make sure they had no interest in leaving their wives or otherwise threatening all they had built together.

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

John Pickrell

Part of an upper jaw with teeth found in Israel shows that modern humans ventured out of Africa much earlier than previously thought. The find adds to evidence that our species was overlapping with human relatives such as Neanderthals in the crossroads of the Levant for longer than previously realized. Until recently, the fossil record suggested that our species, Homo sapiens, first appeared in East Africa around 200,000 years ago. While a larger wave of migration didn’t leave the continent until 50,000 to 60,000 years ago, small numbers of modern humans made forays outside of Africa as far back as 120,000 years ago, based on the known fossils. (Explore a … Continue reading

Posted in human being | 3 Comments

Smithsonian Institution

The species that you and all other living human beings on this planet belong to is Homo sapiens. During a time of dramatic climate change 200,000 years ago, Homo sapiens evolved in Africa. Like other early humans that were living at this time, they gathered and hunted food, and evolved behaviors that helped them respond to the challenges of survival in unstable environments. Anatomically, modern humans can generally be characterized by the lighter build of their skeletons compared to earlier humans. Modern humans have very large brains, which vary in size from population to population and between males and females, but the average size is approximately 1300 cubic centimeters. Housing … Continue reading

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

Ernst Haeckel

Posted in human being | 2 Comments

寺本憲之

38億年前、地球上に生命が誕生して、その中の僅か20万年前に種ヒトが誕生した。ヒトが誕生できたのは38億年もの生物の歴史の積み重ねがあった。しかし、人が知恵を獲得することにより、自然界の流れに逆らって一気に生物界の頂点(ただし逆ピラミッド型)に立ってしまった。このことは、一気に自然界からしっぺ返しがくることにも繋がる。

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

Wikipedia

Five nines, commonly taken to mean “99.999%”, may refer to: • High availability of services, when the downtime is less than 5.26 minutes per year Availability % Downtime per year Downtime per month Downtime per day 90% (“one nine”) 36.5 days 72 hours 2.4 hours 99% (“two nines”) 3.65 days 7.20 hours 14.4 minutes 99.9% (“three nines”) 8.76 hours 43.8 minutes 1.44 minutes 99.99% (“four nines”) 52.6 minutes 4.38 minutes 8.64 seconds 99.999% (“five nines”) 5.26 minutes 25.9 seconds 864 milliseconds 99.9999% (“six nines”) 31.6 seconds 2.59 seconds 86.4 milliseconds 99.99999% (“seven 9s”) 3.16 seconds 262 milliseconds 8.64 milliseconds 99.999999% (“eight 9s”) 316 milliseconds 26.2 milliseconds 0.864 milliseconds 99.9999999% (“nine … Continue reading

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

大分合同新聞

部活動中の熱中症、いじめによる自殺、交通事故…。竹田市穴井迫の理美容師渡部千鶴さん(46)は、不慮の死を遂げた子どもの肖像画を色鉛筆で描き続けている。人柄を表す柔らかさと写真のような精巧さがあり「子どもが戻ってきた」と絵を抱き締める母親も。これまでに10人を手掛け、悲しみに暮れる家族に寄り添っている。

Posted in human being | 3 Comments

Jared Diamond

History followed different courses for different peoples because of differences among peoples’ environments, not because of biological differences among peoples themselves.

Posted in human being | 2 Comments

Yuval Noah Harari

Is there any objective reality, outside the human imagination, in which we are truly equal? Are all humans equal to one another biologically? Let us try to translate the most famous line of the American Declaration of Independence into biological terms: We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men evolved differently, that they are born with certain mutable characteristics, and that among these are life and the pursuit of pleasure.

Posted in human being | 2 Comments

Rebecca Surette

On this planet, at least, we’re all carbon-based organisms, and we all “inhale” something and “exhale” something else. I use quotation marks simply because the breathing mechanism is very different from animals to plants.

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

Dennis Richards

All animals and plants share similar cell structures with a cell membrane, nucleus, mitochondria, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi body, and cytoplasm. Plant cells also have a cell wall and chloroplasts. They also share the same genetic code and a common ancestor some 1.6 billion years ago.

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

Alex Stone

Should parents be troubled when their kids start to deceive them? Odds are, most of us would say yes. We believe honesty is a moral imperative, and we try to instill this belief in our children. Classic morality tales like “The Boy Who Cried Wolf” and “Pinocchio” speak to the dangers of dishonesty, and children who lie a lot, or who start lying at a young age, are often seen as developmentally abnormal, primed for trouble later in life. But research suggests the opposite is true. Lying is not only normal; it’s also a sign of intelligence.

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

馬場元毅

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

Véronique Vincelli

Conscient ou inconscient, le fantasme sexuel est une rêverie, une envie, une image ou un sentiment plus ou moins réaliste. … En fait, il est l’organe sexuel le plus performant! La pensée est directement liée à l’excitation sexuelle et possède un pouvoir inouï sur l’organisme.

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

Wenqi Wei et al.

To test the relationship between ambient temperature and personality, we conducted two large-scale studies in two geographically large yet culturally distinct countries: China and the United States. Using data from 59 Chinese cities (N = 5,587), multilevel analyses and machine learning analyses revealed that compared with individuals who grew up in regions with less clement temperatures, individuals who grew up in regions with more clement temperatures (that is, closer to 22 °C) scored higher on personality factors related to socialization and stability (agreeableness, conscientiousness, and emotional stability) and personal growth and plasticity (extraversion and openness to experience). These relationships between temperature clemency and personality factors were replicated in a larger dataset of 12,499 … Continue reading

Posted in human being | 2 Comments

Juan Enriquez

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

Julia Kristeva

J’estime que les douleurs sont incommensurables, plutôt incommunicables, et …

Posted in human being | 2 Comments

Rosie McCall

While improvements in training and nutrition in the 20th century saw athletic achievement improve in leaps and bounds, many scientists believe we’re now extremely close to reaching the human body’s full potential for endurance sports. This means that the era of record-breaking, at least as far as professional runners are concerned, could be coming to an end. To break the natural limits of human physiology and beat existing records, athletes may have to turn to artificial technology and doping.

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

本田圭佑

「ミスをするな」と言えば高確率でミスをするように人の脳はできてる。 ミスを意識させるのではなくて、どうやったら上手くできるかを意識させることができれば、自ずとミスは減る。 それを理解してる指導者が世界にはどれだけ少ないことか。

Posted in human being | 2 Comments

Geoff Hinton

The brain has about 1014 synapses and we only live for about 109 seconds. So we have a lot more parameters than data. This motivates the idea that we must do a lot of unsupervised learning since the perceptual input (including proprioception) is the only place we can get 105 dimensions of constraint per second.

Posted in human being | 4 Comments

Mark Thompson

Humanism is a perspective on the world that the events one experiences and observes are not attributable to the will of one or more Supreme Beings or other invisible beings, but are fully comprehensible by humans through science and other intellectual endeavors. A Supreme Being is neither necessary nor sufficient to understand the world; the intellectual efforts of humans, collectively, are necessary and sufficient. Humanitarianism is a synonym for charity but the “ism” suffix signifies a more institutional, or at least long- standing, perspective or approach, whereas “charity” can simply refer to one-off acts as well as a broader attitude. Humanitarianism also tends to refer to a secular attitude more … Continue reading

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

名越康文

縁とは何か。それは計量不可能な、感覚的かつ個人的な尺度です。客観的に比較できるものではなく、「なんとなくこっちがいいなあ」と感じるということ。それが縁です。 長期的な視野に立つ必要があるときには、感覚的な判断が必要です。「なんとなく」という感覚のほうが、目先の損得よりも、正確でバランスの取れた判断となる。 縁とは何か。これを論理的に語ることは難しいのですが、少なくとも心理学的には、僕らは「自分の知る何かに似ているもの」に対して、縁を感じるようです。 一瞬で「縁」があるか、ないかを判断するなんて、非科学的だと思われるかもしれません。でも、僕らはさまざまなことを「一瞬」で判断しているものなんです。 この感覚を磨いていく。映画のポスターを見て、面白そうかどうかを瞬時に判断する。レストランの前で、美味しそうかどうかを判断する。 「似ている」「同じだ」という類似性の回路を働かせれば、一瞬にして「ここは自分にとって、縁のある場所かどうか」を判断できるようになってくるんです。

Posted in human being | 2 Comments

横田一, 小池百合子

横田一:「フリーの横田です。前原代表が昨日、(民進党の両院議員総会で)所属議員向けに希望の党に公認申請をすれば排除されないという説明をしたんですが、一方で知事は、安保、改憲を考慮して一致しない人は公認しないと。言っていることが違うと思うんですが、前原代表を騙したんでしょうか。それとも共謀して、そういうことを言ったんでしょうか」 小池百合子:「すみません。横田さん。そのご質問は、この後、ちょっと場所を転換して、お答えをさせていただいた方が良いのではないかと思いますし、独特の言語を使っておられるなと今思ったところでございます。(中略)私は今、都知事としての会見をやっているわけですから、ちょっと待ってくださいね」 ** 小池百合子:「では、横田さんもう一回いきますか」 横田一:「繰り返しになりますが、前原代表が昨日発言した『公認申請すれば排除されない』ということについて(中略)前原代表をダマしたのでしょうか。共謀して、リベラル派大量虐殺とも言われているんですが……」 小池百合子:「音声入ってないの?」 横田一:「最初から(言いますか)?」 小池百合子:「わかりました、お答えします。前原代表がどういう表現をされたか承知をいたしておりませんけれども、排除をされないということは、ございませんで、排除いたします」

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

Ulrich Boser

A forgotten memory is a lot like an old file on your computer. While the document still exists, you don’t have a good way of getting to it, and today many memory researchers don’t even use the word “forgetting.” The term implies that a recollection is gone forever. Instead, forgetting is a matter of “retrieval failure.”

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

Hannah Arendt

By its very nature the beautiful is isolated from everything else. From beauty no road leads to reality. Only the mob and the elite can be attracted by the momentum of totalitarianism itself. The masses have to be won by propaganda. The most radical revolutionary will become a conservative the day after the revolution. Nothing we use or hear or touch can be expressed in words that equal what is given by the senses. Economic growth may one day turn out to be a curse rather than a good, and under no conditions can it either lead into freedom or constitute a proof for its existence. The sad truth is … Continue reading

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

Leon Festinger

In short, I am proposing that dissonance, that is, the existence of nonfitting relations among cognitions, is a motivating factor in its own right. By the term cognition I mean any knowledge, opinion, or belief about the environment, about oneself, or about one’s behavior. Cognitive dissonance reduction can be seen as an antecedent condition which leads to activity oriented towards dissonance reduction just as hunger leads to activity oriented towards hunger reduction. It is a very different motivation from what psychologist are used to dealing with but, as we shall see, nonetheless powerful.

Posted in human being | 2 Comments

Canyon Ranch

Like the rest of your body, your brain changes with each passing year. From the time we are infants, our brains are adapting, learning, making memories and more. We become smarter and sharper, earning the wisdom that truly only comes with life experience. The less desirable effects of the march of time can certainly be felt, too. You may recognize them: An ever-lost set of keys, a to-do that never seems to stay top of mind, a name that’s on the tip of your tongue. Once we hit our sixties, … the brain has begun to shrink in size and, after a lifetime of gaining accumulated knowledge, it becomes less … Continue reading

Posted in human being | 2 Comments

シルヴァーノ・アリエティ

創造力研究序説(創造の過程/創造性の主な学説) 創造力の心理学的構成要素(心象形成作用/形のない認識/原始的認識/概念的認識) 創造の所産(機知における創造力/詩と美的家庭/絵画・音楽/宗教的、神秘的経験/科学/哲学と一般システム理論) 創造性と社会・文化的環境(社会・文化と創造/創造発生社会) 個人と創造力の陶冶(創造的人間/個人における創造力の陶冶) 神経学・生物学・一般システム理論、そして人間精神の広い視野からみた創造性(創造性の神経学と生物学的な創造性/いくつかの一般的問題点と結論)

Posted in human being | 5 Comments

中野信子

メディアに同調する人たちの脳は、社会のルールを破った人や異端者を糾弾することで快感を得るように出来ています。脳に、社会のために役立とうとする「向社会性」という働きがあるからです。脳がその集団自体が壊れてしまう危険性を感じると、異端者を一斉に排除しようとする働きを見せるわけです。 サイコパスの脳は、この「向社会性」を持たないため、異端者を糾弾することの快感を覚えません。「そんなことをしても自分には一円の得にもならない」と合理的に判断し、集団の総意に沿った言動を取らないのです。これを「反社会性」といいます。トランプ氏はその典型例でしょう。 ** 脳は負荷が高い器官です。全身のたった二%の重量しかないのに二五%の酸素を使い、二〇%のカロリーを消費します。だから大衆は、脳で一生懸命考えるより、脳を使わずパッと理解できる説明を好みます。また大衆は発言の根拠や裏づけの検証はしない。トランプ氏はそのことをよく知っています。

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

Glenn Geher, Scott Barry Kaufman

A wise man once told me, “As a man, you have to die once in order to live.” I never fully appreciated his advice, nor did I understand it until I experienced it firsthand. From that time on, I understood the origins of the Jerk vs. Nice Guy battle. Readers may be asking themselves, “What in the world is this guy talking about?” Well, I’m referring to the widely known fact that women habitually date men that are jerks while the “nice” guys are often left twiddling their thumbs in solitaire. Does this sound familiar to anyone? Figuratively speaking, in order for a man to enjoy the company of women … Continue reading

Posted in human being | 3 Comments

Glenn Geher

Many reach the top by being conspicuously caring – demonstrating a lifelong dedication to their broader communities and to helping others in their social worlds. Think Mother Theresa. On the other hand, there are relatively dark ways to reach the top in nearly all human social contexts. Displaying characteristics of the Dark Triad – being uncaring about others, self-absorbed, and manipulative – for better or worse, seems to also be an effective route to the top. It may not be a nice approach to social life, but it can be a successful one – particularly if others in the community allow this kind of strategy to succeed. Does Donald Trump … Continue reading

Posted in human being | 2 Comments

Kara Mayer Robinson

You may have heard people call someone else a “psychopath” or a “sociopath.” But what do those words really mean? Doctors don’t officially diagnose people as psychopaths or sociopaths. They use a different term instead: antisocial personality disorder. Most experts believe psychopaths and sociopaths share a similar set of traits. People like this have a poor inner sense of right and wrong. They also can’t seem to understand or share another person’s feelings. But there are some differences, too. A key difference between a psychopath and a sociopath is whether he has a conscience, the little voice inside that lets us know when we’re doing something wrong. A psychopath doesn’t … Continue reading

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

Heather F. Smith, William Parker, Sanet H. Kotzé, Michel Laurin

The evolutionary pressures leading to the appearance of the cecal appendix, its evolutionary relationships with the cecum, and the link between these gastrointestinal characters and ecology remain controversial. We collected data on appendix presence and size, other gastrointestinal characters, ecological variables, dietary habits, and social characters hypothesized to drive appendix evolution for 533 mammalian species. Using phylogeny-informed analyses, we identified the first evidence of a positive correlation between appendix presence and cecal apex thickness, and a correlation with cecal morphology, suggesting that the appendix and cecum may be evolving as a module, the cecoappendicular complex. A correlation between appendix presence and concentration of cecal lymphoid tissue supports the hypothesis of … Continue reading

Posted in human being | 3 Comments

Bright Side

Yawning  The main purpose of yawning is to cool down the brain after it’s been overheated or overloaded. Sneezing  Usually, we sneeze when our nasal passages fill up with too many allergens, microbes, dust, or other irritants. Sneezing is the body’s way of getting rid of this “trash.” Stretching  We instinctively stretch in order to prepare our bodies for the physical loads we expect them to take during the day. At the same time, stretching works the muscles, restores blood flow, and improves our mood. Hiccuping  When we eat very quickly, swallow large pieces of food, or simply overeat, our pneumogastric nerve can become irritated. This is closely connected to … Continue reading

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

Ron Miller

While a machine can perform a given task, often more efficiently than we can, what it lacks is the artistry in the activity, that uniquely human ability to cater to the needs of the individual. The protocol may suggest one approach, but a person who is good at their job understands when to adjust and the subtleties that are required. People still matter. And that’s an important point to keep in mind. Even in scenarios that don’t involve advanced education like physicians, it doesn’t mean that we as humans don’t want to interact with people instead of machines. Technology marches relentlessly forward, and it would be foolish to argue otherwise, … Continue reading

Posted in human being | 2 Comments

Steven Shorrock

Following most major accidents, one phrase is almost guaranteed to headline in the popular press: ‘human error’. The concept is also popular in our own discipline and profession; it is probably among the most profitable in terms of research and consultancy dollars. While seductively simple to the layperson, it comes with a variety of meanings and interpretations with respect to causation and culpability. With its evocative associations, synonyms, and position in our own models, ‘human error’ is a key anchoring object in everyday and specialist narratives. Despite our efforts to look at what lies beneath, explanations, both in industry and the judiciary, often float back what people can see, with … Continue reading

Posted in human being | 2 Comments

三苫民雄

人間は間違いを犯す生き物で、神様でもない限りこれを避けて生きることはできません。さらに、人間は間違いを隠す生き物でもあり、自己正当化のためには事実をねじ曲げるばかりか、ときにはそのような事実がなかったことにさえしてしまいます。 他方で、人びとがあえて自らの間違いを認めた場合の社会的反応は決して悪いものではありません。実は私たちには間違いを肯定的にとらえ、イノベーションや将来の制度設計に活かしていくという可能性が開かれているのです。

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

内井惣七

ゴルトンが人種改良の結果に着目し、その望ましさを強調したのに対し、ハクスリーはそのような結果に至る過程で何が生じるか、そのような過程を遂行するために何が必要かに着目し、結果の望ましさを打ち消してあまりあるほどの問題点があることを指摘したのである。ハクスリーの指摘は、次のようにまとめることができょう。(1)優生政策を成功させるためには、途方もない残忍な手段が要求されるので、これは倫理的に望ましくない。(2)人間に対する人為淘汰を行なうためには、人の性格や品性を、とくに幼年期のうちに見抜けるほど優れた観察力や知性を備えた判定者が必要であるが、そんな人間はいないので、適切な淘汰を行なうことが不可能である。さらに、(3)このような条件のもとで、つまり残忍な手段を用い、超人的な知性が要求されるという条件のもとで、このような政策を行なおうとすることは、社会の中で人々を結びつけている特有の絆を壊す危険性が高い、ということも指摘されている。 ゴルトン自身が1869年以後に行った遺伝と統計についての研究によっても、65年の論文あるいは69年の著書で構想したような「人種改良」の試みにはきわめて大きな困難があることが明らかになってきた。1870年代の後半にゴルトンが行なったスイートピーの育種実験によって、第一世代の平均より重い種(の一グループ)から得られた第二世代の種も、重さの分布は正規分布に従うことがわかっただけでなく、その平均値は、その重いグループの平均値ではなく、もとの世代全体の平均値の方へ近づくという「先祖返り」あるいは「退化」を示すことが明らかになった。さらに、1880年代に入って、ゴルトンは人体測定研究所を開いて人間のデータを集め始めたが、両親の身長と、成人した子供の身長を比較した統計データからも、まったく同じような「退化」の傾向があることが明らかになった。つまり、身長の大きな両親から産まれた子供の平均身長も、両親の平均身長よりは一世代全体の平均値の方へ近づく(「退化する」)のである。数学的解析の結果わかったのは、これは遺伝とは直接関係がなく、統計的な操作がもつ数学的性質の一つだということであり、ゴルトンが「退化の係数」と呼んだものは「回帰係数」と名づけ直されることになった。

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

Ethan Kross, Marc G. Berman, Walter Mischel, Edward E. Smith, Tor D. Wager

How similar are the experiences of social rejection and physical pain? Extant research suggests that a network of brain regions that support the affective but not the sensory components of physical pain underlie both experiences. Here we demonstrate that when rejection is powerfully elicited—by having people who recently experienced an unwanted break-up view a photograph of their ex-partner as they think about being rejected—areas that support the sensory components of physical pain (secondary somatosensory cortex; dorsal posterior insula) become active. We demonstrate the overlap between social rejection and physical pain in these areas by comparing both conditions in the same individuals using functional MRI. We further demonstrate the specificity of … Continue reading

Posted in human being | 3 Comments

James Doty

Since the start of civilization, the source of human intelligence and consciousness has been a mystery. … While much was learned about brain anatomy and function, our understanding remained very limited. In fact, through most of the twentieth century, it was believed that the brain was fixed, immutable, and static. Today, we know that the brain has great plasticity and can change, adapt, and transform. It is molded by experience, repetition, and intention. It is only because of the extraordinary technological advances over the last few decades that we can see the brain’s ability to transform on a cellular, genetic, and even molecular level. Extraordinarily, as I learned, each of … Continue reading

Posted in human being | 5 Comments

Adam Dachis

While a little common sense and life experience can demonstrate the imperfections in your (and everyone else’s) memory, Schacter’s research points to two important things: we’re no good at recalling past events or imagining the future because our process for doing either is essentially the same—at least as far as our brain functionality is concerned. While this points to much more of a problem than a solution, it certainly helps to remember that no memory is perfect and we’re all designed to recall with error. Next time someone gets something wrong, it’s at least worth remembering that.

Posted in human being | 2 Comments

John Morgan Allman

Posted in human being | 2 Comments

田中順平

私たちは、例えば、肩に不快感があったとき肩が凝った、お腹の具合が悪ければお腹の調子が悪いというように認識します。しかし、胸部に不快がある場合は、胸が苦しいと認識するよりも、心が苦しいと認識するところがあります。これは、人間の体は、感情と胸部の感覚が連動する造りになっているということを示す事象だと考えています。 私たちには、心に関する大きな思い込みがあると考えています。それは、『人には心があり、心が自分そのものだ』といった感覚です。 自分の心がどこにあるのかを感じてみて下さい。「脳が考えるのだから頭にあると思う」などと、どこにあるのかと考えるのではなく、どこにあると感じるかです。人によって感じる場所に多少の違いがあるのですが、多くの人は、胸の中央の部分に感じると思います。

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

KJ Dell’Antonia

A good friend and colleague, a real extrovert, sent me a link to a shirt recently that she knew I’d appreciate. “Sorry I’m late,” the T-shirt reads. “I didn’t want to be here.” I laughed — of course I laughed. I’m as introverted as she is outgoing, and we frequently play out our roles in tandem. At parties, she takes the lead; at meetings, she does the talking. I get to nod and smile. But the shirt also made me wince, because it perfectly encapsulated the suspicion I’ve started to develop that my introversion is an excuse for something else. I’m shy, yes. But am I also rude? In a … Continue reading

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

梅谷献二

ゴキブリの仲間は世界から約3700種も記録され、日本にも50種以上が分布しています。しかし、そのほとんどは人間の生活とは関係なく、 腐食などを食べて細ぼそと暮らしている野の虫で、家の中の“おじゃま虫”になっているのはほんの一握りの種類だけです。日本で知られている屋内性の種類はせいぜい10種たらずです。 ゴキブリは原始的な昆虫で、その化石が3億年以上も前の石炭紀後期の地層からいくつも発見されています。彼らから見れば人間とのつき合いは“ついきのう”始まったばかりです。が、その間、一部の種類は野外から人間の家屋に進出することに成功しました。もちろん、野外とはあまりにも違う屋内に適応できた種類はわずかしかいません。しかし、この壁を乗り越え、“ただの虫”から“害虫”へと変身を遂げた瞬間から彼らには今日の繁栄が約束されていました。 屋内性のゴキブリのなかには、もうすっかり人間との同居生活に適応し、本来の原産地がどこなのか定かではない種類までいます。 彼らが「人造害虫」と呼ばれているゆえんです。 以前、ある生物学の大家がゴキブリのあまりの横行に、「人類のあと地球を継承するのはゴキブリであろう」との新説を唱えたことがあります。 しかし、決してそうはならないでしょう。試しに、冬のさなかに数日間暖房を切って窓を開けておけばゴキブリは全滅します。それが彼らの本来の姿です。屋内性のゴキブリはまさしく人類とは“運命共同体”です。生活を依存している人間の文明が失われたら彼らの生活も終わり、再びもとの自然界に戻ることすら難しいことになるでしょう。 その前に、人類が次の時代をほかの動物にゆだねるような、そんなりっぱな滅亡の仕方ができるかどうかの方が問題かもしれません。

Posted in human being | 1 Comment

Christof Koch

What do we know about Consciousness? Consciousness is associated with some complex, adaptive, biological networks (not immune system nor enteric nervous system) Consciousness does not require behavior Consciousness does not require emotions Consciousness can be dissociated from selective attention Consciousness does not require language — babies are shown to be conscious Consciousness does not require self-consciousness Consciousness does not require long-term memory Consciousness can occur in one cerebral hemisphere – which means that we could have 2 simultaneous separate conscious experiences Destruction of cortical regions interferes with specific content of consciousness – which indicates that there is not a “center of consciousness” in the brain, but it arises from distributed activity These … Continue reading

Posted in human being | 2 Comments