Why Nations Fail (Daron Acemoğlu)

Economic growth and technological change are accompanied by what the great economist Joseph Schumpeter called creative destruction. They replace the old with the new. New sectors attract resources away from old ones. New firms take business away from established ones. New technologies make existing skills and machines obsolete.

The End of Democratic Capitalism? (Daron Acemoglu)

The world is in the throes of a pervasive crisis. The gap between rich and poor has widened in most countries. Although industrialized economies are still growing, the real incomes of people working in them have barely increased since 1980, and in some places, such as the United States, the real wages of low-skilled workers have dropped sharply. The economic malaise has a corollary in politics: democracy is floundering. According to Freedom House, more countries have lost freedom than gained it every year for the past 17 years. Authoritarianism seems to be on the rise.

António Guterres

Climate change is here. It is terrifying. And it is just the beginning.
The era of global warming has ended; the era of global boiling has arrived.
The air is unbreathable. The heat is unbearable.


Le plus grand malheur des hommes, c’est d’avoir des lois et un gouvernement.
Une expérience journalière fait reconnaître que les Français vont instinctivement au pouvoir : ils n’aiment point la liberté ; l’égalité seule est leur idole. Or l’égalité et le despotisme ont des liaisons secrètes. Sous ces deux rapports, Napoléon avait sa source au coeur des Français, militairement inclinés vers la puissance, démocratiquement amoureux du niveau. Monté au trône, il y fit asseoir le peuple avec lui ; roi prolétaire, il humilia les rois et les nobles dans ses antichambres ; il nivela les rangs, non en les abaissant, mais en les élevant : le niveau descendant aurait charmé davantage l’envie plébéienne, le niveau ascendant a plus flatté son orgueil.
C’est le devoir qui crée le droit et non le droit qui crée le devoir.

ゼロ金利 ー 資本主義を卒業(水野和夫)、成長の限界(的場昭弘)





Women researchers (實川節子)

Women researchers are increasing in number but actually their ratio remains still low, especially in Japan (14.3%, as of 2012). Worldwide cosmetic company, L’Oreal, launched a program “For Women in Science” in 1998 in order to recognize women researchers contributing to overcome the global challenges of tomorrow, in collaboration with UNESCO, with a belief “The world needs science, Science needs women”. Since then, the Program encourages women talents through the L’Oreal-UNESCO For Women in Science Awards, the L’OREAL-UNESCO International Fellowships, and the L’OREAL-UNESCO National Fellowships, and supported more than 2,000 women researchers from 115 countries. In Japan, Nihon L’OREAL K. K. deploys under this program National Fellowship in collaboration Japanese National Commission for UNESCO and has supported 32 young women researchers since its creation in 2005. The company also engages various enlightening activities for “Rikejo”, women students and researchers working in scientific fields.

General Entertainment Authority (GEA)

الهيئة العامة للترفيه

The Saudi population spends $22 billion dollars in tourism and entertainment outside the country every year. The government aims to transform 25% of that spending into local travel and entertainment to create a solid Saudi tourism economy. The Saudi Vision 2030 plan aims to raise capital by harnessing the previously unaddressed entertainment sector, helping to “nurture entertainment in all its forms, while also seeking to safeguard our precious cultural heritage”.

Embrasse-moi, mon cœur (Rémy Belleau, 1565)

Embrasse-moi, mon cœur, baise-moi, je t’en prie,
Presse-moi, serre-moi ! À ce coup je me meurs !
Mais ne me laisse pas en ces douces chaleurs :
Car c’est à cette fois que je te perds, ma vie.

Mon ami, je me meurs et mon âme assouvie
D’amour, de passions, de plaisirs, de douceurs,
S’enfuit, se perd, s’écoule et va loger ailleurs,
Car ce baiser larron me l’a vraiment ravie.

Je pâme ! Mon ami ! mon ami, je suis morte !
Hé ! ne me baisez plus, au moins de cette sorte.
C’est ta bouche, mon cœur, qui m’avance la mort.

Ôte-la donc, m’amour, ôte-la, je me pâme !
Ôte-la, mon ami, ôte-la, ma chère âme,
Ou me laisse mourir en ce plaisant effort !

Baiser (Joachim du Bellay, 1542)

Quand ton col de couleur rose
Se donne à mon embrassement
Et ton oeil languit doucement
D’une paupière à demi close,

Mon âme se fond du désir
Dont elle est ardemment pleine
Et ne peut souffrir à grand’peine
La force d’un si grand plaisir.

Puis, quand s’approche de la tienne
Ma lèvre, et que si près je suis
Que la fleur recueillir je puis
De ton haleine ambroisienne,

Quand le soupir de ces odeurs
Où nos deux langues qui se jouent
Moitement folâtrent et nouent,
Eventent mes douces ardeurs,

Il me semble être assis à table
Avec les dieux, tant je suis heureux,
Et boire à longs traits savoureux
Leur doux breuvage délectable.

Si le bien qui au plus grand bien
Est plus prochain, prendre on me laisse,
Pourquoi me permets-tu, maîtresse,
Qu’encore le plus grand soit mien?

As-tu peur que la jouissance
D’un si grand heur me fasse dieu?
Et que sans toi je vole au lieu
D’éternelle réjouissance?

Belle, n’aie peur de cela,
Partout où sera ta demeure,
Mon ciel, jusqu’à tant que je meure,
Et mon paradis sera là.

Groupthink (集団思考)

Symptoms of groupthink:

Type I: Overestimations of the group — its power and morality

  • Illusions of invulnerability creating excessive optimism and encouraging risk taking.
  • Unquestioned belief in the morality of the group, causing members to ignore the consequences of their actions.

Type II: Closed-mindedness

  • Rationalizing warnings that might challenge the group’s assumptions.
  • Stereotyping those who are opposed to the group as weak, evil, biased, spiteful, impotent, or stupid.

Type III: Pressures toward uniformity

  • Self-censorship of ideas that deviate from the apparent group consensus.
  • Illusions of unanimity among group members, silence is viewed as agreement.
  • Direct pressure to conform placed on any member who questions the group, couched in terms of “disloyalty”
  • Mindguards— self-appointed members who shield the group from dissenting information.

Yuval Noah Harari

  1. Science is converging on an all-encompassing dogma, which says that organisms are algorithms and life is data processing.
  2. ​Intelligence is decoupling from consciousness.
  3. ​Non-conscious but highly intelligent algorithms may soon know us better than we know ourselves.

These three processes raise three key questions, which I hope will stick in your mind long after you have finished this book:

  1. ​Are organisms really just algorithms, and is life really just data processing?
  2. What’s more valuable – intelligence or consciousness?
  3. ​What will happen to society, politics and daily life when non-conscious but highly intelligent algorithms know us better than we know ourselves?

Protecting civilians

Protecting civilians from the effects of war has never been easy—and in some ways it seems to be getting harder—which is why the ultimate goal should be to prevent war altogether. In the meantime, states, civil society and international organizations should not hesitate to take what they have learned in order to be more responsive, more effective and more unified in protecting civilians in the wars of today and tomorrow.







  1. 胸腺ストロマ細胞(胸腺上皮細胞)の発生と機能の解明
  2. iPS細胞を用いた胸腺上皮細胞の誘導と胸腺機能の再構築
  3. 胸腺退縮メカニズムの解明と胸腺機能賦活化法の開発
  4. T細胞の加齢変化(T細胞老化)が加齢関連疾患発症と病態形成に果たす役割の解明
  5. ヒトT細胞老化の実態およびメカニズムの解明と制御法の開発


二日月 君が小指の爪よりも ほのかにさすは あはれなるかな

すがれたる 薔薇をまきて おくるこそ ふさはしからむ 恋の逮夜は

美しき 人妻あらむ かくてあゝ わが世かなしく なりまさるらむ







An automated pair programmer

An automated pair programmer: fact or fiction?

Oege de Moor, Alex Gravely, Albert Ziegler – GitHub OCTO. August 31st, 2020

Executive Summary

We evaluate the use of OpenAI’s language models trained on source code, for the specific task of Python code synthesis from natural language descriptions.

Our findings are as follows:

  • Out of 233 hand-crafted programming exercises supplied by 30 GitHub engineers, 93% are successfully solved. The exercises include StackOverflow-type problems involving the use of an unfamiliar package, as well as programming challenges typically used in coding interviews at high-tech companies, and some elementary examples. The success in solving self-contained programming problems demonstrates that an “automated StackOverflow’ is around the corner.

  • ON 58,391 functions taken from open source repositories, the model achieves a 52.3% success rate in creating an alternative implementation from the original documentation of that function, which passes the test. Furthermore, we project that with more computational power the success rate increases to 60%. There are obvious ways in which the success rate can be further improved, even with today’s OpenAI models, by providing the model with more context about the repository that contains the function. These results prove and IDE plugin that helps developers write non-trivial code is not far away.

  • While the OpenAI models are already amazing today, they are further improving at a ferocious pace — just a few weeks ago the success percentage on rewriting arbitrary functions was 43.3%, instead of 52.3%. Where that earlier model needed 150 attempts to find a correct solution, the newer model needs 14. We therefore anticipate applications way beyond mere program synthesis, where developers create new code in an interactive conversation with the model.

We conclude that OpenAI’s technology is poised to change developer tools in fundamental ways. In particular an ‘automated pair programmer’ can be built that puts the collective knowledge of the entire GitHub community at the fingertips of every individual.


An automated pair programmer, which puts the collective knowledge of the entire GitHub community at the fingertips of every individual, would transform the software industry. Many aspiring developers who do not have access to adequate training and advice today would instantaneously become productive…

Peter Thiel (ピーター・ティール)

This age of globalization has made it easy to imagine that the decades ahead will bring more convergence and more sameness. But I don’t think that’s true. My own answer to the contrarian question is that most people think the future of the world will be defined by globalization, but the truth is that technology matters more. Without technological change, if China doubles its energy production over the next two decades, it will also double its air pollution. If every one of India’s hundreds of millions of households were to live the way Americans already do—using only today’s tools—the result would be environmentally catastrophic. In a world of scarce resources, globalization without new technology is unsustainable.


What is Crypto Anarchy? (Timothy C. May)

Some of us believe various forms of strong cryptography will cause the power of the state to decline, perhaps even collapse fairly abruptly. We believe the expansion into cyberspace, with secure communications, digital money, anonymity and pseudonymity, and other crypto-mediated interactions, will profoundly change the nature of economies and social interactions. Governments will have a hard time collecting taxes, regulating the behavior of individuals and corporations (small ones at least), and generally coercing folks when it can’t even tell what continent folks are on!

How to Make an Apple Pie from Scratch (Harry Cliff)

And there are some really big questions that we need answers to. Our current theory of what the world is made from down at the fundamental level is known as the “standard model” of particle physics—a deceptively boring name for one of humankind’s greatest intellectual achievements. Developed over decades through the combined efforts of thousands of theorists and experimentalists, the standard model says that everything we see around us—galaxies, stars, planets, and people—is made of just a few different types of particles, which are bound together inside atoms and molecules by a small number of fundamental forces. It’s a theory that explains everything from why the Sun shines to what light is and why stuff has mass. What’s more, it’s passed every experimental test we’ve been able to throw at it for almost half a century. It is, without a doubt, the most successful scientific theory ever written down.
All that said, we know that the standard model is wrong, or at the very least seriously incomplete. When it comes to the deepest mysteries facing modern physics, the standard model simply shrugs or offers up a bunch of contradictions instead of answers. Take this for starters. After decades of painstakingly peering into the heavens, astronomers and cosmologists are pretty well convinced that 95 percent of the universe is made of two invisible substances known as “dark energy” and “dark matter.” Whatever they are—and to be clear we haven’t got much of a clue about either of them—they’re definitely not made from any of the particles in the standard model. And as if missing 95 percent of everything wasn’t bad enough, the standard model also makes the rather startling assertion that all the matter in existence should have been wiped out in a cataclysmic annihilation with antimatter in the first microsecond of the big bang, leaving a universe with no stars, no planets, and no us.
So it’s pretty obvious that we are missing something big, most likely in the form of some as-yet-undiscovered fundamental particles that could help explain why the universe is the way it is.




  Ik = 40%E + 25%V + 35%L

Quantum entanglement

Quantum entanglement is the phenomenon that occurs when a group of particles are generated, interact, or share spatial proximity in such a way that the quantum state of each particle of the group cannot be described independently of the state of the others, including when the particles are separated by a large distance. The topic of quantum entanglement is at the heart of the disparity between classical and quantum physics: entanglement is a primary feature of quantum mechanics not present in classical mechanics.
Measurements of physical properties such as position, momentum, spin, and polarization performed on entangled particles can, in some cases, be found to be perfectly correlated. For example, if a pair of entangled particles is generated such that their total spin is known to be zero, and one particle is found to have clockwise spin on a first axis, then the spin of the other particle, measured on the same axis, is found to be anticlockwise. However, this behavior gives rise to seemingly paradoxical effects: any measurement of a particle’s properties results in an apparent and irreversible wave function collapse of that particle and changes the original quantum state. With entangled particles, such measurements affect the entangled system as a whole.

Wheeler–DeWitt equation (motivation and background)

In canonical gravity, spacetime is foliated into spacelike submanifolds. The three-metric (i.e., metric on the hypersurface) is and given by

In that equation the Latin indices run over the values 1, 2, 3 and the Greek indices run over the values 1, 2, 3, 4. The three-metric is the field, and we denote its conjugate momenta as . The Hamiltonian is a constraint (characteristic of most relativistic systems)

where and is the Wheeler–DeWitt metric. In index-free notation, the Wheeler–DeWitt metric on the space of positive definite quadratic forms g in three dimensions is

Quantization “puts hats” on the momenta and field variables; that is, the functions of numbers in the classical case become operators that modify the state function in the quantum case. Thus we obtain the operator

Working in “position space”, these operators are

One can apply the operator to a general wave functional of the metric where:

which would give a set of constraints amongst the coefficients . This means the amplitudes for gravitons at certain positions is related to the amplitudes for a different number of gravitons at different positions. Or, one could use the two-field formalism, treating as an independent field so that the wave function is .

Adam Nicolson

We may want fixed answers and rigid definitions. but vitality — and perhaps even health — lies in the ability to stay afloat, stay loose, stay connected, stay with the questions and entertain doubt as the unlikely bedrock of understanding. The only understanding is in the fluidity of mind.



※ ICカード乗車券を先にタッチした場合は、正しく運賃が計算されないことがあるのでご注意ください。



Georges Bataille

La chance est plus que la beauté, mais la beauté tire son éclat de la chance.



ガイアは自らの力だけでウーラノス(天)、ポントス(海)、ウーレアー(山)を産み、母となる。エロースの働きでウーラノスと親子婚し夫とする。そしてウーラノスとの間にクロノス、オーケアノス、コイオス、クレイオス、ヒュペリーオーン、イーアペトス、テイア、レアー、テミス、ムネーモシュネー、ポイベー、テーテュースを生んだ。またキュクロープス, ヘカトンケイル, ギガース, エリーニュス, メリアスといった魔神・怪物を産んだ。


Face à Gaïa (Bruno Latour)

Bruno Latour invoque Gaïa afin que la catastrophe écologique ne s’aggrave pas. Au-delà du nom mythologique, Gaïa est pour Latour surtout un concept bien construit qui propose un cadre pour penser sans la dichotomie nature/culture. Selon l’anthropologue des sciences, si nous n’agissons pas plus vite pour chercher des solutions aux problèmes écologiques, ce serait à cause de cette dichotomie.









Butterfly effect

In chaos theory, the butterfly effect is the sensitive dependence on initial conditions in which a small change in one state of a deterministic nonlinear system can result in large differences in a later state.
The term is closely associated with the work of mathematician and meteorologist Edward Norton Lorenz. He noted that the butterfly effect is derived from the metaphorical example of the details of a tornado (the exact time of formation, the exact path taken) being influenced by minor perturbations such as a distant butterfly flapping its wings several weeks earlier. Lorenz originally used a seagull causing a storm but was persuaded to make it more poetic with the use of a butterfly and tornado by 1972. He discovered the effect when he observed runs of his weather model with initial condition data that were rounded in a seemingly inconsequential manner. He noted that the weather model would fail to reproduce the results of runs with the unrounded initial condition data. A very small change in initial conditions had created a significantly different outcome.
The butterfly effect concept has since been used outside the context of weather science as a broad term for any situation where a small change is supposed to be the cause of larger consequences.



One Health (American Veterinary Medical Association)

The veterinary profession must implement solutions to the critical workforce challenges in collaboration with multiple professions, including public health, human medicine, bio-engineering, animal science, environmental science, and wildlife. By working together, more can be accomplished to improve health worldwide, and the veterinary medical profession has the responsibility to assume a major leadership role in that effort. One Health calls for the collaborative efforts of multiple disciplines working locally, nationally, and globally to attain optimal health for people, animals and our environment.

Loss of biodiversity (Jeroen Douwes)

Loss of biodiversity is a double-edged sword. On the one hand, it promotes contact with pathogens that humans have never encountered before; on the other, it makes humans more susceptible to being profoundly affected by these new infectious micro-organisms.




Civitello Lab (Emory University)

Why do epidemics grow large in some places but not others? We build and test theory for disease outbreaks that can explain parasite transmission and reproduction in heterogeneous populations and dynamic environments. We combine field surveys, experiments, and mathematical modeling to improve predictions and control of disease outbreaks that are relevant for biodiversity conservation and human health.

Les monocultures favorisent les épidémies (Christian Lannou)

L’absence de biodiversité dans les champs est une cause majeure des maladies des cultures

C’est précisément parce que la diversité génétique est très faible dans les cultures intensives que les agriculteurs utilisent autant de pesticides. Le problème a commencé au néolithique : à partir du moment où on met une plante sauvage en culture et qu’on rassemble dans un même champ des végétaux très proches génétiquement, on crée un système qui favorise les épidémies. Le modèle agro-industriel a porté cette fragilité au centuple, car dans un champ de blé moderne, toutes les plantes sont des clones. Quand un parasite y fait irruption, il se répand comme une traînée de poudre.



Serge Morand


Jean-François Guégan

熱帯地域は、ヨーロッパや北アメリカのような北側の温和な気候の地域よりも、はるかに病原体を抱えています。理由は簡単です。鳥類や哺乳類の豊富さと、それらの動物が保有している微生物の豊富さのあいだには、確実に相関関係があるからです。言い換えるなら、生物多様性の ”ホットスポット” と見なされる地域は動物や植物の種類も多いけれども、同時にあらゆる種類の微生物(ウイルス、最近、寄生虫など)も多いということです。

Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases (Bruce A. Wilcox, Rita R. Colwell)

Understanding the mechanisms that underlie newly emerging and reemerging infectious diseases (EID) is one of the most difficult scientific problems facing society today. EIDs are diseases that have recently increased in incidence or in geographic or host range (e.g., tuberculosis, cholera, malaria, dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis, West Nile fever, and yellow fever), diseases caused by new variants assigned to known pathogens (e.g., HIV, new strains of influenza virus, SARS, drug resistant strains of bacteria, Nipah virus, Ebola virus, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, and avian influenza virus), and bacteria newly resistant to antibiotics, notably the multiple resistant strains that render the armamentarium of antibiotics useless.
Fundamental questions persist concerning molecular mechanisms and specific cellular processes involved in pathogenesis, as well as transmission dynamics and epidemiology, of pathogens that cause some of the most studied of the reemerging infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis, malaria, and cholera. Newly emerging diseases caused by entirely novel or previously unrecognized pathogens, such as HIV/AIDS, SARS, and hantavirus, or those whose modes of transmission are currently under study, as in the case of Ebola and Nipah, represent yet another significant challenge. Certainly the mechanisms or processes of disease emergence involve factors in addition to those at molecular and cellular levels. These include climate, rainfall, ocean and air circulation patterns, and extreme weather events, as well as the ecology of the pathogens’ reservoirs and vectors, namely those factors associated with larger-scale mechanisms and the dynamic behavior of ecosystems in which parasite (pathogen) and host relationships are embedded. Still other factors are involved, and must be identified, if a truly holistic framework is to be constructed that incorporates factors related to human and societal mechanisms.
Demographic and social changes, along with associated environmental alterations, and even the efforts to control disease, have contributed to the severity of the problem of EIDs. The use of antimicrobials, pesticides, and biological controls predictably are effecting changes in pathogens, hosts, and ecological systems, and often unwittingly facilitating disease emergence or reemergence. Antibiotic resistant Strepococcus A and E. coli 0:157 are prime examples. Pathogens and their hosts, including humans, reproduce, grow, and adapt in an environmental context, devastatingly exemplified by the avian influenza threat (chickens, ducks, pigs, and humans in close confines). This context is most accurately captured using a holistic or systems perspective, considering sub-systems at different levels of organization—those at lower levels embedded within those at successively higher levels—including social as well as physical, chemical, and biological components.
This view, applied to the extraordinary depth and richness of living systems, spanning the scale of microbial genomes to the regional ecosystems populated by humans and reservoir species, evoked the term biocomplexity. Several investigators, including social scientists, conceived and elaborated on similar themes using different terminology. Ecological and social scientists working on ecosystem and natural resources management challenges refer to “social–ecological systems” or “human and natural systems”. The contraction of social–ecological systems, “socioecological systems,” has been used to describe this same systems perspective, stressing coupled human–natural systems and complexity theory, in the context of health and emerging infectious diseases. The hyphenated or contracted terms share with biocomplexity an emphasis on the interaction of humans and nature as a complex system, and arguably embrace what is fundamentally the same paradigm.

Why is diversity important? (Bing)

Diversity is important because it helps to create a more inclusive and tolerant society. It allows people from different backgrounds to come together and learn from each other, which can lead to greater understanding and empathy. Additionally, diversity can help to promote creativity and innovation by bringing together people with different perspectives and experiences. Finally, diversity can help to reduce discrimination and prejudice by promoting greater acceptance of differences. These are just a few reasons why diversity is so important in our world today.






私たち人間の社会性を例に考えてみましょう。全く同じ遺伝子で、同じ見た目・同じ性格・同じ能力…と全く同じ人々からなる集団は、どのように生活するでしょうか? 多様な個性の人々からなる集団に比べて、何か問題が起きても解決の選択肢が少なくなるでしょう。手に入れたい物が同じ故に争いも起こりやすいかもしれません。しかし実際の私たちの社会は、活動的な人・控えめな人・好奇心が強い人・保守的な人…など、さまざまな個性の人から成り立っています。このおかげで、私たちは多様な考え方から意見を出し合うことができ、それぞれの短所・長所を補いあうこともできます。つまり、遺伝子多様性は生き物のあらゆる可能性を広げ、同時にリスク対策を厚くしているのです。


植物多様性を織りなすひとつひとつの種を知ることが、植物多様性を知る基本です。 それぞれの種は与えられた環境に適応して生き抜くため、ありとあらゆる工夫をし、さらに、他の生物と助けあったり、競争したり、食う食われるといった関係を生み出しました。 こうした植物それぞれの個性が、多様性を形作ります。




多様性(たようせい、: diversity)とは、「ある集団の中に異なる特徴•特性を持つ人がともに存在する」ことである。















Diversity (Wikipedia)





  • Diversity combining, the combining of multiple received signals into a single improved signal
  • Diversity gain, the increase in signal-to-interference ratio due to a diversity scheme
  • Diversity scheme, a method for improving reliability of a message signal by using multiple communications channels
  • Antenna diversity or space diversity, a method of wireless communication that use two or more antennas to improve reliability
  • Cooperative diversity, a multiple antenna technique for improving or maximising total network channel capacities
  • Site diversity, multiple receivers for satellite communication
  • Time diversity, a technique used in digital communication systems
  • Transmit diversity, wireless communication using signals originating from two or more independent sources



United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (1992)

The Contracting Parties.
⁠Conscious of the intrinsic value of biological diversity and of the ecological, genetic, social, economic, scientific, educational, cultural, recreational and aesthetic values of biological diversity and its components.
⁠Conscious also of the importance of biological diversity for evolution and for maintaining life sustaining systems of the biosphere.
⁠Affirming that the conservation of biological diversity is a common concern of humankind.



IPBES Workshop Report on Biodiversity and Pandemics

Pandemics emerge from the microbial diversity found in nature

  • The majority (70%) of emerging diseases (e.g. Ebola, Zika, Nipah encephalitis), and almost all known pandemics (e.g. influenza, HIV/AIDS, COVID-19), are zoonoses – i.e. are caused by microbes of animal origin. These microbes ‘spill over’ due to contact among wildlife, livestock, and people.
  • An estimated 1.7 million currently undiscovered viruses are thought to exist in mammal and avian hosts. Of these, 631,000-827,000 could have the ability to infect humans.
  • The most important reservoirs of pathogens with pandemic potential are mammals (in particular bats, rodents, primates) and some birds (in particular water birds), as well as livestock (e.g. pigs, camels, poultry).

Anne Larigauderie

The hope is that… we can have an impact on the issue at stake, which is the loss of biodiversity, the extinction of species, the damaging of ecosystems, and also the loss of the services that we derive from this biodiversity.

Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES)

The biosphere upon which humanity depends, has been deeply reconfigured by human activities

  • 75% of the land area has been significantly altered, negatively impacting the well-being of 3.2 billion people
  • 3% of the oceans is unaffected by human activities
  • >85% of wetland area has been lost
  • 90% of land is projected to be significantly altered, by 2050
  • 1 million of plants and animal species out of an estimated total of 8.1 million species are at risk of extinction

Business Insider

  • The era of easy money is over, and new trends will dominate global markets in the coming years.
  • Bank of America strategists listed out a handful of themes to watch amid a new market regime.
  • Stocks and bonds will lose headway to commodities and cash, and real assets will replace financial assets, among other trends.













The rules were less about aging than about living generally, one of the first being “Nobody’s thinking about you.”
In old age that’s true in spades. And that’s another of aging’s unnerving surprises. You disappear from the culture, or rather, it disappears from you.

This Is your mind on plants (Michael Pollan)

Is it the quality of addictiveness that renders a substance illicit? Not in the case of tobacco, which I am free to grow in this garden. Curiously, the current campaign against tobacco dwells less on cigarettes’ addictiveness than on their threat to our health. So is it toxicity that renders a substance a public menace? Well, my garden is full of plants—datura and euphorbia, castor beans, and even the leaves of my rhubarb—that would sicken and possibly kill me if I ingested them, but the government trusts me to be careful. Is it, then, the prospect of pleasure—of “recreational use”—that puts a substance beyond the pale? Not in the case of alcohol: I can legally produce wine or hard cider or beer from my garden for my personal use (though there are regulations governing its distribution to others). So could it be a drug’s “mind-altering” properties that make it evil? Certainly not in the case of Prozac, a drug that, much like opium, mimics chemical compounds manufactured in the brain.

La fabrique des pandémies (Marie-Monique Robin)

Les épidémies de zoonoses et de maladies à transmission vectorielle sont liées aux pertes de biodiversité, mesurés par le nombre d’espèces sauvages menacées ou par la densité du couvert forestier. Donc, si on résume : plus de biodiversité signifie plus de pathogènes, mais moins de biodiversité signifie plus d’épidémie infectieuses.


中国は、建前はどうであれ、世界的に見たら、いわば多くの面で〈権威主義的新自由主義国家〉という様相を呈している。そして、国内における強権発動装置を備えた〈市場社会主義〉がこれを支えている。この中国国家の現状と、今回の〈新型コロナ・パンデミック〉に対する欧米諸国の行政権力の対応とを重ね合わせてみると、そこに興味深い共通性が浮かび上がってくる。すなわち、そこには似通った “民衆管理” の姿が立ち現れてくるのである。言い換えるなら、多くの欧米諸国が(もちろん日本も)、「コロナ対策」にかこつけた統治手法として――欧米諸国の行政権力がどこまで自覚しているかは別として――中国の強権的な民衆管理の手法を採用しているということである。感染が広がりはじめた初期に行なわれた「ロックダウン」(日本では「緊急事態宣言」)、さまざまな行動制限、最近ではワクチン接種の事実上の義務化など、マスメディアの報道によって醸成されたコロナウィルスに対する人びとの恐怖心をテコとして採用された民衆統制は、欧米諸国がことあるごとに批判してきた中国政府の “非民主主義的民衆管理” そのものの様相を呈している。

The Internet Is About to Get Much Worse (Julia Angwin)

We are in a time of eroding trust, as people realize that their contributions to a public space may be taken, monetized and potentially used to compete with them. When that erosion is complete, I worry that our digital public spaces might become even more polluted with untrustworthy content.
Already, artists are deleting their work from X, formerly known as Twitter, after the company said it would be using data from its platform to train its A.I. Hollywood writers and actors are on strike partly because they want to ensure their work is not fed into A.I. systems that companies could try to replace them with. News outlets including The New York Times and CNN have added files to their website to help prevent A.I. chatbots from scraping their content.










We support the IAEA’s independent review to ensure that the discharge of Advanced Liquid Processing System (ALPS) treated water will be conducted consistent with IAEA safety standards and international law and that it will not cause any harm to humans and the environment, which is essential for the decommissioning of the site and the reconstruction of Fukushima.


我々は 廃炉と福島の復興にとって不可欠な 高度液体処理システム(ALPS)処理水の放出がIAEAの安全基準と国際法に従って行われることそれが人体や環境にいかなる害も及ぼさないこと とを 保証する IAEAの独立審査を支持する。

The world’s population may peak in your lifetime. What happens next?

The global human population has been climbing for the past two centuries. But what is normal for all of us alive today — growing up while the world is growing rapidly — may be a blip in human history.
Children born today will very likely live to see the end of global population growth.
A baby born this year will be 60 in the 2080s, when demographers at the U.N. expect the size of humanity to peak. The Wittgenstein Center for Demography and Global Human Capital in Vienna places the peak in the 2070s. The Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation at the University of Washington puts it in the 2060s. All of the predictions agree on one thing: We peak soon.
And then we shrink. Humanity will not reach a plateau and then stabilize. It will begin an unprecedented decline.
Because most demographers look ahead only to 2100, there is no consensus on exactly how quickly populations will fall after that. Over the past 100 years, the global population quadrupled, from two billion to eight billion. As long as life continues as it has — with people choosing smaller family sizes, as is now common in most of the world — then in the 22nd or 23rd century, our decline could be just as steep as our rise.


  • 男と女は違うけど平等というような異質平等論は良くないし、歪んだ考えだ。
  • 人々の多様性高齢者とか男性・女性という箱に押し込めようとするのは抑圧的な発想だ。
  • 男と女は違うけど平等という考え方は男らしさ女らしさを許容してしまっている。
  • 人間はぜんぶ違う。個人差は、性差を超え、年齢差を超える。


自分軸で生きる人 他人軸で生きる人
心中心 頭中心
〜したい、〜したくない 〜すべき、〜すべきでない
楽しいかどうか 正しいかどうか
自分のため 誰かのため
他者貢献 自己犠牲
自立している 依存している
嫌われても構わない 嫌われるのがこわい
自由 不自由
責任が降りかかってくるので危険 責任がないので楽だし安全
人を判断したりしない 人を自分の基準で判断する
損得は二の次 損得だ第一
創造 適合
自分は何が好きなのか 自分は良くみられているか
自分にとって何が大事なのか 自分は正しいことをしているか