Category Archives: human rights and democracy

Aa-Fathis

gayo_freedomsThe President of the Republic has stated that Maldive nationals too must have the freedom to remain in a religion of their choice and that no group may be permitted to interfere with that freedom.
‘Maldive nationals wish to remain a 100% Muslim nation’ the President of the Republic said ….. Should the religion that Maldive nationals choose be Islam then it is their right to remain Muslims. There ought to be no opportunity for any external elements to act in relation to that right. That is something that neither our religion nor international principles permit. The President of the Republic said that Islam is the religion that was sent as a mercy unto mankind by the noble Allah and it is the most noble religion.

清瀬 六朗

近代民主主義は本質的にさまざまな問題点や危険さを抱えている。「多数の暴政」の危険、同じことだが「法の支配」を打ち破って暴虐な恣意的支配を実現してしまう可能性、ところが逆に多数派が形成されないばあいには機能を停止してしまうという問題、近代民主主義が担いうる問題解決能力の限界、その限界を補充するかたちで忍びよる行政官僚機構による専制の危険、危機が迫れば独裁に急に接近するという気まぐれさ、戦争との関係、ある程度の余裕がないと人びとは民主主義を支えていられないという問題、また、反対に人びとは民主主義のあかしとして政権から「パンとサーカス」の施しを期待してしまうという問題――これらの問題は、原始的民主主義の段階から近代民主主義の段階へと進むにつれて次々に湧き出てきた問題である。しかもどれ一つとして解決されていない!
問題が顕在化しないから、問題がなくなったようなふりをしているだけで、現実に問題が現れてきたときには絶対に有効な対処法を私たちが持っているわけではないのだ。
このような実態を見ると、第二次世界大戦をイギリスの首相として指導したチャーチルが「民主主義は最悪の政治体制である」と言ったのも理解できる。しかし、同時に、「ただし、それはほかのすべての政治体制を除いて最悪なのだ」と言ったことばも、私は認めなければならないと思う。つまり、私たちが民主主義を選択しているのは、「最悪のもの」と「最悪より悪いもの」の選択の結果なのだ。
民主主義がそれだけ「最悪」でも現在の政治体制として最適だと考えるのは、それが現在の世界の人びとの「共同意識」に比較的よく一致しているからである。いや、よく一致していないかも知れないが、それ以上に一致させることのできる政治体制がないから、「最悪より悪いものよりはましな最悪」として受容しなければならないのだ。

肖美丽

Xiao MeiliI didn’t think much of it when the police took away five of my friends and fellow feminist activists in early March for planning a protest against sexual harassment on public transportation in Beijing. Similar arrests had happened to all of us before, and we were always let go after a few hours of interrogation. But when my friends didn’t come home that evening or the following day, I realized it was different this time.

Feminism was never a taboo topic in China because our messages were consistent with those of the government, which calls itself an advocate of women’s rights. But all that changed with the arrest of what the media dubbed the “Feminist Five.” In an unexpected way, the police helped create more public interest in feminism in China.

OHCHR

Terrorism aims at the very destruction of human rights, democracy and the rule of law. It attacks the values that lie at the heart of the Charter of the United Nations and other international instruments: respect for human rights; the rule of law; rules governing armed conflict and the protection of civilians; tolerance among peoples and nations; and the peaceful resolution of conflict.
Terrorism has a direct impact on the enjoyment of a number of human rights, in particular the rights to life, liberty and physical integrity. Terrorist acts can destabilize Governments, undermine civil society, jeopardize peace and security, threaten social and economic development, and may especially negatively affect certain groups. All of these have a direct impact on the enjoyment of fundamental human rights.

Giorgio Agamben

Au sortir du lycée, je n’avais au fond qu’un désir : écrire. Mais qu’est-ce que cela veut dire ? Ecrire quoi ? Je crois que c’est un désir de se rendre la vie possible. Ce qu’on veut, ce n’est pas « écrire », c’est « pouvoir » écrire. C’est un geste philosophique inconscient : on essaie de se rendre la vie possible, ce qui est une bonne définition de la philosophie. Or le droit, c’est apparemment le contraire, c’est le nécessaire et pas le possible. Mais si j’ai étudié le droit, c’est que je ne pouvais sans doute pas accéder au possible sans faire l’épreuve du nécessaire. En tout cas, mes études de droit m’ont été très utiles le moment venu. Le pouvoir a laissé tomber les concepts politiques au profit des concepts juridiques. Le juridique ne cesse de proliférer : on fait des lois sur tout, dans des domaines autrefois inconcevables. Cette prolifération est dangereuse ; dans nos sociétés démocratiques, il n’y a plus rien qui ne soit normé. J’ai découvert une chose très belle chez les juristes arabes. Ils représentent le droit par une sorte d’arbre avec, à un extrême, ce qui est interdit et, à l’autre, ce qui est obligatoire. Pour eux, la tâche du juriste se situe entre ces deux pôles, c’est-à-dire concerne tout ce qu’on peut faire sans que cela soit juridiquement sanctionné. Cette zone de liberté ne cesse de se rétrécir, alors qu’elle devrait s’élargir.

Lawrence H. Summers, Ed Balls

History tells us that societies succeed when the fruits of growth are broadly shared. Indeed, no society has ever succeeded without a large, prospering middle class* that embraced the idea of progress. Today, the ability of free-market democracies to deliver widely shared increases in prosperity is in question as never before. The primary challenge democracies face is neither military nor philosophical. Rather, for the first time since the Great Depression, many industrial democracies are failing to raise living standards and provide opportunities for social mobility to a large share of their people. Some of those countries that have produced economic growth have done so in a manner that has left most of their citizens no better off. This is an economic problem that threatens to become a problem for the political systems of these nations—and for the idea of democracy itself.
The citizens of industrial democracies continue to value their freedom and their opportunity to participate in the task of self-government. But they also count on their political systems to create circumstances in which they can use their talents and their labor to provide a decent standard of life for themselves and their families. When democratic governments and market systems cannot deliver such prosperity to their citizens, the result is political alienation, a loss of social trust, and increasing conflict across the lines of race, class, and ethnicity. Inclusive prosperity nurtures tolerance, harmony, social generosity, optimism, and international cooperation. And these are essential for democracy itself.

小名木善行

西周は「明六雑誌」の創刊号で、「洋字ヲ以テ国語ヲ書スルノ論」という論文を掲載し、概略次のようなことを述べました。

たとえば、英語の「philosophy(哲学)」を、「フィロソフィー」とカタカナ語で用いるのではなく、翻訳語としての熟語(哲学)を創作する。なぜそうするかといえば、外国語を外国語のまま紹介したのでは、専門の学者にはそれでいいかもしれないが、その心とする語彙が広く世間に普及しない。欧米の概念は、欧米の言葉で学ぶだけでなく、その意味や意図を、日本人の知識としていくためには、語彙に即した日本語を造語していかなければならない。そうすることではじめて、外国の概念や哲学が日本人のものになる

というのです。そしてその西周が「Right」を翻訳した言葉が「権利」だったのです。
ところが、この「権利」という訳に、福沢諭吉が噛み付きました。「誤訳だ!」というのです。そして福沢諭吉は、ただ反発しただけでなく、「『Right』は『通理』か『通義』と訳すべきで、『権利』と訳したならば、必ず未来に禍根を残す」と、厳しく指摘しています。
なぜ、福沢諭吉は、そこまで厳しく噛み付いたのでしょうか。理由が2つあります。ひとつは、「権利」には能動的な意味があるが、「Right」は受動的な力であること、もうひとつは、Rightには「正しいこと」という意味があるけれど、「権利」という日本語にはその意味が含まれていないこと、です。

丸山真男

自由と同じように民主主義も、不断の民主化によって辛うじて民主主義でありうるような、そうした性格を本質的にもっています。民主主義的思考とは、定義や結論よりもプロセスを重視することだといわれることの、もっとも内奥の意味がそこにあるわけです。

European Commission

Democratisation is a gradual and continuous process that needs to take a country’s socio-economic and cultural context into account. Each country and society is free to choose and develop its own model, in a locally driven process. The EU advocates models that aree consistent with universal human rights principles as expressed in the relevant international and regional conventions.

Church of Scientology

ScientologyEarly in his research into the human mind and spirit, author, humanitarian and Scientology Founder L. Ron Hubbard emphasized that spiritual freedom and enlightenment were all but unattainable goals to individuals denied their most fundamental human rights.
Accordingly, he wrote the Code of a Scientologist, calling on all members of the religion to dedicate themselves “to support true humanitarian endeavors in the fields of human rights.” In doing so, he laid the groundwork for what has become a global movement of advocates for the human rights of all people, regardless of their social condition, ethnicity or religious affiliation.

阿久澤麻理子

「発展の権利」は、「それを誰が主張するのか」によって、人権を実現する有力な手段にもなれば、国家による人権侵害を正当化する論理ともなってしまう「諸刃の剣」です。先住民や女性など、マイノリティに属する人びとがこれを主張すれば、集団としての発展や自己決定の大切さを訴える論理になる一方で、国家の指導者がこれを主張すると、経済開発を優先するために個人の自由を制約し、貧困層やマイノリティの権利を侵害すること(例えば、ダム建設のための強制移転を考えてみてください)を正当化する論理になりかねないからです。
「アジア的人権論」も同様です。「自由権よりも社会権を優先すべき」という主張は、国家が自由を制限し、市民の「開発独裁」に対する批判を押さえ込む論理となり、「個人よりも国家・国民という集団を優先すべき」という主張は、開発のために貧困層やマイノリティの人権侵害を正当化するものとなりかねません。また、「人権は国内問題である」という主張の背景には、先進国や国際機関が人権を開発援助の供与条件にすることへの反発もありますが、このように主張することで、人権問題の解決のための、国際的な連帯や協力が否定されてしまう危険性があります。これは「発展の権利の実現のためには国際協力が不可欠である」という考えかたとも矛盾します。このように、「アジア的人権論」は、これを国家の指導者が主張するところに、大きな問題があるのです。

Thomas Carothers

This basic division between the political and developmental approaches has existed inchoately in the field of democracy support for many years. It has come into sharper relief during this decade, as democracy-aid providers face a world increasingly populated by countries not conforming to clear or coherent political transitional paths. […] Some adherents of the developmental approach criticize the political approach as too easily turning confrontational vis-à-vis “host” governments and producing unhelpful counterreactions. Some adherents of the political approach, meanwhile, fault the developmental approach for being too vague and unassertive in a world where many leaders have learned to play a reform game with the international community, absorbing significant amounts of external political aid while avoiding genuine democratization.

Amanda Taub

SPSamantha Power is many things: Current U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations. Former Harvard professor. Pulitzer prize winner. And, as a particularly galling incident involving a French ambassador makes clear, reported in this week’s profile by The New Yorker’s Evan Osnos, she is also someone who, despite all of those impressive accomplishments, is still expected to take time out of her busy schedule to bow to outdated gender norms.

Simon Usborne

When a Taliban gunman boarded a school bus in Pakistan’s Swat Valley last year, he shouted out one question. “Who is Malala?” Some of the girls turned to look at the only pupil among them whose face was not covered. The man had his answer, and shot her in the head. She was 15.
Malala Yousafzai, whose crime was to speak out for the rights of girls to receive education, has spent the past 12 months answering the Taliban in her own way. In a show of defiance that has inspired a movement, the teenager has emerged as a global figurehead perched on the slenderest of shoulders.

malalaThe artist Jonathan Yeo, who painted the portrait that hangs in the National Portrait Gallery, admits he had concerns. “I guess I was worried that she was probably a pawn in a bigger game and was being unduly influenced by the people around her,” he says. Those people include Edelman, the global PR firm that manages Malala alongside its work for clients that include Microsoft and Starbucks. Jamie Lundie, an impeccably connected senior executive for the firm and former speechwriter for Paddy Ashdown when he was the Lib Dem leader, leads a team of five who work with Malala on a pro bono basis.
Fascinated by what he calls her “totemic” profile, Yeo says he was quickly reassured. “She’s so reliant on others and that could go very badly if politicians tried to launder their reputations by association with her. …”

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan

You cannot bring women and men into an equal position; this is against nature.
You cannot subject a pregnant woman to the same working conditions as a man.
You cannot make a mother who has to breastfeed her child equal to a man.
You cannot make women do everything men do like the communist regimes did…

TPThis is against her delicate nature.
They talk about equality between men and women.
The correct thing is equality among women and equality among men.
But what is particularly essential is women’s equality before the justice.
What women need is to be equivalent, rather than equal; that is, justice.


National Endowment for Democracy (NED)

NED-LogoDemocracy involves the right of the people freely to determine their own destiny.

The exercise of this right requires a system that guarantees freedom of expression, belief and association, free and competitive elections, respect for the inalienable rights of individuals and minorities, free communications media, and the rule of law.

Louisa Greve

louisaSince 1949, Chinese citizens who dare to speak freely have faced a blanket of harsh repression – there is no freedom of speech in China. Since the dawn of the global Internet, even Chinese who dare to speak freely in any other place on earth have faced a continually renewed campaign of cyberhacking that acts as a virtual blanket of repression of their freedom of speech on human rights in China. Freedom of speech and action is now impeded even outside China.
For Chinese, Tibetan, Uyghur and Southern Mongolian democracy advocates and human rights activists working from exile in democratic countries, cyberhacking has the direct effect of reaching across the boundaries of state sovereignty to directly and severely undermine activists’ ability to exercise the fundamental political freedoms they should enjoy in democratic countries.
Numerous human-rights groups concerned with China experience routine and persistent denial-of-service attacks and implanting of malicious code on their websites.
Activists working on China have contended for at least the past 8-10 years with fake emails spoofing their addresses going out to numerous recipients, purporting to be emails from them, and spear-phishing methods targeting addresses in their own contact lists designed to install surveillance and extraction software on victims’ computers, some as early as 2005.
Hackers’ efforts to shut down the ability of groups to function normally, however, involves much more than DoS attacks and spoofing, spear-phishing and malware, and remote surveillance via keystroke monitors and webcams. Activists report evidence in the past year or two of new, even more Orwellian features of some of the targeted hacking: round-the-clock, real-time, non-machine (human) interference; all-device tracking; and software innovation to attack previously untouched systems, including, most recently, android systems for mobile phones and tablets.

佐藤直子

経済協力開発機構(OECD)が気になるデータを公表した。二〇一二年の加盟国の教育に関する調査で、日本の女性は高学歴なのに三割は働いていない、というものだ。
大学卒業以上では、男性の就業率が92%であるのに対し、女性は69%と低い。OECDは〇八年にも同様の結果をとらえ、「貴重な人材を無駄にしている」と批判していた。
働くのも、働かないのも、選択の問題か? そうは片付けられない。一方で、高等教育を修了した女性の平均給与は、同学歴の男性の半分しかないという結果もある。
「女性の活躍」を看板に掲げる安倍首相は今臨時国会で関連法をつくり、女性の労働力を国の成長の起爆剤にしようと懸命だ。国や自治体、企業の女性管理職を「三割に増やす」などと数値目標の導入も示されはした。しかし、まず語るべきは、就労の男女格差を人権の問題として取り組むこと、ではないか。
女性の多くが非正規の低賃金労働に押し込められている。この現状が解決されない限り、働く女性はそう簡単に増えないと思う。

Al Jazeera

20141016102314321580_20Myanmar has sentenced a media owner, publisher and three reporters to two years in prison for an article published by a privately run journal, which the government said caused public alarm.
The article, which was published in Bi Mon Te on July 7, reported about an activist group that claimed that opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi and several other political allies had been elected as the country’s interim leaders to replace President Thein Sein’s administration.

Beunka Adams, Leonel Torres Herrera, Jeffery Doughtie

deathRow-1To the victims, I’m very sorry for everything that happened. I am not the malicious person that you think I am. I was real stupid back then. I made a great many mistakes. What happened was wrong. I was a kid in a grown man’s world. I messed up, and I can’t take it back. I wasn’t old enough to understand.


deathRow-15I am innocent, innocent, innocent. Make no mistake about this; I owe society nothing. Continue the struggle for human rights, helping those who are innocent, especially Mr. Graham. I am an innocent man, and something very wrong is taking place tonight. May God bless you all. I am ready.


deathRow-11For almost nine years I have thought about the death penalty, whether it is right or wrong and I don’t have any answers. But I don’t think the world will be a better or safer place without me. If you had wanted to punish me you would have killed me the day after, instead of killing me now. You are not hurting me now. … It started with a needle and it is ending with a needle.

Vivian Salama

201c7669-9601-4cfa-8d85-d0875c05c77d_16x9_600x338Militants with the Islamic State group tortured and then publicly killed a human rights lawyer in the Iraqi city of Mosul after their self-proclaimed religious court ruled that she had abandoned Islam.
Gunmen with the group’s newly declared police force seized Samira Salih al-Nuaimi last week in a northeastern district of the Mosul while she was home with her husband and three children. Al-Nuaimi was taken to a secret location. After about five days, the family was called by the morgue to retrieve her corpse, which bore signs of torture.
According to the United Nations Assistance Mission in Iraq, her arrest was allegedly connected to Facebook messages she posted that were critical of the militants’ destruction of religious sites in Mosul.

Peter Fleischer

La protection des données personnelles est un droit fondamental qui doit être défendu, mais il est important pour nous de le faire en respectant d’autres droits fondamentaux tels que la liberté d’expression. Nous continuons à travailler avec le secrétariat d’Etat chargé du développement de l’économie numérique et l’ensemble des acteurs concernés pour renforcer le contrôle des internautes sur leurs données personnelles.

PinkNews.co.uk

skirt217-year-old Maria Muniz, who recently came out as trans at São Cristóvão do Colégio Pedro II, was disciplined by teachers and handed a fine after she wore a skirt to school, instead of the regulation boys’ trousers.
The school claimed that their Code of Ethics did not permit “male” students to wear female uniforms – but was forced to backtrack on the decision when the girl’s classmates decided to protest by all wearing skirts to school too.
The school said in a statement that it would change the rules to allow for greater gender expression, saying: “The current Student Code of Ethics will be overhauled with the participation of the whole community, including the active participation of students, who may suggest changes they deem necessary.”

John Ruggie

12. The responsibility of business enterprises to respect human rights refers to internationally recognized human rights – understood, at a minimum, as those expressed in the International Bill of Human Rights and the principles concerning fundamental rights set out in the International Labour Organization’s Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work.
15. In order to meet their responsibility to respect human rights, business enterprises should have in place policies and processes appropriate to their size and circumstances, including:
(a) A policy commitment to meet their responsibility to respect human rights;
(b) A human rights due-diligence process to identify, prevent, mitigate and account for how they address their impacts on human rights;
(c) Processes to enable the remediation of any adverse human rights impacts they cause or to which they contribute.
19. In order to prevent and mitigate adverse human rights impacts, business enterprises should integrate the findings from their impact assessments across relevant internal functions and processes, and take appropriate action.
(a) Effective integration requires that:
(i) Responsibility for addressing such impacts is assigned to the appropriate level and function within the business enterprise;
(ii) Internal decision-making, budget allocations and oversight processes enable effective responses to such impacts.
(b) Appropriate action will vary according to:
(i) Whether the business enterprise causes or contributes to an adverse impact, or whether it is involved solely because the impact is directly linked to its operations, products or services by a business relationship;
(ii) The extent of its leverage in addressing the adverse impact.

SRSG Report (PDF)

United Nations

United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan today announced the appointment of Professor John Ruggie as Special Representative on the issue of human rights and transnational corporations and other business enterprises. The creation of this mandate was requested by the United Nations Commission for Human Rights in its resolution 2005/69 and approved by the Economic and Social Council on 25 July 2005.
The mandate includes identifying and clarifying standards of corporate responsibility and accountability with regard to human rights. An interim report presenting views and recommendations for consideration by the Commission on Human Rights is due at its sixty-second session in 2006 and a final report in 2007.
Professor Ruggie previously served as Assistant Secretary-General and senior adviser for strategic planning from 1997 to 2001. Among his many responsibilities, he was one of the main architects of the United Nations Global Compact, and he led the Secretary-General’s successful effort at the Millennium Summit in 2000 to propose and secure the adoption of the Millennium Development Goals.

Dawn Wolfe

As shareholders, we need to feel confident that our companies are not complicit in human rights abuses, directly or indirectly, and that they’re not collaborating to effectively quell internet traffic, to harm their own good reputations and to reduce their long-term growth opportunities.

As an asset manager that actively engages transnational corporations on issues relevant to long-term sustainable growth, Boston Common supports the foundational principle that business enterprises not only should, but must respect human rights.
Boston Common would recommend strengthening the language to convey that at the most basic level acknowledging respect for human rights is an imperative, not an optional “should”.

Boston Common’s submission to the UN (PDF)

高橋浩祐

従業員を酷使する企業を「ブラック企業」、従業員を大切にする企業を「ホワイト企業」と呼ぶ背景には、「黒が悪いもの」「白が良いもの」との価値判断が前提となっている。つまり、「黒は汚れてきたないもの」「白は綺麗で純粋」といった価値判断が働いている。圧倒的多数の人々はきっと無意識のうちにそう思い、なんの抵抗もなく「ブラック企業」という言葉を使っているのだろう。
しかし、日本で暮らす「有色人種」の外国人は増え続けている。日本人の圧倒的多数も「黄色」という有色人種である。「色の有無」「色の是非」で価値判断を下す表現を使うことは、人々が無意識のうちに、肌の色が、有色かあるいは白色かで優劣をつける社会を育んでしまう危険性がある。「白人が上」「黒人が下」との概念を社会に植え付けたり、助長したりしかねない。これは道徳的に問題がある。英語でいう、politically incorrect(言葉や見解などが不適切で偏見的)の部類に入る。
・・・
言葉は言論の自由を守る武器にもなるが、時に人権を脅かす凶器にもなる。もろ刃の剣だ。言葉狩りになってはいけないが、言葉の野放図にもなってはいけない。言論に携わる者として、おのおのの言葉が持つセンシティビティー(感覚の鋭さ)には常々十分に配慮し、気を付けていかなければならないと自戒している。

美國在台協會

All democracies are systems in which citizens freely make political decisions by majority rule. But rule by the majority is not necessarily democratic: No one, for example, would call a system fair or just that permitted 51 percent of the population to oppress the remaining 49 percent in the name of the majority. In a democratic society, majority rule must be coupled with guarantees of individual human rights that, in turn, serve to protect the rights of minorities–whether ethnic, religious, or political, or simply the losers in the debate over a piece of controversial legislation. The rights of minorities do not depend upon the goodwill of the majority and cannot be eliminated by majority vote. The rights of minorities are protected because democratic laws and institutions protect the rights of all citizens.

Hashmat Moslih

The modern model of citizenship is based upon the theory of universal rights and obligations. Its origin lies in the seventeenth century concept of “natural rights” and in the twentieth century has come to be known as the doctrine of human rights.
Today, it has become almost impossible to engage in political discourse without referring to rights – the right to life, the right to free speech, the right to abortion, the right to property, the right to security etc all of these rights are put under the umbrella of human rights.
The emergence of the concept of human rights is an inevitable consequence of European Enlightenment. The point that values precede rights and the concept of universal human rights faces huge challenges in a culturally diverse global setting. The controversies over the wearing of burqa and freedom of expression in Europe are some examples these challenges.
It is a mistake to think that Enlightenment was a long revolution intended to free man and establish universal human rights.
The truth is, early Enlightenment philosophers were not concerned with the rights of women, peasants, workers, or slaves, and instead they were merely hypothesising and legitimising the rights and liberties of the early capitalist white men.
At the heart of the issue of human rights runs the issue of justice and at the heart of justice runs the issue of happiness and it is argued that happiness is attained through acquiring a good life and a good life is one that insures everyone’s well-being.
But how do we define well-being? Could we define well-being without having something in mind? Is well-being value neutral? Could everyone’s well-being be insured or should we settle for the majority, and would this be a moral position? Is morality relative and utilitarian and could we rationalise morality?

Organisation Mondiale Contre la Torture

logo_def_def_smallEn 2007, face aux dangers croissants qui menacent celles et ceux qui luttent pour le respect des droits de l’Homme, l’OMCT – avec le soutien financier du Département Fédéral des Affaires Etrangères (DFAE) suisse – a fait appel à plusieurs personnalités afin qu’elles mettent leur renommée au service des défenseurs des droits de l’Homme.
L’objectif principal de ces parrainages est de protéger les défenseurs des droits de l’Homme victimes de persécution et d’actes de harcèlement en raison de leurs activités de défense des libertés et droits fondamentaux. En incitant des personnalités suisses et internationales à se mobiliser aux côtés de ces défenseurs, ce projet crée une chaine de solidarité qui s’étend bien au-delà du cercle restreint des « spécialistes » et vise à mobiliser l’opinion publique, seule véritable contre-pouvoir à l’arbitraire des Etats.

European Union

The European Union believes that democracy and human rights are universal values that should be vigorously promoted around the world. They are integral to effective work on poverty alleviation and conflict prevention and resolution, in addition to being valuable bulwarks against terrorism. Having come into force on 1 January 2007, the European Instrument for Democracy and Human Rights (EIDHR) is the concrete expression of the EU’s intention to integrate the promotion of democracy and human rights into all of its external policies.

愛媛新聞

企業の人権啓発に力 アジア・太平洋人権情報センター所長 白石理さん=松山市出身
Ehimeスイス・ジュネーブの国連事務局などで25年間、主に人権侵害調査の特別手続き、人権委員会事務局や研究調査部門などを担当。豊かな経験と高い見識を備えたエキスパートとして2006年から現職を務める。
国連時代、多くの「人殺し」を見てきた。政治弾圧や暗殺、軍・警察による虐殺、不当裁判による死刑など世界では目を覆う人権侵害が後を絶たない。「目の前で泣いている人の涙をどう受け止めるか。机上で論文を書いているだけでは分からない」。口調は穏やかだが一言一言に強い芯が通り「人権は社会を良くする道具」と断言する。
ここ数年、力を入れているのが企業対象の啓発活動。一般市民に広くメッセージを届けるには企業は格好の窓口だ。講演依頼も多く、研修用に作ったガイドブック(12年1月発行)は9千部を突破する好評ぶりだ。
「長く外国に住んでも心の拠り所は日本であり松山」と今も実家周辺の光景を思い浮かべる。単身赴任で大阪市西区在住。68歳。来年3月に退職し家族の待つスイス・ジュネーブに戻る予定だが「自分の仕事が終わるとは思っていない」。

ヒューライツ大阪

rakugo桂七福さんが「気づけば高まる人権意識」という演題で「高座」を行いました。柔軟な姿勢を持ち、知らず知らずのうちに「これはこうであるべきだ」という風に凝り固まっていく日常の思い込みについて、なぞなぞやクイズを投げかけながら、参加者の頭をほぐしました。
また、私たちがふだん無造作に使っている「普通」という言葉の意味を問いなおしてくれました。「普通の考え方・人・家庭環境・仕事」などといえば、なんとなく流れていってしまう表現です。しかし、「普通じゃない人」という風に否定的な使い方をするとちょっとニュアンスが異なってくる。一方、「普通」であることの基準を考えるときに、ど真ん中にいるのは自分だったりする。自分と違う人を「普通」じゃない人だと思うような傾向があるのではないか、と七福さんは笑いを誘いながら問いかけてくれました。

細川一彦

近代西欧に生まれた「人権」の思想は、非西洋世界にも伝播しました。文明や宗教等の違いがあるにもかかわらず、一見「普遍的」な思想として広がっています。ここにおいて、人権の概念の基礎にあるのは、キリスト教の思想です。キリスト教では、人間は神(God)が神に似せて創造したものであり、神の下では平等と考えられたからです。それゆえ、人権は、神から与えられた人間の権利であり、それゆえに平等だということになります。戦後世界に広まった「世界人権宣言」も「国連憲章」も、この思想をもとにしています。そこにはキリスト教を基礎とする文明で発生した啓蒙思想が色濃く反映しています。キリスト教を抜きにしては、「人権」の思想は成り立ちません。
しかし、キリスト教を真理として認めている民族は、非西洋世界では、実際には少ないのです。キリスト教以外の宗教や哲学・世界観を持つ国民・民族には、「人権」の究極的な根拠は、理解し得ない要素があります。実際、「世界人権宣言」も「国連憲章」を読んでも、そこにおける「人間」とは何か、「権利」の根拠は何かは書かれていません。それゆえ「普遍性」といっても、擬制の「普遍性」に過ぎません。現在、キリスト教的な西洋文明が、世界的に優位に立っており、その裏づけとなる有力国家が力において世界を圧倒しているので、この特殊な思想が、ある程度の普遍性をもっているに過ぎません。戦後世界においては、勝者となった連合国の多くがキリスト教であり、日本に対しては占領者アメリカがキリスト教国だったのです。勝者の語る人間観が、力によって支配的になったのです。「人権」という概念の世界化自体が、キリスト教的西洋文明諸国の「力」の優位の現れです。

Sendhil Mullainathan, Eldar Shafir

Scarcity of any kind, not just time, should yield a focus dividend. We see this anecdotally. We are less liberal with the toothpaste as the tube starts to run empty. In a box of expensive chocolates, we savor (and hoard) the last ones. We run around on the last days of a vacation to see every sight. We write more carefully, and to our surprise often better, when we have a tight word limit.

Bandwidth measures our computational capacity, our ability to pay attention, to make good decisions, to stick with our plans, and to resist temptations. Bandwidth correlates with everything from intelligence and SAT performance to impulse control and success on diets.

北村隆司

暴対法の恐ろしさは、「罪刑法定主義」を否定し「Guilty by Association」を肯定するなど、民主主義への重大な挑戦であり、「治安維持法」と瓜二つだと言う事にある。
恐ろしいのは、日本国民が持つ、「悪法も法なり」と言う「官尊民卑」の後進性と、権力の行き過ぎから国民を守る崇高な役割りを持つはずのマスコミまでが、唯々諾々と官憲にすりよる姿である。
ある報道によると、「警視庁の条例担当者が各報道機関を訪れて協議をした上、タレントや制作会社との契約に暴力団の排除条項を加えたり、NHKが、制作会社と契約を結ぶ際に、暴力団との関係が発覚した場合には一方的に契約を解除できる条項を盛り込む方針を固めた」と言う。
これでは、中国、北朝鮮の御用報道機関と全く同じである。実に情けない実態だ。
暴対法の恐ろしさは、法を犯さなくとも、知らずに暴力団員の親、子供、親戚、幼なじみなどとお茶を飲んだり、歓談したりするだけで、暴力団員と同じ枠組みで処罰される可能性がある事だ。然も、一度「近接者と認定されると、金融機関から融資の一括返金を求められたり、手形の振り出しも不可能になるなど、暴力団より一般市民のほうが緊張を強いられる可能性すらある事だ。
幾ら無関係を主張しても「ない物を証明する事は不可能に近い。これでは、「おいこら!警察」を超えて、正に、北朝鮮式社会の到来である。

早川忠孝

暴力団員だった人にもその家族にも人権がある。 暴力団員だったということで銀行の口座が持てなかったり、レストランでの食事を断られたり、入浴も出来ない、というのはいささかおかしなことだ。 最近は葬式場やお寺への出入りまでお断りだということにまでなっているようだ。
相手が暴力団員だったらどんなことをやってもいいんだ、などという乱暴な発想は良くない。 法の下の平等は、どんな場合も最後まで守られなければならない。

Anthony Julius

A human rights discourse now dominates politics; there is a powerful human rights “movement”. It is the new secular religion of our time.
… This new “human rights-ism” accords great value to the United Nations – notwithstanding its inability to enforce its decisions, and its refusal to make practical demands of its members to be democratic or respect the human rights of their citizens. The effect is to maintain a certain challenge to normative liberalism, but on rather different terms than before.
… But where disappointed in political economy, its transitional demands have been resurrected in the shrill discourse of human rights and their “abuses”. The new militant is not the party sectarian but the NGO activist.

Terrence McCoy

Samson Dawah was nervous. For two weeks, he had waited for any bit of information regarding his niece, who was among the 234 Nigerian school girls likely kidnapped by the terrorist group Boko Haram. This week, he gathered his extended family. He had news but also an unusual request. He asked that the elderly not attend. He wasn’t sure they could bear what he had to say.
“We have heard from members of the forest community where they took the girls,” he told them. ”They said there had been mass marriages and the girls are being shared out as wives among the Boko Haram militants.”
The girl’s father fainted, the Guardian reported, and has since been hospitalized. But the news got worse. Village elder Pogo Bitrus told Agence France Presse locals had consulted with “various sources” in the nation’s forested northeast. “From the information we received yesterday from Cameroonian border towns our abducted girls were taken… into Chad and Cameroon,” he said, adding that each girl was sold as a bride to Islamist militants for 2,000 naira — $12.

Patrick Kingsley

More than 1,200 men face the death sentence in Egypt, as a judge deliberates on whether to uphold the sentences he gave 529 defendants in March.
Along with the other case, in which 683 have been sentenced to death for killing a policeman, it forms the latest instalment of a government crackdown during which at least 16,000 people have been arrested and more than 2,500 killed since the ousting of Morsi.
Prosecutors say the defendants in both cases are Brotherhood members who killed two police officers during nationwide violence last August. The 529 defendants are accused of lynching a policeman in Matay, a town in Minya province, southern Egypt. On the same day, 683 others – including the Brotherhood’s Badie – are said to have killed another officer in the nearby town of Adwa.
But many of the defendants in both trials say they were neither present during the attacks, nor supporters of the Brotherhood. In some cases, they say they were not even in the province itself – and that they were reported to the police by informants acting on personal agendas.
Both verdicts would have been reached after just two court sessions in which defence lawyers said there was no time to assess thousands of pages of testimonies and court documents.

加賀乙彦

Kaga ついに脈が触れなくなったらしい。すばやく胸をはだけ、聴診器を押しつける。弱った心臓の最後の鼓動を聴こうとする。曽根原が頷いた。菅谷部長がストップ・ウォッチを押した。
 曽根原は階段上の所長たちと検事に一礼し、「9時49分20秒、おわりました。所要時間14分15秒」と声高に報告した。
 近木の後にいた看守たちが階段を駆け降りた。保安課長が下に姿をみせた。棺が運び込まれ、屍体がおろされた。
 拘置所長が腰を浮かしながらK刑務所長に頭をさげた。
「お疲れさまです」
「やあ、きょうはスムースにいきましたな」赤ら顔の刑務所長は快活に言った。
「先週は、手古摺りましたからね」
「きょうのは、すっかり諦めてた様子でしたな。ああいう風にもってくのは大変でしょう」
「信仰があったんで、こっちは助かりました」
「握手をもとめられた時はちょっとあわてておられた」
「ええ、死人に触られるようなもんですからな、いい気持じゃあありませんや」
「しかし、今度の法務大臣は、まあジャンジャン判子を押すもんですな」

任侠道

世間一般に任侠道という精神世界への造詣が皆無と成った現在、巷では暴力と仁侠とを同一視する傾向が強く、本来の任侠道は正しく認識されていない事は誠に遺憾である。
近頃では任侠界の人達を暴力団と位置付け、その周辺者も含め大きく差別し、抹殺してしまおうという政府の方針を見る。
「ヤクザは悪い…」「その周辺者もみんな悪い…」
そんな理論は横暴すぎる。第一危険なのだ。
差別が当たり前であるかの様に国民の意志が移行しているという事は、相俟って平等の人権はその理由を挙げたなら正当化されるという事であり、戦前の偏った思想に暴走してしまうという結果を想像出来るのだ。
この頃の安倍首相の発言を見るに、国家主義に移行しつつあり、国民の平等の権利が脅かされつつある現実を鑑みると、憂国がファシズムに暴走し始めている事に気付かなくてはならない。
憂国を見渡せば凶悪犯罪が頻発し、人心は底なしに荒廃しているといえる。近所の老人が衰退死しても誰も気づかない。近所に住みながらも挨拶すら交わさない。個々に自分以外の処では何が起こっているかも知らない。関係ない。そんな感覚が当たり前と成りつつある時代なのだ。
人間味の感じられない情の無い国の在り方に不安を覚え、未来への憂国を切実に思う時、これまでの歩みに思いを馳せ、日本人の大切にするべき伝統にヒントを得るべき時といえるのである。

麻薬追放国土浄化同盟

昭和三十八年四月 麻薬追放国土浄化同盟発足
当時の日本は麻薬問題に直面していた時期で、一部組織の暴走、各界の薬物汚染、麻薬患者となった者の悲惨な姿が町に溢れていた。そのため麻薬を資金源にする者達も後をたたなかった。
その現状を見た三代目山口組田岡一雄親分は、麻薬は国を滅ぼすとの信念を強めこの麻薬撲滅問題に尽力した。そして交友のあった田中清玄氏が文化団体を動かし、また山口組内部からも亡国の麻薬を一掃しようとする動きが強まった。
田岡・田中両氏に共感した文化人が協力を申し込み、当時、立教大学総長だった松下正寿氏を会長、菅原通済氏を副会長とし、市川房枝氏、福田恆存氏、中山正男氏、山岡荘八氏、比嘉正子氏等諸氏の支持を得て、全国で麻薬追放の手が次々と上がっていった。
その後も、田岡親分は自らの組織の引き締めを行い様々な活動を行った。そして、その麻薬撲滅と言う強い信念は、昭和五十一年に麻薬追放国土浄化同盟を全国国土浄化同盟と改名され、その活動は我々とともに任侠界はもとより、山口組へと代々引き継がれている。

Lee Kuan Yew

(What, in your view, is wrong with the American system?)
It is not my business to tell people what’s wrong with their system. It is my business to tell people not to foist their system indiscriminately on societies in which it will not work.
(But you do not view the United States as a model for other countries?)
As an East Asian looking at America, I find attractive and unattractive features. I like, for example, the free, easy and open relations between people regardless of social status, ethnicity or religion. And the things that I have always admired about America, as against the communist system, I still do: a certain openness in argument about what is good or bad for society; the accountability of public officials; none of the secrecy and terror that’s part and parcel of communist government.
But as a total system, I find parts of it totally unacceptable: guns, drugs, violent crime, vagrancy, unbecoming behavior in public, in sum the breakdown of civil society. The expansion of the right of the individual to behave or misbehave as he pleases has come at the expense of orderly society. In the East the main object is to have a well-ordered society so that everybody can have maximum enjoyment of his freedoms. This freedom can only exist in an ordered state and not in a natural state of contention and anarchy.

倉田秀也

民主化以降、韓国の「人権」の主張が「普遍的」であったことはない。人権では人後に落ちぬと自負した金大中氏は在野時代の1994年、米外交専門誌フォーリン・アフェアーズ上で、シンガポールのリー・クアンユー元首相に対して「人権論争」を挑んだことがある。アジアにおける民主主義の定着に疑義を呈するリー氏に対し、金氏は「人権」の「普遍性」を説いたが、北の人権には言及しなかった。 。。。
誤解を避けるためにいえば、本論の力点は、韓国に「人権」外交を求めることにも、北朝鮮人権法の成立を求めることにもない。
韓国があらゆる人権問題から、「戦時下における女性」のみを切り取って標榜する「人権」とは、日本という特定の国の過去の追及という特定の政治目的を果たすために、国際社会の支持を求めて掲げられたものにほかならない。その主張はどこまで「普遍的」か、国際社会に向けて発せられる主張として、果たして「公正」なのかが問われねばならない。
人権が遍く追求されるべき価値であることは言うまでもない。とはいえ、「普遍性」の名の下に民族主義と吻合し、価値を装飾した外交は、時に国家間の利害の調整を不能に陥れる。北朝鮮の人権状況の向上を対話の前提に据えず、また、中国との関係維持のため現下の人権問題を黙過し、「人権」を選別的に主張している韓国こそ、そのことを最も知悉しているはずである。

Stephen Fry

StephenFryDear Prime Minister, M Rogge, Lord Coe and Members of the International Olympic Committee,
I write in the earnest hope that all those with a love of sport and the Olympic spirit will consider the stain on the Five Rings that occurred when the 1936 Berlin Olympics proceeded under the exultant aegis of a tyrant who had passed into law, two years earlier, an act which singled out for special persecution a minority whose only crime was the accident of their birth. …
Putin is eerily repeating this insane crime, only this time against LGBT Russians. Beatings, murders and humiliations are ignored by the police. Any defence or sane discussion of homosexuality is against the law. Any statement, for example, that Tchaikovsky was gay and that his art and life reflects this sexuality and are an inspiration to other gay artists would be punishable by imprisonment. It is simply not enough to say that gay Olympians may or may not be safe in their village. The IOC absolutely must take a firm stance on behalf of the shared humanity it is supposed to represent against the barbaric, fascist law that Putin has pushed through the Duma. Let us not forget that Olympic events used not only to be athletic, they used to include cultural competitions. Let us realise that in fact, sport is cultural. It does not exist in a bubble outside society or politics. The idea that sport and politics don’t connect is worse than disingenuous, worse than stupid. It is wickedly, wilfully wrong. Everyone knows politics interconnects with everything for “politics” is simply the Greek for “to do with the people”.
An absolute ban on the Russian Winter Olympics of 2014 on Sochi is simply essential. Stage them elsewhere in Utah, Lillehammer, anywhere you like. At all costs Putin cannot be seen to have the approval of the civilised world.

江田憲司

私は、アベノミクスは残念ながら、今年秋頃には頓挫すると見ています。政権発足以来、株価は上昇していますが、金融緩和も財政出動もあくまで一過性のカンフル剤にすぎません。ただ、その効果も切れかかっている。そこで、持続的な景気回復のための成長戦略が重要になってくるわけです。
成長戦略とはすなわち、規制改革の断行です。農業への株式会社の参入、発送電分離等の電力自由化、医療や介護、子育てへの民間活力の導入といった政策で、実体経済を動かしていく。しかし、こうした政策を実現させようと思えば、規制に守られた農協や電力会社、医師会、福祉団体などの抵抗を打ち砕かなければなりません。
ところが、これらの団体や企業はすべて自民党の有力な支持基盤です。衆院選や参院選では、「昔の名前で出ています」といった族議員がゾロゾロ復活しました。彼らの影響力が今、強まりつつあります。
安倍総理は規制改革に前向きな姿勢に映ります。官邸主導で霞が関の官僚も抑えているようにも見える。しかし、その実態は竜頭蛇尾。最初のアドバルーンは高く上げるのですが、族議員や官僚の抵抗に遭い、ことごとく骨抜きにされているのが現実です。

足達英一郎

OECD 多国籍企業ガイドラインが改訂された。「人権」の項目は、「企業は、他者の人権を侵害することを回避し、自らが係わる人権に関するマイナス影響に真正面から取組んでいくという意味で、人権を尊重すべきである」、「企業は、人権尊重を誓約する方針を作成すべきである」、「企業は、人権デューデリジェンスを実施すべきである」などの記述で構成されている。「人権デューデリジェンス」は新しいキーワードで、企業が自らの活動が人権に与える実際的あるいは潜在的な影響を定期的に評価し、その結果を事業活動に取り込めるよう内部統制システムを構築し、実行状況を追跡・報告して、改善措置に結びつけることだとされる。
「人権侵害」というと、日本企業では、たとえば従業員の出身などに起因して差別するといったことが連想されやすいが、多国籍企業には、紛争地域への事業活動の関与、保安要員 (例えば途上国の工場における警備員) の行動、原材料を調達する鉱山における先住民配慮のあり方までが問われる。例えば、欧州の公的年金のなかには、中国トラックメーカーが国連のスーダンに対する武器禁輸決議に違反する行動をとったとして、そのトラックメーカーに出資する日本企業を投資対象から除外するケースも生まれている。

NHK

HR1安さが命を奪う。グローバル企業の責任はどこに。
労働者は長時間働いても1日50セントしかもらえない。
労働者の血にまみれた服なんてほしくない。海外で高まる人権リスク。グローバル企業にかつてないほど求められ始めた途上国での人権意識。対応を誤ると、世界的な不買運動やブラッドイメージの低下を招き、経営を揺るがす大きなリスクになってしまう。


HR2工場には13歳の子供もいる。本来なら勉強しなければならない年頃だが、生活のため働かなければならない。
グローバル企業は、生産を委託している途上国の企業の児童労働や過重労働といった実態を、黙認できなくなってきている。途上国の人たちの生きていかなければならないという現実のなかで、はたして人権が、企業の状況や労働者の生活を変えていけるのか。人権にそんな力があるのか。

OXFAM

  • Almost half of the world’s wealth is now owned by just one percent of the population.
  • The wealth of the one percent richest people in the world amounts to $110 trillion. That’s 65 times the total wealth of the bottom half of the world’s population.
  • The bottom half of the world’s population owns the same as the richest 85 people in the world.
  • Seven out of ten people live in countries where economic inequality has increased in the last 30 years.
  • The richest one percent increased their share of income in 24 out of 26 countries for which we have data between 1980 and 2012.
  • In the US, the wealthiest one percent captured 95 percent of post-financial crisis growth since 2009, while the bottom 90 percent became poorer.

Associated Press in Bangladesh

Bangladesh’s supreme court has cleared the way for the execution of an opposition leader convicted of war crimes when it rejected a last-minute appeal filed by his lawyers.
The execution of Abdul Quader Mollah, which had been on hold since Tuesday night just before he was to be put to death, is likely to usher in a new wave of political violence before national elections next month. His party, Jamaat-e-Islami, an ally of the main opposition Bangladesh Nationalist party, has warned of “dire consequences” if he is executed.
The attorney general, Mahbubey Alam, said the government would now decide the date for the execution. “There are no more barriers to execute Quader Mollah. There is no chance of any confusion,” he said on Thursday.
Mollah, 65, was convicted of war crimes committed during the nation’s war of independence against Pakistan in 1971.

日刊ゲンダイ

第1話放送の翌日に会見を行ったことが、激しい憤りを物語っている。
親が育てられない子供を匿名で受け入れる赤ちゃんポスト「こうのとりのゆりかご」を国内で唯一設置している慈恵病院(熊本市)が16日、日本テレビが制作するドラマに対して抗議の会見を開いた。対象ドラマは、芦田愛菜(9) 主演の「明日、ママがいない」(水曜22時~)。今クールの注目作で「Mother」(10年)、「Woman」(13年) に続く母子をテーマにした新作だ。
全国に約600カ所あり、児童数は3万人超といわれる児童養護施設が舞台。女性新人脚本家によるオリジナル作品で、脚本監修として「高校教師」や「家なき子」の野島伸司氏が携わる。
「つらくてつらくて(ドラマを)見きれませんでした」
会見で慈恵病院の看護部長は涙ぐみながらこう語った。芦田演じる赤ちゃんポストに預けられた女の子に「ポスト」というあだ名が付けられ、劇中でその名がバンバン飛び交ったのを受けてのこと。蓮田太二院長は「非常に差別的な内容になっていた」と厳しく批判。養護施設の職員が子供に暴言を吐いたり、泣くことを強要するなどセンセーショナルな描写に対しても「差別や偏見を生む。(制作側の)知識不足を感じる」と指摘。日テレ側に放送中止、養護施設の子供や職員への謝罪、制作経緯の3つの説明を求め、放送倫理・番組向上機構 (BPO) の放送人権委員会へ審議の申し入れも検討しているとした。
 日テレは「このドラマでは子供たちの心根の純粋さや強さ、たくましさを全面に表し、子供たちの視点から愛情とは何かということを描く趣旨のもと、子供たちを愛する方々の思いも真摯に描いていきたいと思っております。ぜひ、最後までご覧いただきたいと思います」とコメントした。
 同枠は母子モノでヒットを飛ばしてきたが、今回ばかりは世論を鑑みれば打ち切り必至。はたして日テレの言い分は通用するのか。

Alejandro Dias

donkeyFour men stand tied up in front of one of the two donkeys which residents had accused them of stealing, at a kiosk in the town of Otumba, in the state of Mexico. The local community had tied up and beat up the four men for the theft before handing them over to police officers after an eight-hour long negotiation.

David Barrett

KENO-FORBES_2783927bA Jamaican man who commuted to London every day to sell crack on a council estate has used human rights laws to stop a deportation order.

Keno Forbes, 35, who operated under the street name “Blood”, was convicted of 11 counts of supplying Class A drugs on a housing estate in Islington in 2011.
The Home Office tried to have Forbes sent back to his home country on the grounds that any foreign criminal jailed for more than 12 months is eligible for automatic deportation.
Forbes’s lawyers lodged an appeal under Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights – which sets out the right to “private and family life” – and said removing him would damage his relationship with his wife and children.

吉松育美

HiCIZYZgFJIykGj-556x313-noPadこの数年間、ストーカー事件で守れた命はいくつあったでしょうか。人の命が無くならなければ動けないシステムを変えなければ、ターゲットにされた被害者は安心した生活が送れません。また犠牲者が出ることを待つだけです。
守れるはずの命は、守らなければいけない。
守るべき人は、守られなければいけない。 
この一年間、自分が受けてきた被害を私は意を決して自身のブログに心境を語り、さらには日本と海外に向けて2度の記者会見も開きました。その反響というものは想像していたよりも遥かに大きく、力強いものでした。日本のメデイアは沈黙を続ける一方、世界中のメデイアが報道し、話題となりました。
何百万人の方が事件の経緯と報告をしている私のブログを読んで下さり、数千件にも及ぶメッセージや被害者からのお話が送られてきました。その中で私と同じようにストーカー被害にあい、今でも恐怖と戦っている被害者、女性たちの声がとても多いことを改めて認識しました。

Lorgia García-Peña

DemonstrationOn the afternoon of Oct. 4, Maria Pierre stood up in front of a huge crowd of demonstrators at the Dominican Constitutional Court in Santo Domingo and confessed that she was in her native land illegally. “My only crime is that I was born here,” she began, and then her tears started flowing. The supportive crowd cheered her on with a loud chant: “We are Dominican, too! We belong here! We are not going anywhere!”
Ms. Pierre, 19, who was born to Haitian parents who were in the Dominican Republic illegally, is one of more than 200,000 people affected by a historic ruling by the Dominican Constitutional Court denying citizenship rights to those born to undocumented people. The ruling is ostensibly aimed at controlling undocumented immigration from Haiti, which has increased by about 20 percent since the 2010 earthquake. But because it is retroactive to 1929, this “immigration reform” means that people like Ms. Pierre, who know no other country than the Dominican Republic, will be placed in civic limbo, unable to attend school, to work or even to cash a check.

Robert L. Bernstein

At Human Rights Watch, we always recognized that open, democratic societies have faults and commit abuses. But we saw that they have the ability to correct them — through vigorous public debate, an adversarial press and many other mechanisms that encourage reform.
That is why we sought to draw a sharp line between the democratic and nondemocratic worlds, in an effort to create clarity in human rights. We wanted to prevent the Soviet Union and its followers from playing a moral equivalence game with the West and to encourage liberalization by drawing attention to dissidents like Andrei Sakharov, Natan Sharansky and those in the Soviet gulag — and the millions in China’s laogai, or labor camps.
… The organization is expressly concerned mainly with how wars are fought, not with motivations. To be sure, even victims of aggression are bound by the laws of war and must do their utmost to minimize civilian casualties. Nevertheless, there is a difference between wrongs committed in self-defense and those perpetrated intentionally.
But how does Human Rights Watch know that these laws have been violated?

MediaWatchWatch

doudou_dieneDoudou Diene, a “UN expert” on racism, recently told the UN Human Rights Council in Geneva that “Islamophobia today is the most serious form of religious defamation”, but he failed to define “religious defamation”, or to say why it was a serious thing.
Citing the Danish Motoons, and Lars Vilks’ recent MoDog, Diene said this was evidence that

the basic principle of coexistence of different cultures and different religions, which is the lasting basis for peace, is threatened now […]
freedom of expression cannot be used as a pretext or excuse for incitement to racial or religious hatred.

Listen, Doudou: a cartoon of Mohammed with a dog’s body does not incite hatred towards Muslims, it incites Muslim hate. And just like everyone else, Muslims are responsible for their own hatred.

ArbourThe UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Louise Arbour, is similarly clueless. On the subject of Doudou’s report, she said “I have no reason not to share his concerns”.
Fortunately there is the International Humanist and Ethical Union to counterbalance the ravings of these two. Roy Brown, the IHEU’s representative, said Arbour was “just plain wrong”.

The little regrettable hostility that does exist among indigenous Europeans has not arisen in a vacuum, but as a reaction to Islamic extremism — demonization of Jews, infidels and homosexuals and contempt for Western culture.

European members of the council were also sceptical. Goncalo Silvestre of Portugal spoke for the 27-nation bloc:

The EU finds it problematic to reconcile the notion of defamation with the concept of discrimination. In our view these two are of a different nature.

He went on to state that religions do not deserve special protection under international human rights law.

Francis Boyle

Amnesty International is primarily motivated not by human rights but by publicity. Second comes money. Third comes getting more members. Fourth, internal turf battles. And then finally, human rights, genuine human rights concerns. To be sure, if you are dealing with a human rights situation in a country that is at odds with the United States or Britain, it gets an awful lot of attention, resources, man and womanpower, publicity, you name it, they can throw whatever they want at that. But if it’s dealing with violations of human rights by the United States, Britain, Israel, then it’s like pulling teeth to get them to really do something on the situation. They might, very reluctantly and after an enormous amount of internal fightings and battles and pressures, you name it. But you know, it’s not like the official enemies list.
… you’ll see a pretty good coincidence of the enemies that Amnesty International goes after and the interests of both the United States and British governments. Let’s take an older example  apartheid in South Africa under the former criminal regime in South Africa. Amnesty International refused adamantly to condemn apartheid in South Africa. Despite my best efforts while I was on the board, and other board members, they would not do it. They are the only human rights organization in the entire world to have refused to condemn apartheid in South Africa. Now they can give you some cock-and-bull theory about why they wouldn’t do this. But the bottom line was that the biggest supporter, economic and political supporter of the criminal apartheid regime in South Africa was the British government, followed by the United States government. And so no matter how hard we tried, no matter what we did, they would not condemn apartheid in South Africa. Now I just mention that as one among many examples.

石破茂

Ishiba
今も議員会館の外では「特定機密保護法絶対阻止!」を叫ぶ大音量が鳴り響いています。いかなる勢力なのか知る由もありませんが、左右どのような主張であっても、ただひたすら己の主張を絶叫し、多くの人々の静穏を妨げるような行為は決して世論の共感を呼ぶことはないでしょう。
主義主張を実現したければ、民主主義に従って理解者を一人でも増やし、支持の輪を広げるべきなのであって、単なる絶叫戦術はテロ行為とその本質においてあまり変わらない本来あるべき民主主義の手法とは異なるように *1 思います

*1 追記(平成25年12月2日10:00):お詫びと訂正について
http://ishiba-shigeru.cocolog-nifty.com/blog/2013/12/post-e81e.html

NHK

伊藤和子川上園子土井香苗藤原家康原由利子


特定秘密保護法案について3日、国際的な人権団体が合同で記者会見を開き、「法案は知る権利を脅かすもので国際的な人権基準ともほど遠く、全面的に見直すべきだ」と法案に反対する立場を表明しました。
会見したのは、国際的な人権団体の「アムネスティ・インターナショナル日本」や「ヒューマン・ライツ・ウォッチ」など5つの団体です。
会見ではまず、ヒューマン・ライツ・ウォッチの土井香苗日本代表が、秘密保護法制作成の国際的なガイドラインで、「国の秘密」と「知る権利」の両立を図るためにまとめられた「ツワネ原則」に触れ、「法案は、この原則からかけ離れていて、何が秘密に当たるのか明確ではなく、独立した審査機関が設けられていない」と指摘しました。
続いて、アムネスティ・インターナショナル日本の川上園子活動マネージャーが「このままでは、政府による人権侵害が起こってもそれが隠されてしまうおそれがあり、法案は全面的に見直すべきだ」と主張し、法案に反対する立場を表明しました。

Nicholas D. Kristof

KristofIn business, there’s abundant evidence that inclusion of women in senior positions is linked to better results. Catalyst, a research organization, found that the companies with the most women board directors earned a 26 percent higher return on invested capital than the companies with the least women.
Likewise, McKinsey & Company found that the international companies with more women on their corporate boards far outperformed the average company in return on equity and other measures. Operating profit was 56 percent higher.
This isn’t just about boardrooms, though. In the recent government shutdown debacle, some of the first efforts at hammering out a deal to end the crisis came from a group of women in the Senate who were disheartened by the political paralysis. Time magazine’s headline online was: “Women Are the Only Adults Left in Washington.”
That’s progress: The Senate built a restroom off the floor for female members only in 1993, and now, a couple decades later, women are providing adult supervision in the “old boys’ club.”
Still, there’s a long way to go.

Human Rights Watch

Under the discriminatory Saudi guardianship system, girls and women are forbidden from traveling, conducting official business, or undergoing certain medical procedures without permission from their male guardians. Women remain banned from driving and strict clothing requirements for women were publicly enforced.
The “kafala” system ties migrant workers’ residency permits to “sponsoring” employers, whose written consent is required for workers to change employers or exit the country. Employers abuse this power to confiscate passports, withhold wages, and force migrants to work against their will, against Saudi law.
Detainees, including children, commonly face systematic violations of due process and fair trial rights, including arbitrary arrest and torture and ill-treatment in detention. Saudi judges routinely sentence defendants to thousands of lashes. Judges can order arrest and detention at their discretion.
Authorities do not always inform suspects of the crime with which they are charged, nor of supporting evidence. Saudi Arabia has no penal code, so prosecutors and judges largely define criminal offenses at their discretion. Lawyers are not generally allowed to assist suspects during interrogation and face difficulty examining witnesses or presenting evidence at trial.
Saudi Arabia does not tolerate public worship by adherents of religions other than Islam and systematically discriminates against its Muslim religious minorities, in particular Shia and Ismailis.
Saudi Arabia is a key ally of the United States and European countries. The US did not publicly criticize any Saudi human rights violations except through annual reports. The US concluded a $60 billion arms sale to Saudi Arabia, its largest anywhere to date. The European Union also failed to publicly criticize human rights abuses in the kingdom.

Jonathan Pearlman

kiribatiA man from a tiny South Pacific island has asked a court in New Zealand to recognise him and his family as climate change refugees, saying they face “serious harm” if they return.
Ioane Teitiota, 37, has applied for refuge from Kiribati, the world’s lowest-lying nation whose 33 small islands are highly vulnerable to rising sea levels. Scientists say the nation is one of the countries likely to be hardest hit by global warming – and its own president has urged its citizens to leave.

Julian Weissglass

Racism is the systematic mistreatment of certain groups of people (often referred to as people of color) on the basis of skin color or other (real or supposed) physical characteristics. This mistreatment is carried out by societal institutions or by people who have been conditioned by the society to act, consciously or unconsciously, in harmful ways toward people of color.
Similarly, classism is systematic mistreatment based on socioeconomic status. This mistreatment includes prejudice, discrimination, disrespect, or neglect of rational needs (food, clothing, shelter, communication, opportunities to learn, etc.)

BBC

RaefBadawiThe activist, Raef Badawi, co-founded the Free Saudi Liberals website, an online forum for public debate.
He was arrested last year and convicted on Monday of setting up a website that undermined general security.
Mr Badawi was originally charged with apostasy, or abandonment of religion, a crime in Saudi Arabia that carries with it the death penalty.
Mr Badawi, a father of three, had confirmed in court that he was a Muslim but told the judge “everyone has a choice to believe or not believe.”
He was convicted of the charges of setting up a website that undermines general security and of ridiculing religious figures.
The judge ordered that the 600 lashes be administered 150 at a time.

Hugo Swire

Hugo SwireWhat democracy with universal suffrage in Hong Kong will look like is, of course, for the governments of Hong Kong and China – and the people of Hong Kong – to decide in line with the Basic Law. There is no perfect model anywhere in the world, but the important thing is that the people of Hong Kong have a genuine choice to enable them to feel they have a real stake in the outcome. This is no easy undertaking, but then few things worth having are.
Dialogue and co-operation between all parties will be vital for a smooth resolution of this important issue. And, of course, Britain stands ready to support in any way we can.
But it is not just because of my belief in democracy as a universal right that I am a supporter of the transition to universal suffrage. Certainty over Hong Kong’s constitutional future is also important to business and investor confidence in Asia’s leading international financial centre. The city is home to around 1,000 British businesses, many of which have made Hong Kong their regional hub.
Like many others in the international community, the UK therefore has a big economic stake in seeing Hong Kong continue as the prosperous, stable and energetic centre that we see today.

Amnesty International

REPORTED EXECUTIONS IN 2012

Afghanistan (14), Bangladesh (1), Belarus (3+), Botswana (2), China (+), Gambia (9), India (1), Iran (314+), Iraq (129+), Japan (7), North Korea (6+), Pakistan (1), Palestinian Authority7 (6, Hamas de facto administration in Gaza), Saudi Arabia (79+), Somalia (6+; 5+ by the Transitional Federal Government, and 1 in Puntland), South Sudan (5+), Sudan (19+), Taiwan (6), United Arab Emirates (UAE) (1), USA (43), Yemen (28+).

At least 682 executions were known to have been carried out worldwide, two more than in 2011. However, these figures do not include the thousands of people who were believed to have been executed in China. Since its 2009 report, Amnesty International stopped publishing its estimates on the use of the death penalty in China.
Official figures on the use of the death penalty were available only in a small number of countries. In Belarus, China, Mongolia and Viet Nam, data on the use of the death penalty continued to be classified as a state secret. Little or no information was available in some countries, in particular Belize, Egypt, Eritrea, Libya, Malaysia, North Korea, Suriname and Syria, due to restrictive state practice and/or political instability.

A former staff of the Committee to Investigate Lese Majeste Cases in the Royal Thai Police

Do you think the law needs to be reformed?
We know that lese majeste is not doing any good to His Majesty but we are put in a very difficult position. As police, we feel society expects us to persecute those deemed a ‘threat to the nation’. There is too much emotion in society about the royal institution. If the Committee begins to relax its role, then other units both within and outside the police will scrutinize us. It’s difficult to find an alternative to satisfy everyone. Hence, the status quo.
I do think that article 112 does need reform. But before we reform it we need to ask ourselves again for what or whom this article is meant? If the purpose of article 112 is national unity then I think the punishment is too harsh. Perhaps the problem is with the case processing…why is it a police’s responsibility, for example? Could the Bureau of Royal Household take over? I don’t think it is practical to do away with article 112 altogether. Too many people in society will oppose such move.
What should be reformed?
Indeed some people believe there is nothing wrong with the actual wording of article 112 per se, but the problem is its application. There is too much societal pressure to persecute violators so harsh that it becomes difficult to properly use the law. In truth I feel that since the law itself is flawed, enforcing it becomes inherently problematic.

David Cameron, Mats Tunehag

Freedom of ReligionDavid CameronDavid Cameron: I believe a genuinely liberal country does much more; it believes in certain values and actively promotes them. Freedom of speech, freedom of worship, democracy, the rule of law, equal rights regardless of race, sex or sexuality.

Mats TunehagMats Tunehag: Freedom of religion includes the right to have a faith, to manifest it and propagate for it, alone or together with others, also in the public arena. It also gives the right to change beliefs and religious affiliation. This is what democracies would adhere to.
Freedom of worship is a definition practiced (sic) in countries influenced by Islam. You may be allowed to be a Christian, but you mustn’t take it into the public arena or share your faith with others. If you are a Muslim you are free to be a Muslim and display it publically but you can’t leave Islam.

David Koyzis

helmetgg2If, as Melanie Philips puts it, human rights is a religion for a godless age, then this edifice must be its temple: Human rights museum details unveiled. The magisterium for this new faith will be located in Winnipeg. Of course every ecclesial establishment must have its own website. Just how many Canadians can be expected to make the annual hajj to the holy city on the Red and Assiniboine Rivers is unclear.

HRmuseum1Human-Rights-Museum-1121128 aerial photo20 bm.JPG

Melanie Phillips

More seriously still, human rights law has been used to destroy control over the country’s borders. A series of court rulings laid down the right of illegal immigrants to welfare benefits — thus undermining the very basis of citizenship — and refused to allow the deportation of terrorist suspects to countries where there was any record of abuses of human rights.
The ideas that rights in Britain depend on human rights law is grotesque. England, after all, is the cradle of Western liberty as a result of English common law, which held that everything was permitted unless it was prohibited. Now, only what is codified and court-approved can be allowed.
Not surprisingly, liberty in Britain is now in fact much diminished. The universities close down politically incorrect debate. Anyone who criticises a minority group risks vilification and the loss of promotion or job prospects.
Freedom of religious conscience, the defining value of a liberal society, has effectively been abolished. Catholic adoption agencies will be forced to close if they refuse to place children for adoption with gay couples. But then “human rights” has come to be seen, in the words of one activist, as “a religion for a godless age“.
Human rights law has nothing to do with true liberalism. It is instead a judicial delivery system for cultural Marxism. In short, Britain’s human rights culture should more properly be known as a culture of human wrongs. Australia, be warned.

Michael J. Perry

The idea of human rights consists of two parts: the premise or claim that every human being is sacred (inviolable, etc.), and the further claim that because every human being is sacred (and given all other relevant information), certain choices should be made and certain other choices rejected; in particular, certain things ought not to be done to any human being and certain other things ought to be done for every human being. One fundamental challenge to the idea of human rights addresses the first part of the idea; it contests the claim that every human being is sacred. Another fundamental challenge, the one with which this article is principally concerned, addresses the second part of the idea. According to this latter challenge, whether or not every human being is sacred — and, so, even if every human being is sacred — there are no things that ought not to be done (not even any things that conditionally rather than unconditionally ought not to be done) to any human being and no things that ought to be done (not even any things that conditionally rather than unconditionally ought to be done) for every human being. That is, no putatively “human” right is truly a human right: no such right is the right of every human being; in that sense, no such right — no such “ought” or “ought not”–is truly universal. Before addressing this challenge, which shall be referred to as the relativist challenge to the idea of human rights, a comment on the other fundamental challenge, which contests the claim that every human being is sacred, is in order.

Barack Obama

ObamaEgyptAmerica cannot determine the future of Egypt. That’s a task for the Egyptian people. We don’t take sides with any particular party or political figure.
We’ve been blamed by supporters of Morsi. We’ve been blamed by the other side, as if we are supporters of Morsi. That kind of approach will do nothing to help Egyptians achieve the future that they deserve. We want Egypt to succeed. We want a peaceful, democratic, prosperous Egypt. That’s our interest. But to achieve that, the Egyptians are going to have to do the work.

Marina Ottaway, David Ottaway

OttawaysIn spite of the massive popular protests that have swept away two Arab strongmen and shaken half a dozen monarchies and republics, the Arab world has yet to witness any fundamental change in ruling elites and even less in the nature of governance.
The uprisings sweeping across the Middle East have similar causes and share certain conditions: authoritarian and ossified regimes, economic hardship, and a growing contrast between great wealth and dire poverty, all worsened by the extraordinarily large number of young people who demand a better future. But the consequences will not be the same everywhere.
In Tunisia and Egypt, the same well-developed bureaucratic states and powerful military and security forces that buttressed authoritarian rule remain intact and seemingly determined to curb the pro-democracy momentum generated so far. A change in ruling elites and system of governance is still a distant goal.
Democracy can only emerge in the context of functioning institutions, not of chaos. Unfortunately, the strong state institutions also bolstered the old regimes. They were not one-man affairs: no matter how authoritarian Mubarak or Ben Ali were, they did not rule single-handedly. Their regimes were multi-layered, supported by massive security apparatuses and extensive bureaucracies, and used, among other purposes, to produce landslide electoral victories for the ruling parties.

市川房枝

FusaeIchikawa2出たい人より出したい人を

平和なくして平等なく、平等なくして平和はない

母の女の悲しみが、私の小さな体にしみついた

私の長い人生は母の嘆きを出発点に選んでしまったようである

誠実、正直、権利の上に眠るな

選挙を清潔にできないで、政治をきれいにすることはできない

易延友

Img381756292清华大学副教授易延友
强奸陪酒女比强奸良家妇女危害性要小。”

Yi Yanyou, Head of the Law School Evidence Act Center of Tsinghua University, wrote that raping a hostess [women hired by bars and clubs to fill up the venue, dance on the dance floor, drink with customers but rarely anything more] is less harmful than raping a woman from a good family.

qinghua-professor-raping-hostesses-is-less-harmless-01「ホステスをレイプするのは良家の女性への(同様の)行為に比べ、悪質性は低い」。中国の有名大学、清華大の男性教授が短文投稿サイト「微博(ウェイボ)」に対し、ホステスらへの暴行を容認したとも受け取れる差別的文章を投稿し、人権や法の下の平等を理解していないとして猛烈な批判を浴びている。

Le Monde.fr

marine-le-penLe Parlement européen a décidé mardi 2 juillet de lever l’immunité parlementaire de Marine Le Pen, à la demande du parquet de Lyon, lequel veut l’entendre dans le cadre d’une enquête pour incitation à la haine raciale.
La présidente du Front national, députée européenne, est visée par une plainte du Mouvement contre le racisme et pour l’amitié entre les peuples (MRAP) relative à ses propos du 10 décembre 2010 établissant un parallèle entre les prières des musulmans dans la rue en France et l’Occupation.
Ce jour-là, Marine Le Pen avait évoqué en ces termes certaines prières musulmanes en public :

“Je suis désolée, mais pour ceux qui aiment beaucoup parler de la seconde guerre mondiale, s’il s’agit de parler d’occupation, on pourrait en parler pour le coup. C’est une occupation de pans de territoire. Certes, il n’y a pas de blindés, il n’y a pas de soldats, mais elle pèse sur les habitants.”

Le 18 juin, à propos de ces mêmes prières et en pleine polémique sur les apéros saucisson-pinard, l’éurodéputée avait déja usé de la comparaison :

“Très clairement comme en 1940, certains croient se comporter dans la France de 2010 comme une armée d’occupation dans un pays conquis.”

Les eurodéputés ont accepté de lever son immunité, conformément à l’avis rendu par leur commission juridique qui, réunie à huis clos, s’était prononcée à une large majorité dans ce sens, le 19 juin.

Michael Ignatieff

AmericanHumanRightsSince 1945 America has displayed exceptional leadership in promoting international human rights. At the same time, however, it has also resisted complying with human rights standards at home or aligning its foreign policy with these standards abroad. Under some administrations, it has promoted human rights as if they were synonymous with American values, while under others, it has emphasized the superiority of American values over international standards. This combination of leadership and resistance is what defines American human rights behavior as exceptional, and it is this complex and ambivalent pattern that the book seeks to explain.

Islam Times

n00237257-bIslam in the Kingdom of Al-Saud is but only a thick cover behind which a bunch of corrupt people hide, those who have a crazy desire to impose their thinking, wishes, desires, and doctrines on others, even if by force and coercion. Hence, which Islam is the one that is filling the prisons, silos, and secret torture detention centers with the prisoners of conscience, political prisoners, and journalists who do not have any fault but that they did not glorify in their speeches, statements, or programs the royal-personality or the Saudi Kings, or that they had criticized a Saudi prince, even if he was from the princes of the sixth generation?!
Which Islam is the one that has no religious fortune but only when reciting the Athan and forcing people to close their shops and the places of work during the five prayer times?!
About which Islam the Saudi princes are speaking, while they are living in a state of opulence, extravagance, and wastefulness to the extent that the remnants of the Saudi princes tables is enough alone to solve the problem of famine in Somalia?!

Associated Press

SasagawaThe U.N. goodwill ambassador for eliminating leprosy has written to Pope Francis complaining about his recent comment that careerism among Catholic Church officials was “a leprosy.”
In a letter to Francis released Thursday, Ambassador Yohei Sasakawa wrote that such remarks can reinforce discrimination against leprosy patients and their families. He said he feared the Argentine-born pope’s comments could have a big impact in South America, “where there are many Catholics and still quite a few people affected by leprosy.”
Sasakawa asked for an audience with the pope to update him on the fight against the disease.
Speaking on June 6 to students of the Vatican’s diplomatic academy, Francis urged them not to become career-focused bureaucrats but to be missionary priests. He said: “Carreerism is a leprosy, a leprosy.”