Category Archives: globe

Anaximander (Carlo Rovelli)

All but one: the Greek world. Already in the classical era, the Greeks saw the Earth as a stone floating in space without falling (figure 1b). Beneath the Earth, there was neither more earth without limit, nor turtles, nor columns, but rather the same sky that we see over our heads. How did the Greeks manage to understand so early that the Earth is suspended in the void and that the Heavens continue under our feet? Who understood this and how?
The man who made this enormous leap in understanding the world is the main character in this story : ‘ Avačiμavôpoc , Anaximander , who lived twenty – six centuries ago in Miletus, a Greek city on the coast of what is now Turkey. This discovery alone would make Anaximander one of the intellectual giants of the ages. But Anaximander’s legacy is still greater. He paved the way for physics, geography, meteorology, and biology. Even more important than these contributions , he set in motion the process of rethinking our worldview – a search for knowledge based on the rejection of any obvious – seeming “certainty,” which is one of the main roots of scientific thinking.

CIA (Nicholas Schou)

The CIA has a long history of “spooking the news,” dating back to its earliest days when the legendary spymaster Allen Dulles and his top staff drank and dined regularly with the press elite of New York and Washington, and the agency boasted hundreds of U.S. and foreign journalists as paid and unpaid assets. In 1977, after this systematic media manipulation was publicly exposed by congressional investigations, the CIA created an Office of Public Affairs that was tasked with guiding press coverage of intelligence matters in a more transparent fashion. The agency insists that it no longer maintains a stable of friendly American journalists, and that its efforts to influence the press are much more above board. But, in truth, the intelligence empire’s efforts to manufacture the truth and mold public opinion are more vast and varied than ever before.

加速度的な増加・加速度的な減少(Bing AI)







  • 人口増加の加速度は落ち続けている
  • アジアでは少子化が広がりつつある
  • 人口の増減に最も大きい影響を与えるのが、出生率
  • 一人の女性が生涯に何人の子供を持つかという指標が合計特殊出生率
  • 1960年代以降、世界の合計特殊出生率は低下している
  • 合計特殊出生率の低下の背景には、女性たちが自分の人生の選択権を持てるようになったことが挙げられる





IMD World Digital Competitiveness Ranking 2022

 1.   Denmark 22.   France 43.   Croatia
 2.   USA 23.   Belgium 44.   India
 3.   Sweden 24.   Ireland 45.   Cyprus
 4.   Singapore 25.   Lithuania 46.   Poland
 5.   Switzerland 26.   Qatar 47.   Slovak Republic
 6.   Netherlands 27.   New Zealand 48.   Bulgaria
 7.   Finland 28.   Spain 49.   Romania
 8.   Korea Rep. 29.   Japan 50.   Greece
 9.   Hong Kong SAR 30.   Luxembourg 51.   Indonesia
10.   Canada 31.   Malaysia 52.   Brazil
11.   Taiwan, China 32.   Bahrain 53.   Jordan
12.   Norway 33.   Czech Republic 54.   Turkey
13.   UAE 34.   Latvia 55.   Mexico
14.   Australia 35.   Saudi Arabia 56.   Philippines
15.   Israel 36.   Kazakhstan 57.   Peru
16.   United Kingdom 37.   Slovenia 58.   South Africa
17.   China 38.   Portugal 59.   Argentina
18.   Austria 39.   Italy 60.   Colombia
19.   Germany 40.   Thailand 61.   Botswana
20.   Estonia 41.   Chile 62.   Mongolia
21.   Iceland 42.   Hungary 63.   Venezuela



Population growth (Bill Gates)

Well, the population growth issue, at the global level, is not that daunting. That is, the population, percentage- wise, is growing slower today than in the past. And so it will actually peak out. The problem is that the population is growing the fastest where people are less able to deal with it. So it’s in the very poorest places that you’re going to have a tripling in population by 2050. And so their ability to feed, educate, provide jobs, stability, protect the environment in those locations means, they’re faced with an almost impossible problem, Northern Nigeria, Yemen, Chad. And so what we need to do is take this aid generosity and this innovation and go into those places– offer the women better tools, where they want to space birthing or have a smaller family size, and improve health, because it’s amazingly as children survive, parents feel like they’ll have enough kids to support them in their old age. And so they choose to have less children. Niger, right now, it’s still seven children per family. Whereas in the richer countries you’re often at a stable point of which is 2.1 or even less. And so it’s really an acute problem in a certain number of places. And we’ve got to make sure that we help out with the tools now so that they don’t have an impossible situation later.

L’Enfer numérique (Guillaume Pitron)

Quels sont les progrès mais aussi les parts sombres de la révolution numérique? Quel impact sur l’environnement? Et quelle société demain ?


Les données anonymes, c’est un énorme canular.


Le réseau n’a pas été pensé pour “sauver“ la planète, et tout discours liant la résilience de la vie sur Terre à la performance des outils digitaux relève selon nous de la mystification, de la fable.



The Code Breaker

In 2012, Nobel Prize winning scientist Jennifer Doudna hit upon an invention that will transform the future of the human race: an easy-to-use tool that can edit DNA.

Known as CRISPR, it opened a brave new world of medical miracles and moral questions. It has already been deployed to cure deadly diseases, fight the coronavirus pandemic of 2020, and make inheritable changes in the genes of babies.

But what does that mean for humanity? Should we be hacking our own DNA to make us less susceptible to disease? Should we democratise the technology that would allow parents to enhance their kids?

After discovering this CRISPR, Doudna is now wrestling these even bigger issues.

THE CODE BREAKERS is an examination of how life as we know it is about to change – and a brilliant portrayal of the woman leading the way.

A (Very) Short History of Life On Earth

For billions of years, Earth was an inhospitably alien place – covered with churning seas, slowly crafting its landscape by way of incessant volcanic eruptions, the atmosphere in a constant state of chemical flux. And yet, despite facing literally every conceivable setback that living organisms could encounter, life has been extinguished and picked itself up to evolve again. Life has learned and adapted and continued through the billions of years that followed. It has weathered fire and ice. Slimes begat sponges, who through billions of years of complex evolution and adaptation grew a backbone, braved the unknown of pitiless shores, and sought an existence beyond the sea.
From that first foray to the spread of early hominids who later became Homo sapiens, life has persisted, undaunted.





Russia vs Ukraine

Pro-Russian Neutral Pro-Ukraine
CSTO (Belarus),
Costa Rica, Cuba, Eritrea, North Korea, Myanmar, Syria, Venezuela

CSTO (Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan),
Iran, China, India, Algeria, Mali, Guinea, Sudan, South Sudan, Tanzania, Mozambique, Madagascar, Zambabwe, Namibia, Angola, Congo

Brazil, South Africa

EU (Bulgaria, Hungary),

CSTO (Armenia, Kazakhstan)

EEA (EU (Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden), Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway),
Canada, Japan, South Korea, New Zealand, U.K., U.S.


Economic shock (Kenneth Rogoff)

Russia’s invasion of Ukraine is an unmitigated catastrophe for global peace and particularly for peace in Europe. But the war also greatly compounds a number of preexisting adverse global economic trends, including rising inflation, extreme poverty, increasing food insecurity, deglobalization, and worsening environmental degradation. In addition, with an apparent end to the peace dividend that has long helped finance higher social expenditures, rebalancing fiscal priorities could prove quite challenging even in advanced economies.


Perhaps the most important macroeconomic lesson today is that in crafting responses to the latest major macroeconomic shock, whether it be the financial crisis, the pandemic, or now war in Europe, policymakers (not to mention academic economists) must remember that although things usually get better after a catastrophic shock, they can also get much worse. Thus monetary and fiscal policy need to incorporate resilience, and not just the maximalism that has become fashionable of late.

Women (Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation)

Right now, finance ministers around the world are asking, how do we spur more private-sector engagement, more public-private partnerships? The way I see it, intentionally removing barriers that prevent women from accessing capital is critical. This means not only rolling back discriminatory laws and policies, but also thinking strategically about how to connect more women with the capital they need. It also means supporting measures that give women access to savings accounts. These measures and others can have a huge impact not only on women’s lives, but on families, communities, and economies.

The Journey of Humanity: The Origins of Wealth and Inequality (Oded Galor)

Our voyage begins at the point of departure of humanity itself – the emergence of Homo sapiens in East Africa nearly 300,000 years ago – and traces the key milestones of the journey of humanity: the migration of Homo sapiens from Africa tens of thousands of years ago, the scattering of people across the continents, the subsequent transition of societies from huntergatherer tribes to sedentary agricultural communities, and more recently the Industrial Revolution and the Demographic Transition.
Human history is rich with countless and fascinating details: mighty civilisations that rose and fell; charismatic emperors who led armies to massive conquests and defeats; artists who created enchanting cultural treasures; philosophers and scientists who advanced our understanding of the universe, as well as the numerous societies and billions of lives lived away from the spotlight. It is easy to become adrift in this ocean of details, buffeted by the waves and unaware of the mighty currents underneath.
Instead, this book explores and identifies these undercurrents: the forces that have governed the development process. It demonstrates how these forces operated relentlessly, if invisibly, throughout the course of human history, and its long economic ice age, gathering pace until, at last, technological advancements in the course of the Industrial Revolution accelerated beyond a tipping point, where rudimentary education became essential for the ability of individuals to adapt to the changing technological environment. Fertility rates started to decline and the growth in living standards was liberated from the counterbalancing effects of population growth, ushering in long-term prosperity that continues to soar in the present day.
At the centre of this exploration is the question of the sustainability of our species on Planet Earth. During the Malthusian epoch, adverse climatic conditions and epidemics contributed to devastating decimations of the human population. Today, the impact of the growth process on environmental degradation and climate change raises significant concerns as to how our species might live sustainably and avert the catastrophic demographic outcomes of the past. The journey of humanity provides a hopeful outlook: the tipping point that the world has recently reached, resulting in a persistent decline in fertility rates and the acceleration of ‘human capital’ formation and technological innovation, could enable humanity to mitigate these detrimental effects and will be central for the sustainability of our species in the long run.

アジアで影響力のあるビジネスウーマン 2022(Forbes)



アジアで影響力のあるビジネスウーマン 2021(Forbes)



五十川舞香◎1996年生まれ。米国と日本を拠点に育つ。スタンフォード大学卒。シルク・ドゥ・ソレイユの劇団員として世界で興行。卒業後はマイクロソフトに入社。21年Webacyを共同創業。22年の米フォーブス30 UNDER 30選出。

Mirror Neurons (Christian Jarrett)

No doubt about it – mirror neurons are an exciting, intriguing discovery – but when you see them mentioned in the media, remember that most of the research on these cells has been conducted in monkeys. Remember too that there are many different types of mirror neuron. And that we’re still trying to establish for sure whether they exist in humans, and how they compare with the monkey versions. As for understanding the functional significance of these cells … don’t be fooled: that journey has only just begun.



ジニ係数、 出生率、 一人当たりGDP、 ビリオネア数       (Gini coefficient, fertility rate, GDP per capita, number of billionaires)

国名 ジニ係数 出生率 一人当たりGDP ビリオネア数 100万人あたり
ルクセンブルク 0.327 1.37 133,590 0
アイルランド 0.295 1.63 100,172 9 1.808
スイス 0.296 1.46 91,992 41 4.044
ノルウェー 0.262 1.48 89,154 13 2.226
アメリカ合衆国 0.390 1.64 70,249 735 1.853
アイスランド 0.257 1.72 68,728 1 2.713
デンマーク 0.261 1.67 68,008 9 1.370
スウェーデン 0.282 1.66 61,029 45 2.987
オーストラリア 0.325 1.58 60,443 46 1.203
オランダ 0.285 1.55 57,768 11 0.626
フィンランド 0.266 1.37 53,655 6 1.090
オーストリア 0.275 1.44 53,638 11 1.007
イスラエル 0.348 2.90 52,171 30 3.158
カナダ 0.310 1.40 51,988 64 1.147
ベルギー 0.263 1.55 51,247 0
ドイツ 0.289 1.53 51,204 134 1.553
ニュージーランド 0.349 1.61 48,781 2 0.391
イギリス 0.357 1.56 46,510 49 0.674
フランス 0.292 1.83 43,659 43 0.579
日本 0.339 1.34 39,313 40 0.207
イタリア 0.334 1.24 35,658 52 0.607
大韓民国 0.355 0.84 34,998 41 0.540
マルタ 0.290 1.13 33,487 0
キプロス 0.309 1.33 31,552 3 3.378
スペイン 0.333 1.23 30,104 27 0.507
スロベニア 0.243 1.60 29,291 0
エストニア 0.309 1.58 27,944 1
チェコ 0.249 1.71 26,821 9 0.747
ポルトガル 0.320 1.40 24,568 5 0.497
リトアニア 0.374 1.48 23,723 0
スロバキア 0.241 1.57 21,392 2
ラトビア 0.355 1.55 21,148 0
ギリシャ 0.319 1.34 20,193 3 0.280
ハンガリー 0.289 1.56 18,728 1 0.103
ポーランド 0.275 1.38 18,000 6 0.157
クロアチア 0.295 1.48 17,685 0
チリ 0.460 1.54 16,265 7 0.356
ルーマニア 0.351 1.60 14,858 2 0.104
中国 0.470 1.28 12,556 539 0.276
ブルガリア 0.395 1.56 12,222 2
ロシア 0.331 1.51 12,195 83 0.677
メキシコ 0.458 1.91 10,046 15 0.095
トルコ 0.404 1.92 9,661 24 0.275

How many people can Earth handle? (BBC)

There’s the fatalistic “solution” to the perennial population question: simply do nothing. This view relies on the highly unstable dynamics of our global population – it’s set to grow significantly, but then it will shrink. Every camp may get what they want in the end, though not forever.
Estimates vary, but we’re expected to reach “peak human” around 2070 or 2080, at which point there will be between 9.4 billion and 10.4 billion people on the planet. It may be a slow process – if we reach 10.4 billion, the UN expects the population to remain at this level for two decades – but eventually after this the population is projected to decline.

Le mauvais calcul de 1853

Une des causes méconnues de l’envolée du déficit public français est le surcoût que représentent les retraites de l’Etat. Financées par le budget depuis 1853, elles représentent maintenant 15 % du budget, soit presque autant que les autres dépenses de personnel de l’Etat (19 %). La mise en place du régime universel des retraites visait notamment à transférer ce lourd passif qui plombe les comptes de l’Etat. Retour sur un dérapage méconnu du grand public, expliquant les appétits centralisateurs de l’administration comme les réticences justifiées des régimes privés appelés, sans le dire, à colmater les brèches.



最初からひとりなのは 慣れてるから平気です
でも誰かを失うのは 二度とごめんです


片思いに終わりがあるなら 今であってほしい



僕だけを愛してくれる君に 会いたかった




Positive Negative
  • Reduction in crime
  • Reduced strain on local infrastructure and services
  • Increased consumer purchasing power at local businesses
  • Reduced vacancy rates
  • Stabilization of declining areas
  • Increased social mix
  • Increased local fiscal revenues
  • Increased property values
  • Encouragement and increased viability of further development
  • Higher incentive for property owners to increase/improve housing
  • Rehabilitation of property both with and without state sponsorship
  • Increased cost and charges to local services
  • Community resentment and conflict
  • Homelessness
  • Loss of affordable housing
  • Displacement through rent/price increases
  • Decrease in political participation
  • Commercial/industrial displacement
  • Unsustainable property prices
  • Displacement and housing demand pressures on surrounding poor areas
  • Secondary psychological costs of displacement
  • Loss of social diversity (from socially disparate to rich ghettos)
  • Under occupancy and population loss to gentrified area

Life on Earth is under threat (WWF)

Biodiversity, the variety of life on Earth, provides us with services essential for human well-being such as clothing, food and medicines. But we are losing it at an alarming rate. A million plant and animal species are threatened with extinction, we have lost half of the world’s corals and lose forest areas the size of 27 football fields every minute.
Coral reef systems are an indicator for healthy oceans, but we have already lost around 50% of warm-water coral reefs. If we do not limit global warming to well below 2°C we could lose the vast majority of coral systems.
Forests stabilise our climate and without them global temperatures would be 0.5°C warmer. But every year we lose forests about the size of Portugal. Deforestation causes carbon emissions, increases droughts and leads to warmer, drier local climates. It also puts the food security and livelihood of millions of people at risk.
We all need to eat, but the intensive and unsustainable way we currently produce food sees us degrade and destroy precious environments that are critical for people and nature. Food production has caused 70% of biodiversity loss on land and 50% in fresh water. It is also responsible for around 30% of all greenhouse gas emissions.
Biodiversity is essential for our health, well-being and economic success. It is essential to understand why nature is in decline in order to alter this path. Five key drivers of biodiversity loss have been identified by the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES). They are changes in the use of sea and land, direct exploitation of organisms, climate change, pollution and invasive non-native species.

Grade A,   Plan B,   Middle C,   System D,   Vitamin E     (Robert Neuwirth)

        You probably have never heard of System D. Neither had I until I started visiting street markets and unlicensed bazaars around the globe.
        System D is a slang phrase pirated from French-speaking Africa and the Caribbean. The French have a word that they often use to describe particularly effective and motivated people. They call them débrouillards. To say a man is a débrouillard is to tell people how resourceful and ingenious he is. The former French colonies have sculpted this word to their own social and economic reality. They say that inventive, self-starting, entrepreneurial merchants who are doing business on their own, without registering or being regulated by the bureaucracy and, for the most part, without paying taxes, are part of “l’economie de la débrouillardise.” Or, sweetened for street use, “Systeme D.” This essentially translates as the ingenuity economy, the economy of improvisation and self-reliance, the do-it-yourself, or DIY, economy. A number of well-known chefs have also appropriated the term to describe the skill and sheer joy necessary to improvise a gourmet meal using only the mismatched ingredients that happen to be at hand in a kitchen.
        I like the phrase. It has a carefree lilt and some friendly resonances. At the same time, it asserts an important truth: what happens in all the unregistered markets and roadside kiosks of the world is not simply haphazard. It is a product of intelligence, resilience, self-organization and group solidarity, and it follows a number of well-worn though unwritten rules. It is, in that sense, a system.
        It used to be that System D was small — a handful of market women selling a handful of shrivelled carrots to earn a handful of pennies. It was the economy of desperation. But as trade has expanded and globalized, System D has scaled up too. Today, System D is the economy of aspiration. It is where the jobs are. In 2009, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), a think tank sponsored by the governments of 30 of the most powerful capitalist countries and dedicated to promoting free-market institutions, concluded that half the workers of the world — close to 1.8 billion people — were working in System D: off the books, in jobs that were neither registered nor regulated, getting paid in cash, and, most often, avoiding income taxes.



Poverty (Jeffrey Sachs)

How much would it cost to end extreme poverty in the world?
Answer: Not that much actually. To end extreme poverty worldwide in 20 years, Sachs calculated that the total cost per year would be about $175 billion. This represents less than one percent of the combined income of the richest countries in the world.





(1) 多様な社会関係をひらく
(2) 生きることの安全保障―いのちの再生産
(3) 持続可能な社会の働き方
(4) 「幸福な社会」を支える知の探究


縮小という理想(小野塚 知二)

「人口減少」とか「ゼロ成長」という言葉に接すると、本能的に拒否感や忌避感を示す人がいるが、それは、近代・現代の慨性と感性を自党できず、それらに束縛されているからである。体感できる人口増加や経済成長が常態であったのは、人類史の中では近世以降のたかだか数百年に過ぎず、しかもそれがもはや持続可能ではないことはさまざまな点から明らかにされつつある。 … 人類が人口的・経済的には縮小に向かうことが必要であり、可能であり、またそれは人類にとって福音ですらある … ただし、今後約三世紀以上にわたって、縮小が破滅的ではない経路をたどることは決して容易ではない。
持続可能な人口に向けた減少が必要であるとしても、注意しなければならないのは、価値判断の問題として回避すべき選択肢がたくさんあることである。 … まず、われわれが避けなければならないのは飢餓・貧困・不衛生そして疫病による大量死亡であろう。 … 次に避けなければならないのは、不足する食糧や水などの資源をめぐって争奪戦と殺数が発生するというシナリオである。






今のように 80億人もがひしめいている地球ではなく
300年前のように 7億人しかいない地球を思う
1500年前のように 2億人しかいない地球を想像する

何百万 何千万もの人が暮らすような大都市の代わりに
秋田や 久留米や 盛岡のような街が あちらこちらにある

地球温暖化とか エネルギー枯渇といった問題はなく
十分な食糧と 十分な水が 豊かな気持ちをもたらし
悲しい争いも 無駄な諍いも 不必要な競争さえもない

君も僕も 数字で管理される家畜のような人間でなく
名前を持った 尊厳と誇りを持った 人間で
ゆっくりとした時間のなかで 愛を知っている

人と人のあいだには 心地よい距離があり
動物のためのスペースと 植物のためのスペースと

君とゆっくり歩いても 誰も文句を言ったりしない

人の少ない地球が 君と僕を呼んでいる
水を汲み 木苺を摘み 湖畔で腰をおろす
ふたりだけになっても こわいことはなにもない

Must plan for population decline (New Scientist)

There are soon to be 8 billion of us and counting. Yet while the world’s population is still growing fast overall, in many countries, the numbers are declining or will do soon.
Take the three largest. The population of China will begin to fall soon and could halve by 2100. India’s will peak around 2050. And the US population would fall from the 2030s if not for immigration.
So there are two distinct issues to deal with: rapid population growth in some nations and population declines in others.
Declining populations can be seen as a good thing in some ways – less pressure on wildlife, more space and so on. But having fewer working-age people and more older people is a huge economic challenge.
Apart from increasing immigration, there is no sure-fire way to stem individual nations’ population decline. This means that, in many parts of the world, governments need to be readying care and pensions systems to cope with ageing populations.
These trends are highly predictable over the next few decades, so there is absolutely no excuse for failing to prepare. It is also hugely important to invest in health. An ageing population has much less impact if people remain healthy well into old age.

Minimum population (John Davnall)

In a 2008 New Scientist interview, environmental activist David Suzuki discussed how the maximum population our planet could sustain with “Western” lifestyles could be as low as 200 million. Could this number provide the goods and services necessary?

What is the minimum town size likely to have the range of retail goods and services, plus advanced medical facilities, that you may desire or need? In the UK, this is maybe in towns with a population of around 300,000, the size of Nottingham.

Qui sauvera la planète ? (Nathanaël Wallenhorst)

Plus que jamais, le monde est organisé en deux blocs : d’un côté, des démocraties à bout de souffle, phagocytées par les logiques néolibérales d’un monde globalisé ; de l’autre, des régimes autoritaires et dictatoriaux. Mais ces deux blocs sont en réalité les deux faces d’une même pièce. Les politiques néolibérales, soutenues par une “classe rapace” qui les a promues à travers le monde, ont démantelé l’État providence pièce par pièce. L’hôpital, l’éducation ou la justice ont été progressivement considérés comme des dépenses à réduire toujours plus. Cette “classe rapace”, qui n’a pas hésité à faire appel à des cabinets de conseil – en France notamment –, ne jure que par “le goût du risque”, “le courage”, “l’efficacité” et “la modernisation”, mots dont l’apparente vertu ou neutralité masquent en définitive la dérégulation des marchés, la diminution des dépenses sociales, l’accélération de l’effondrement des services publics et leur remplacement par des investisseurs privés. Et quand une catastrophe naturelle a lieu, de telles politiques deviennent les parfaites incarnations du “capitalisme du désastre”. Autres conséquences de ces politiques néolibérales maquillées de neutralité technocratique ? Les replis nationalistes qui nous embarquent dans un processus d’érosion démocratique et d’entrée en guerre.






Goût (Denis Diderot)

C’est ainsi que le plaisir s’accroîtra à proportion de l’imagination, de la sensibilité et des connaissances. La nature, ni l’art qui la copie, ne disent rien à l’homme stupide ou froid, peu de chose à l’homme ignorant.
Qu’est-ce donc que le goût ? Une facilité acquise par des expériences réitérées, à saisir le vrai ou le bon, avec la circonstance qui le rend beau, et d’en être promptement et vivement touché.
Si les expériences qui déterminent le jugement sont présentes à la mémoire, on aura le goût éclairé ; si la mémoire en est passée, et qu’il n’en reste que l’impression, on aura le tact, l’instinct.



Fertility rate (births per woman)

Rank Country Name 2020 Region IncomeGroup
1 Korea, Rep. 0.837 East Asia & Pacific High income
2 Hong Kong SAR, China 0.868 East Asia & Pacific High income
3 Puerto Rico 0.900 Latin America & Caribbean High income
4 British Virgin Islands 0.976 Latin America & Caribbean High income
5 Macao SAR, China 1.072 East Asia & Pacific High income
6 Singapore 1.100 East Asia & Pacific High income
7 Malta 1.130 Middle East & North Africa High income
8 Ukraine 1.217 Europe & Central Asia Lower middle income
9 Spain 1.230 Europe & Central Asia High income
10 Italy 1.240 Europe & Central Asia High income
11 China 1.281 East Asia & Pacific Upper middle income
12 Bermuda 1.300 North America High income
13 North Macedonia 1.300 Europe & Central Asia Upper middle income
14 Aruba 1.325 Latin America & Caribbean High income
15 Cyprus 1.328 Europe & Central Asia High income
16 Greece 1.340 Europe & Central Asia High income
17 Japan 1.340 East Asia & Pacific High income
18 Thailand 1.341 East Asia & Pacific Upper middle income
19 Jamaica 1.358 Latin America & Caribbean Upper middle income
20 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1.359 Europe & Central Asia Upper middle income
21 Finland 1.370 Europe & Central Asia High income
22 Luxembourg 1.370 Europe & Central Asia High income
23 Poland 1.380 Europe & Central Asia High income
24 Belarus 1.382 Europe & Central Asia Upper middle income
25 Bahamas, The 1.394 Latin America & Caribbean High income
26 Albania 1.400 Europe & Central Asia Upper middle income
27 Canada 1.400 North America High income
28 Portugal 1.400 Europe & Central Asia High income
29 St. Lucia 1.411 Latin America & Caribbean Upper middle income
30 Bhutan 1.433 South Asia Lower middle income
31 Austria 1.440 Europe & Central Asia High income
32 Mauritius 1.440 Sub-Saharan Africa Upper middle income
33 Channel Islands 1.447 Europe & Central Asia High income
34 United Arab Emirates 1.460 Middle East & North Africa High income
35 Switzerland 1.460 Europe & Central Asia High income
36 Liechtenstein 1.460 Europe & Central Asia High income
37 Uruguay 1.477 Latin America & Caribbean High income
38 Croatia 1.480 Europe & Central Asia High income
39 Lithuania 1.480 Europe & Central Asia High income
40 Norway 1.480 Europe & Central Asia High income
41 Serbia 1.480 Europe & Central Asia Upper middle income
42 Cuba 1.500 Latin America & Caribbean Upper middle income
43 Russian Federation 1.505 Europe & Central Asia Upper middle income
44 Kosovo 1.529 Europe & Central Asia Upper middle income
45 Germany 1.530 Europe & Central Asia High income
46 Chile 1.537 Latin America & Caribbean High income
47 Belgium 1.550 Europe & Central Asia High income
48 Latvia 1.550 Europe & Central Asia High income
49 Netherlands 1.550 Europe & Central Asia High income
50 Costa Rica 1.555 Latin America & Caribbean Upper middle income
51 Bulgaria 1.560 Europe & Central Asia Upper middle income
52 United Kingdom 1.560 Europe & Central Asia High income
53 Hungary 1.560 Europe & Central Asia High income
54 Antigua and Barbuda 1.569 Latin America & Caribbean High income
55 Isle of Man 1.569 Europe & Central Asia High income
56 Slovak Republic 1.570 Europe & Central Asia High income
57 Armenia 1.575 Europe & Central Asia Upper middle income
58 Estonia 1.580 Europe & Central Asia High income
59 Australia 1.581 East Asia & Pacific High income
60 Curacao 1.600 Latin America & Caribbean High income
61 Romania 1.600 Europe & Central Asia High income
62 Slovenia 1.600 Europe & Central Asia High income
63 New Zealand 1.610 East Asia & Pacific High income
64 Barbados 1.628 Latin America & Caribbean High income
65 Ireland 1.630 Europe & Central Asia High income
66 Trinidad and Tobago 1.631 Latin America & Caribbean High income
67 United States 1.638 North America High income
68 Brazil 1.649 Latin America & Caribbean Upper middle income
69 Sweden 1.660 Europe & Central Asia High income
70 Denmark 1.670 Europe & Central Asia High income
71 Turks and Caicos Islands 1.679 Latin America & Caribbean High income
72 Azerbaijan 1.700 Europe & Central Asia Upper middle income
73 French Polynesia 1.705 East Asia & Pacific High income
74 Iran, Islamic Rep. 1.708 Middle East & North Africa Lower middle income
75 Czechia 1.710 Europe & Central Asia High income
76 Maldives 1.712 South Asia Upper middle income
77 Iceland 1.720 Europe & Central Asia High income
78 Colombia 1.737 Latin America & Caribbean Upper middle income
79 Montenegro 1.750 Europe & Central Asia Upper middle income
80 Moldova 1.770 Europe & Central Asia Upper middle income
81 Brunei Darussalam 1.796 East Asia & Pacific High income
82 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 1.814 Latin America & Caribbean Upper middle income
83 Qatar 1.816 Middle East & North Africa High income
84 Malaysia 1.818 East Asia & Pacific Upper middle income
85 Korea, Dem. People’s Rep. 1.818 East Asia & Pacific Low income
86 El Salvador 1.819 Latin America & Caribbean Lower middle income
87 France 1.830 Europe & Central Asia High income
88 Bahrain 1.832 Middle East & North Africa High income
89 Gibraltar 1.855 Europe & Central Asia High income
90 Mexico 1.905 Latin America & Caribbean Upper middle income
91 Cabo Verde 1.908 Sub-Saharan Africa Lower middle income
92 Argentina 1.911 Latin America & Caribbean Upper middle income
93 Turkiye 1.917 Europe & Central Asia Upper middle income
94 Vietnam 1.955 East Asia & Pacific Lower middle income
95 Georgia 1.971 Europe & Central Asia Upper middle income
96 Belize 1.999 Latin America & Caribbean Upper middle income
97 Sri Lanka 2.000 South Asia Lower middle income
98 Bangladesh 2.003 South Asia Lower middle income
99 Greenland 2.019 Europe & Central Asia High income
100 Grenada 2.023 Latin America & Caribbean Upper middle income
101 Virgin Islands (U.S.) 2.030 Latin America & Caribbean High income
102 New Caledonia 2.037 East Asia & Pacific High income
103 Ecuador 2.051 Latin America & Caribbean Upper middle income
104 India 2.051 South Asia Lower middle income
105 Nepal 2.055 South Asia Lower middle income
106 Lebanon 2.103 Middle East & North Africa Lower middle income
107 Tunisia 2.114 Middle East & North Africa Lower middle income
108 Kuwait 2.140 Middle East & North Africa High income
109 Myanmar 2.174 East Asia & Pacific Lower middle income
110 Indonesia 2.194 East Asia & Pacific Lower middle income
111 Peru 2.216 Latin America & Caribbean Upper middle income
112 Venezuela, RB 2.230 Latin America & Caribbean
113 Seychelles 2.290 Sub-Saharan Africa High income
114 Faroe Islands 2.300 Europe & Central Asia High income
115 Dominican Republic 2.303 Latin America & Caribbean Upper middle income
116 Panama 2.344 Latin America & Caribbean High income
117 Nicaragua 2.349 Latin America & Caribbean Lower middle income
118 Morocco 2.353 Middle East & North Africa Lower middle income
119 Suriname 2.371 Latin America & Caribbean Upper middle income
120 Cambodia 2.381 East Asia & Pacific Lower middle income
121 Honduras 2.394 Latin America & Caribbean Lower middle income
122 South Africa 2.401 Sub-Saharan Africa Upper middle income
123 Guyana 2.418 Latin America & Caribbean Upper middle income
124 St. Martin (French part) 2.448 Latin America & Caribbean High income
125 Saudi Arabia 2.465 Middle East & North Africa High income
126 Guatemala 2.484 Latin America & Caribbean Upper middle income
127 Fiji 2.495 East Asia & Pacific Upper middle income
128 Paraguay 2.497 Latin America & Caribbean Upper middle income
129 Libya 2.507 Middle East & North Africa Upper middle income
130 Lao PDR 2.541 East Asia & Pacific Lower middle income
131 Guam 2.593 East Asia & Pacific High income
132 Bolivia 2.651 Latin America & Caribbean Lower middle income
133 Oman 2.687 Middle East & North Africa High income
134 Turkmenistan 2.701 Europe & Central Asia Upper middle income
135 Micronesia, Fed. Sts. 2.754 East Asia & Pacific Lower middle income
136 Philippines 2.777 East Asia & Pacific Lower middle income
137 Syrian Arab Republic 2.798 Middle East & North Africa Low income
138 Botswana 2.836 Sub-Saharan Africa Upper middle income
139 Djibouti 2.848 Middle East & North Africa Lower middle income
140 Haiti 2.869 Latin America & Caribbean Lower middle income
141 Jordan 2.873 Middle East & North Africa Upper middle income
142 Eswatini 2.890 Sub-Saharan Africa Lower middle income
143 Israel 2.900 Middle East & North Africa High income
144 Mongolia 2.900 East Asia & Pacific Lower middle income
145 Uzbekistan 2.900 Europe & Central Asia Lower middle income
146 Algeria 2.942 Middle East & North Africa Lower middle income
147 Egypt, Arab Rep. 2.960 Middle East & North Africa Lower middle income
148 Kyrgyz Republic 3.000 Europe & Central Asia Lower middle income
149 Lesotho 3.049 Sub-Saharan Africa Lower middle income
150 Kazakhstan 3.130 Europe & Central Asia Upper middle income
151 Tuvalu 3.188 East Asia & Pacific Upper middle income
152 Tajikistan 3.237 Europe & Central Asia Lower middle income
153 Timor-Leste 3.247 East Asia & Pacific Lower middle income
154 Tonga 3.267 East Asia & Pacific Upper middle income
155 Papua New Guinea 3.274 East Asia & Pacific Lower middle income
156 Kiribati 3.333 East Asia & Pacific Lower middle income
157 Namibia 3.349 Sub-Saharan Africa Upper middle income
158 Kenya 3.397 Sub-Saharan Africa Lower middle income
159 Zimbabwe 3.545 Sub-Saharan Africa Lower middle income
160 Gabon 3.548 Sub-Saharan Africa Upper middle income
161 Iraq 3.551 Middle East & North Africa Upper middle income
162 Pakistan 3.555 South Asia Lower middle income
163 West Bank and Gaza 3.570 Middle East & North Africa Lower middle income
164 Ghana 3.623 Sub-Saharan Africa Lower middle income
165 Vanuatu 3.778 East Asia & Pacific Lower middle income
166 Rwanda 3.873 Sub-Saharan Africa Low income
167 Yemen, Rep. 3.886 Middle East & North Africa Low income
168 Sao Tome and Principe 3.893 Sub-Saharan Africa Lower middle income
169 Madagascar 3.918 Sub-Saharan Africa Low income
170 Eritrea 3.933 Sub-Saharan Africa Low income
171 Malawi 3.995 Sub-Saharan Africa Low income
172 Samoa 3.997 East Asia & Pacific Lower middle income
173 Solomon Islands 4.038 East Asia & Pacific Lower middle income
174 Comoros 4.052 Sub-Saharan Africa Lower middle income
175 Sierra Leone 4.080 Sub-Saharan Africa Low income
176 Guinea-Bissau 4.094 Sub-Saharan Africa Low income
177 Liberia 4.174 Sub-Saharan Africa Low income
178 Congo, Rep. 4.234 Sub-Saharan Africa Lower middle income
179 Ethiopia 4.243 Sub-Saharan Africa Low income
180 Togo 4.323 Sub-Saharan Africa Low income
181 Equatorial Guinea 4.346 Sub-Saharan Africa Upper middle income
182 Zambia 4.379 Sub-Saharan Africa Low income
183 Senegal 4.454 Sub-Saharan Africa Lower middle income
184 Mauritania 4.455 Sub-Saharan Africa Lower middle income
185 Cote d’Ivoire 4.472 Sub-Saharan Africa Lower middle income
186 Guinea 4.489 Sub-Saharan Africa Low income
187 Sudan 4.542 Sub-Saharan Africa Low income
188 Cameroon 4.543 Sub-Saharan Africa Lower middle income
189 South Sudan 4.543 Sub-Saharan Africa Low income
190 Uganda 4.693 Sub-Saharan Africa Low income
191 Mozambique 4.713 Sub-Saharan Africa Low income
192 Afghanistan 4.750 South Asia Low income
193 Gambia, The 4.777 Sub-Saharan Africa Low income
194 Tanzania 4.795 Sub-Saharan Africa Lower middle income
195 Burkina Faso 4.869 Sub-Saharan Africa Low income
196 Benin 5.048 Sub-Saharan Africa Lower middle income
197 Burundi 5.177 Sub-Saharan Africa Low income
198 Nigeria 5.309 Sub-Saharan Africa Lower middle income
199 Angola 5.371 Sub-Saharan Africa Lower middle income
200 Central African Republic 5.985 Sub-Saharan Africa Low income
201 Mali 6.035 Sub-Saharan Africa Low income
202 Congo, Dem. Rep. 6.206 Sub-Saharan Africa Low income
203 Chad 6.346 Sub-Saharan Africa Low income
204 Somalia 6.417 Sub-Saharan Africa Low income
205 Niger 6.892 Sub-Saharan Africa Low income




Generation G (Mike Grandinetti)

Having worked and been educated across borders, Gen G is inherently global in their perspectives. When traveling, they aim to live like locals, seeking out authentic experiences in an effort to learn from the culture and people around them. This further enhances their ability to understand and appreciate, rather than judge, other cultures. This extends to an inherent tolerance of diversity in all its forms — racially, ethnically, religiously and gender-based.
Gen G’s multicultural experience and understanding enables them to work as effective team players, effortlessly crossing boundaries as they work in geographically dispersed teams. They are comfortable giving voice to all team members, allowing them to effectively harness the powerful benefits of diversity that are so crucial to fostering innovation.
Today’s consumers and B2B buyers care about companies’ authentic principles and economic value propositions — and Gen G is committed to turning passion into purpose. Gen G is the most socially conscious cohort since the 1960s. They naturally bring this sense of purpose into the workplace, helping companies communicate and execute their values in an authentic way.



Population and the SDGs (Population Matters)

GOAL 1: No Poverty
High fertility rates and population growth can trap countries in poverty. Large family size and poverty often go hand-in-hand. People living in deprived areas are usually not empowered to choose the number of children they have and in some cases feel the need to have many so they can be provided for in their old age.

GOAL 2: Zero Hunger
Feeding the world without destroying more nature will become increasingly difficult and eventually impossible under sustained population growth. Agriculture is already a leading cause of environmental degradation and further conversion of land for farming purposes will have devastating consequences for biodiversity and our climate.

Meeting the SDGs leads to lower world population growth (Guy J. Abel et al.)

In September 2015 the leaders of the world under the umbrella of the United Nations in New York subscribed to an ambitious set of global development goals, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). If actually pursued, several of these targets, particularly in the fields of reproductive health and female education, will have strong direct and indirect effects on future population trends, mostly in the direction of lower population growth. In this paper we endeavor to translate the most relevant of these goals into SDG population scenarios and thus quantify the likely effects of meeting these development goals on national population trajectories. The results show that meeting these goals would result in the world population peaking around 2060 and reaching 8.2–8.7 billion by 2100, depending on the specific SDG scenario.

This analysis quantitatively demonstrates that demography is not destiny and that policies, particularly in the field of female education and reproductive health, can contribute greatly to reducing world population growth.

Empty Planet (Darrell Bricker and John Ibbitson)

The great defining event of the twenty-first century—one of the great defining events in human history—will occur in three decades, give or take, when the global population starts to decline. Once that decline begins, it will never end. We do not face the challenge of a population bomb but of a population bust—a relentless, generation-after-generation culling of the human herd. Nothing like this has ever happened before.
If you find this news shocking, that’s not surprising. The United Nations forecasts that our population will grow from seven billion to eleven billion in this century before leveling off after 2100. But an increasing number of demographers around the world believe the UN estimates are far too high. More likely, they say, the planet’s population will peak at around nine billion sometime between 2040 and 2060, and then start to decline, perhaps prompting the UN to designate a symbolic death to mark the occasion. By the end of this century, we could be back to where we are right now, and steadily growing fewer.
Populations are already declining in about two dozen states around the world; by 2050 the number will have climbed to three dozen. Some of the richest places on earth are shedding people every year: Japan, Korea, Spain, Italy, much of Eastern Europe. “We are a dying country,” Italy’s health minister, Beatrice Lorenzin, lamented in 2015.
But this isn’t the big news. The big news is that the largest developing nations are also about to grow smaller, as their own fertility rates come down. China will begin losing people in a few years. By the middle of this century, Brazil and Indonesia will follow suit. Even India, soon to become the most populous nation on earth, will see its numbers stabilize in about a generation and then start to decline.

La population mondiale risque de diminuer (Richard Hiault)

De multiples raisons expliquent la baisse du taux de fécondité. L’intégration des femmes dans le marché de l’emploi retarde l’âge auquel elles ont leur premier enfant. La hausse des prix de l’immobilier dans les pays riches limite d’autant le développement d’une famille nombreuse pour des raisons de coûts trop élevés. Le développement de l’éducation et le meilleur accès aux soins et aux pratiques contraceptives jouent également un rôle dans le fait que les familles font moins d’enfants.

Population decline (Wikipedia)

A population decline (also sometimes called underpopulation, depopulation, or population collapse) in humans is a reduction in a human population size. Over the long term, stretching from prehistory to the present, Earth’s total human population has continued to grow; however, current projections suggest that this long-term trend of steady population growth may be coming to an end.

Population Matters

Although population growth in the 20th and 21st centuries has skyrocketed, it can be slowed, stopped and reversed through actions which enhance global justice and improve people’s lives. Under the United Nations’ most optimistic scenario, a sustainable reduction in global population could happen within decades.

Media Politics (Shanto Iyengar)

The democratic ideal of fully informed citizens is rarely realized. Ordinary people are preoccupied with their personal affairs and have little time for keeping abreast of public issues. Indeed, most citizens prefer to watch sitcoms (situation comedies) or sports. Naturally, the ability of the media to perform the function of keeping the public informed is compromised when citizens are uninterested. The news media cannot be expected to deliver a steady stream of in-depth public affairs programming that no one will watch.
Accordingly, over time, the unrealistic ideal of attentive citizens who scour the media for political information has given way to the notion that democracy can function through “efficient” citizens who either pay attention only to issues of personal importance or rely on a variety of psychological cues, such as a candidate’s party affiliation, to compensate for a lack of factual information. A related alternative to the classic ideal of informed citizenship is that citizens do pay attention, but only when the media sound an alarm alerting them to issues that threaten the well-being of society or the nation.


もしも全世界が SDGsの17の目標を信じて疑うことなくそのゴールに向かって突き進んでいくと、間違いなく世界は今よりも悪くなる。利益を得るのは、一部の国や SDGsをビジネスにしている企業など、ほんの一握りの人々だけであって、世界全体でみると、損をする人、貧しくなる人のほうが圧倒的に多くなってしまう。


この人口増加を抑えないで、SDGsが掲げる「1.貧困をなくそう」「2.飢餓をゼロに」「6.安全な水とトイレを世界中に」「7.エネルギーをみんなに そしてクリーンに」「13.気候変動に具体的な対策を」「14.海の豊かさを守ろう」「15.陸の豊かさも守ろう」という目標を徹底的に追求していくと、人類は間違いなく〝地獄〟へ直行していく。





勅使川原 真衣








All that glitters is not gold

The appearance of positive psychology at the turn of the century was a game changer. Gardner’s inspirational sermons no longer appeared to be mere mottoes about the power of individuals to lift themselves up, but rather, a scientific truth. Positive psychologists indeed provided the lofty legitimacy of science to powerful institutions, Forbes Top 100 multinational companies, and a multibillion global industry widely interested in promoting and selling the same simple idea that Gardner touts in his talks: anyone can reinvent their life and become the best version of themselves by simply adopting a more positive outlook on themselves and the surrounding world. To many, the pursuit of happiness had become a serious issue whose scientific approach would yield enormous social and psychological benefits. To many others, however, the science behind all these rosy promises of personal realization and social amelioration, both in theory and in practice, cast too much of a shadow over many of its most apologetic claims, disquieting uses and contentious effects.



Cloud seeding

Cloud seeding is not a once-and-done treatment. An unknown in the equation is whether cloud seeding will create an imbalance for nature to figure out. The argument goes that synthetically producing more precipitation than nature intended might keep the environment from balancing naturally.

Empa, Switzerland

Heat exchangers from instant water heaters provided the solution: the sodium hydroxide solution spirals along a pipe, absorbs water vapor and emits heat.

While replenishing the store, the 30-percent, “discharged” sodium hydroxide solution trickles downwards around the spiral pipe. Inside the pipe flows 60-degree hot water, which can be produced by a solar collector, for instance. The water from the sodium hydroxide solution evaporates; the water vapor is removed and condensed. The condensation heat is conducted into a geothermal probe, where it is stored. The sodium hydroxide solution that leaves the heat exchanger after charging is concentrated to 50 percent again, i.e. “charged” with thermal energy.