Category Archives: information



  1. Kindle ダイレクト・パブリッシングのヘルプサイトから、Kindle プレビューツールをダウンロードします。
  2. Kindle プレビューツールをインストール後起動し、EPUBファイルをドラッグ&ドロップします。
  3. 自動的に変換が始まり、EPUBファイルと同じ場所に「Compiled-(ファイル名)」という名前のフォルダが作成されます。
  4. フォルダの中に、拡張子が.mobiになったファイルがあります。これをKindleに転送すれば、閲覧することができます。


InDesign ドキュメントを EPUB に書き出して、EPUB リーダーで出力を表示できます。
リフロー可能な EPUB 形式でドキュメントを書き出すことを選択できます。リフロー可能な EPUB ドキュメントの場合、EPUB リーダーは表示デバイスに応じてコンテンツを最適化できます。
ドキュメントが eInk デバイスのユーザーを対象としている場合には、リフロー可能な形式が適しています。また、リーダーのフォントやサイズを変更するオプションを提供する場合にも、リフロー可能な形式が推奨されます。
固定レイアウト形式でドキュメントを書き出すことを選択できます。固定レイアウト形式では、ドキュメントにオーディオ、ビデオ、および Edge コンテンツを含めることができます。

Parmy Olson

Called Peltarion, the Stockholm-based startup has raised $16 million to date from investors and counts BMW, NASA, Ocado and 13 other organizations as early subscribers, with 800 more in line to try it out.
Crnkovic-Friis, their CEO, says that many companies have tried using other, off-the-shelf machine-learning tools like Google’s TensorFlow, Amazon’s Sage Maker and Microsoft’s Azure Machine Learning to build their own image-recognition or natural-language processing systems.
But these tools are “super complex,” he says. “You have to be an AI expert to use them.”
Crnkovic-Friis designed Peltarion to do for AI what WordPress (and before that, Dreamweaver) did for people who wanted to build websites but didn’t know HTML.
It uses a graphical interface to build and train a bespoke neural network, a computer system that’s inspired by the structure of a human brain. Software developers and junior data scientists who aren’t AI experts should be able to use it, Crnkovic-Friis says.

Chartered Institute of Public Relations (CIPR)

Public Relations is about reputation – the result of what you do, what you say and what others say about you.

Public Relations is the discipline which looks after reputation, with the aim of earning understanding and support and influencing opinion and behaviour. It is the planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain goodwill and mutual understanding between an organisation and its publics.

Shaun Nichols

Though Cambridge Analytica said it is pulling the plug in the US and UK, there is already some indication that the outfit – which has a non-trivial organizational structure – is more or less just going to rebrand under a different banner.
The UK’s official registrar of businesses and organizations, Companies House, lists an active company called Emerdata Limited, headquartered at the same offices as SCL Elections and run by much of the same management and investors as Cambridge Analytica. It even describes itself as a “data processing, hosting and related activities” organization.
For instance, Dr Alexander Taylor was appointed a director of Emerdata on March 28. That’s Cambridge Analytica’s acting CEO and data wizard Dr Alexander Taylor. Julian Wheatland is an Emerdata director who is also a director within the SCL network of organizations.
Jennifer and Rebekah Mercer are directors of Emerdata, and are the daughters of ultra-wealthy businessman Robert Mercer who created and bankrolled Cambridge Analytica. Billionaire Bob has given tens of millions of dollars to rightwing political efforts. Jennifer and Rebekah also had a hand in Cambridge Anal.

Her Story

これからの時代、平和な世界を実現していくためには、女性と男性の役割を調和させることが重要です。これまでの男性中心の歴史=History(His Story)と、女性も主役となって時代をリードするHer Story とのバランスを取っていくことが大切です。
そこで、平和を創りだすために、女性の一人ひとりが「Her Story」の主役になれるように、との願いを込めて誌名を「Her Story」と名付けました。

Le Monde

Décodex : nos outils contre les fausses informations

Utilisez les outils développés par Les Décodeurs pour vous aider à éviter les fausses informations :





David Z. Hambrick, Madeline Marquardt

Fake news can distort people’s beliefs even after being debunked. For example, repeated over and over, a story such as the one about the Pope endorsing Trump can create a glow around a political candidate that persists long after the story is exposed as fake. A study recently published in the journal Intelligence suggests that some people may have an especially difficult time rejecting misinformation. Asked to rate a fictitious person on a range of character traits, people who scored low on a test of cognitive ability continued to be influenced by damaging information about the person even after they were explicitly told the information was false. The study is significant because it identifies what may be a major risk factor for vulnerability to fake news.

David Rapp

Even when we know better, our brains often rely on inaccurate or misleading information to make future decisions. But why are we so easily influenced by false statements such as “vaccinations cause autism” or “30 million illegal immigrants live in the U.S.?”
People quickly download the inaccurate statements into memory because it’s easier than critically evaluating and analyzing what they’ve heard.
Later, the brain pulls up the incorrect information first because it’s less work to retrieve recently presented material. If it’s available, people tend to think they can rely on it. But just because you can remember what someone said, doesn’t make it true.
It’s even harder to avoid relying on misinformation when accurate and inaccurate information is mixed together.
We’re bombarded with tons of information all day; it’s a nightmare to critically evaluate all of it.
We often assume sources are reliable. It’s not that people are lazy, though that could certainly contribute to the problem. It’s the computational task of evaluating everything that is arduous and difficult, as we attempt to preserve resources for when we really need them.

Dan Coats

We expect Russia to continue using propaganda, social media, false-flag personas, sympathetic spokespeople and other means of influence to try to exacerbate social and political fissures in the United States.
There should be no doubt that Russia perceives its past efforts as successful and views the 2018 U.S. midterm elections as a potential target for Russian influence operations.
Throughout the entire community, we have not seen any evidence of any significant change from last year.
The Russians have a strategy that goes well beyond what is happening in the United States. While they have historically tried to do these types of things, clearly in 2016 they upped their game. They took advantage, a sophisticated advantage of social media. They are doing that not only in the United States but doing it throughout Europe and perhaps elsewhere.



Niall Ferguson

You either love Donald Trump or you loathe him. You either adore Brexit or abhor it. This polarization has been fostered by the giant online social networks of our time.
Facebook encourages you to like or not like what you see in your Newsfeed. Twitter allows you to retweet or like other people’s tweets or block those users who offend your sensibilities.
In this binary world, there is not much room for ambivalence. I have had a tough time this year explaining even to friends why I can like some aspects of the Trump administration while at the same time disliking others.

Mark Zuckerberg

As of this morning, the Facebook community is now officially 2 billion people! We’re making progress connecting the world, and now let’s bring the world closer together.

Franz Vollenweider

A fundamental feature of information processing dysfunction in psychosis is the inability of these patients to screen out, inhibit, filter or gate extranous stimuli and to attent selectively to salient features of the environment. Gating deficients may cause these subjects to become overloaded with excessive extroceptive and introceptive stimuli, which in turn could lead to a breakdown in cognitive integrity and difficulty in distinguishing self from nonself.

Stevan Dojcinovic

My country, Serbia, has become an unwilling laboratory for Facebook’s experiments on user behavior — and the independent, nonprofit investigative journalism organization where I am the editor in chief is one of the unfortunate lab rats.
Last month, I noticed that our stories had stopped appearing on Facebook as usual. I was stunned. Our largest single source of traffic, accounting for more than half of our monthly page views, had been crippled.
Surely, I thought, it was a glitch. It wasn’t.
Facebook had made a small but devastating change. Posts made by “pages” — including those of organizations like mine — had been removed from the regular News Feed, the default screen users see when they log on to the social media site. They were now segregated into a separate section called Explore Feed that users have to select before they can see our stories.

Adam Mosseri

There have been a number of reports about a test we’re running in Sri Lanka, Bolivia, Slovakia, Serbia, Guatemala, and Cambodia. Some have interpreted this test as a future product we plan to deliver globally. We currently have no plans to roll this test out further.
We always listen to our community about ways we might improve News Feed. People tell us they want an easier way to see posts from friends and family. We are testing having one dedicated space for people to keep up with their friends and family, and another separate space, called Explore, with posts from pages.
The goal of this test is to understand if people prefer to have separate places for personal and public content.

Ajit Pai

Roughly one-quarter of American newspapers have gone out of business since 1975, and many of those that remain are struggling. Today, only 18 percent of Americans read print newspapers regularly. Less than 10 percent under the age of 50 do. By a large margin, people instead turn to the internet for news.


ツイッターでのつぶやき 「空が綺麗な季節になりました。去年、夫と子供と旅行した信州の空の青さを思い出すなあ。三人で食べたおそばもおいしかった。今年も行きたいな」
繊細チンピラA 「はいはい、夫と子供いるぞ自慢ですか、いい気なものですね。独身女を見下すのがそんなに楽しいですか」
繊細チンピラB 「私の亭主は毎晩残業で、この何年か、旅行なんかしたことないですよ。毎年旅行とは結構なご身分だこと。旅行にも行けない人間たちがこのつぶやき読んでどういう気分になるか、考えたこともないんでしょうね」
繊細チンピラC 「私の子供はそばアレルギーで、おそば屋さんの近くにも立ち寄れません。そばで死ぬほど苦しむ子がいるんですよ。そういう子を持った親の気持ちをおもんぱかる気持ちがあったら、こんな文章は書けないと思います」
繊細チンピラD 「私の家はうどん屋です。秋になったらおそばを食べないといけないんですか? うどん屋はつぶれてもかまわないって言うんですね? なんて自分勝手な!」



The New York Times Editorial Board

At 2:35 p.m. on Monday, the fearless Maltese journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia published a characteristically blunt post on her influential blog accusing leading politicians of corruption.
“There are crooks everywhere you look now,” she concluded. “The situation is desperate.”
Less than 30 minutes later, the car she was driving was blown to pieces.
For journalists around the world, this is the new normal.

赤田康和, 塩原賢


Le Monde

Après l’annonce en janvier d’un plan dit de « nettoyage » pour « reconquérir la souveraineté chinoise sur Internet », le gouvernement chinois a demandé, le 11 juillet, aux entreprises de télécommunications de fermer tout accès aux VPN avant le 1er février 2018. Déjà, samedi 29 juillet, Apple a, sur demande des autorités chinoise, retiré de son magasin d’applications en ligne tous les VPN qui s’y trouvaient.
En Russie également les lois de contrôle du Web se sont multipliées ces dernières années. Vladimir Poutine a signé, le week-end du 29 au 30 juillet, un projet de loi adopté par le Parlement interdisant de facto les VPN dans le pays, ainsi que d’autres logiciels permettant de contourner la censure, comme le navigateur Tor. Une décision justifiée par le Kremlin comme nécessaire à la lutte contre le terrorisme, le trafic de drogue et d’autres délits.

Adam Segal

Reports this month that the United Arab Emirates orchestrated the hacking of a Qatari news agency, helping to incite a crisis in the Middle East, are as unsurprising as they are unwelcome. For years, countries — in particular Russia — have used cyberattacks and the dissemination of disinformation through social media and news outlets to provoke protests, sway elections and undermine trust in institutions. It was only a matter of time before smaller states tried their hand at these tactics.
With few accepted rules of behavior in cyberspace, countries as big as China or as small as Bahrain can be expected to use these kinds of attacks. And they may eventually spill over into real-world military conflicts.

Andrey Krutskikh

When humanity realized the horror of biological weapons, it banned them. We are in the same situation right now. We should avoid the mistakes of the Atomic Age, when we first armed ourselves sufficiently to destroy each other, and then began to disarm.
In our wisdom, we should agree not to militarize cyberspace, and set some international ground rules.
We have one small task ahead – convincing the United States and NATO members. But they need to understand that we are all in the same boat, and must row in the same direction.
The main platforms for promoting the new norms should be the UN and the OSCE.



Martin Untersinger

La question de savoir si Lazarus est effectivement piloté par Pyongyang est encore plus ardue. Le FBI, après une enquête sur le réseau de Sony Pictures avait conclu à la responsabilité de la Corée du Nord. Mais les preuves avancées étaient très minces. Non seulement l’attribution d’attaques informatiques à un Etat est techniquement très difficile, mais elle repose souvent fréquemment sur des éléments collectés par des agences de renseignement, par définition difficilement publiables sans mettre en péril leur source, qu’elle soit technique ou humaine.
« Le besoin de protéger des sources et des méthodes sensibles nous empêche de partager toutes les informations », écrivait d’ailleurs le FBI en novembre 2016.

Julian Assange

The UK has said it will arrest me regardless. Now the US CIA director [Mike] Pompeo and the US attorney general [Jeff Sessions] have said that I and other WikiLeaks staff have no rights and that my arrest and the arrest of other staff is a priority. That is not acceptable … Our publications are proceeding at speed and that speed in relation to [recent high profile leaks about the CIA] is accelerating.





Katie Benner, Sui-Lee Wee

Apple, complying with what it said was a request from Chinese authorities, removed news apps created by The New York Times from its app store in China.
The move limits access to one of the few remaining channels for readers in mainland China to read The Times without resorting to special software. The government began blocking The Times’s websites in 2012, after a series of articles on the wealth amassed by the family of Wen Jiabao, who was then prime minister, but it had struggled in recent months to prevent readers from using the Chinese-language app.
Apple removed both the English-language and Chinese-language apps from the app store in China. Apps from other international publications, including The Financial Times and The Wall Street Journal, were still available in the app store.


ソーシャルメディアは、エジプトの人々に「我々は一人ではないのだ」、「同じフラストレーションを溜めている人々は他にもいるのだ」、「同じ夢を共有している人々がいるのだ」、「多くの人が自由を気にかけているのだ」ということを気づかせた。こうしたソーシャルメディアを介した「心理的な連帯」と「想いの同期化」が、これまでのエジプト社会で人々を行動に転嫁させることなく思いとどまらせていた「恐怖の心理的な壁」(fear of barrier psychological)を乗り越えさせたという。

池田信夫, 伊藤春香



Michael J. I. Brown

This month there’s been a hoopla about a mini ice age, and unfortunately it tells us more about failures of science communication than the climate. Such failures can maintain the illusion of doubt and uncertainty, even when there’s a scientific consensus that the world is warming.
The story starts benignly with a peer-reviewed paper and a presentation in early July by Professor Valentina Zharkova, from Northumbria University, at Britain’s National Astronomy Meeting.
The paper presents a model for the sun’s magnetic field and sunspots, which predicts a 60% fall in sunspot numbers when extrapolated to the 2030s. Crucially, the paper makes no mention of climate.
The first failure of science communication is present in the Royal Astronomical Society press release from July 9. It says that “solar activity will fall by 60 per cent during the 2030s” without clarifying that this “solar activity” refers to a fall in the number of sunspots, not a dramatic fall in the life-sustaining light emitted by the sun.
The press release also omits crucial details. It does say that the drop in sunspots may resemble the Maunder minimum, a 17th century lull in solar activity, and includes a link to the Wikipedia article on the subject. The press release also notes that the Maunder minimum coincided with a mini ice age.
But that mini ice age began before the Maunder minimum and may have had multiple causes, including volcanism.
Crucially, the press release doesn’t say what the implications of a future Maunder minimum are for climate.




子供を教育するときに、親は「偉いね」「すごいね」と言ってほめて <やる気> を出させて成績を上げさせようとするものです。実際子供のやることなど、偉くもすごくもないのです。ですが、そうやって子供を騙すことによって意欲を芽生えさせながら教育します。

Randall Beard

The formats where action exceeds trust by the greatest margin share a common attribute: Easy access to products/services. You like it, you buy it. Online and mobile formats make it exceptionally easy for consumers to live in the moment and take quick action on the advertisement. Often, consumers simply click a link and they’re directed to a place where they can receive more information or purchase the item.

Institute for Propaganda Analysis

Glittering Generalities:
Glittering generalities was one of the seven main propaganda techniques identified by the Institute for Propaganda Analysis in 1938. It also occurs very often in politics and political propaganda. Glittering generalities are words that have different positive meaning for individual subjects, but are linked to highly valued concepts. When these words are used, they demand approval without thinking, simply because such an important concept is involved. For example, when a person is asked to do something in “defense of democracy” they are more likely to agree. The concept of democracy has a positive connotation to them because it is linked to a concept that they value. Words often used as glittering generalities are honor, glory, love of country, and especially in the United States, freedom. When coming across with glittering generalities, we should especially consider the merits of the idea itself when separated from specific words.


この脆弱な言論空間に、スマートで巧妙な情報操作を行なう集団が現れたらどうなるか? たとえ「極右政権誕生」という形はとらなくとも、様々な形で“排外的な空気”が社会全体に染み渡っていく可能性は極めて高いでしょう。



  1. 太平洋戦争中、大本営が国民に向けて発表した、戦況に関する情報。末期には、戦況が悪化しているのにもかかわらず、優勢であるかのような虚偽の発表をくり返した。
  2. 転じて、政府や有力者などが発表する、自分に都合がよいばかりで信用できない情報。

Sarah Harrison

sarah-cDespite the mounting legal and political pressure coming from Washington, we continue to publish valuable material, and submissions keep pouring in. There is a desperate need for our work: The world is connected by largely unaccountable networks of power that span industries and countries, political parties, corporations and institutions; WikiLeaks shines a light on these by revealing not just individual incidents, but information about entire structures of power.
While a single document might give a picture of a particular event, the best way to shed light on a whole system is to fully uncover the mechanisms around it — the hierarchy, ideology, habits and economic forces that sustain it. It is the trends and details visible in the large archives we are committed to publishing that reveal the details that tell us about the nature of these structures. It is the constellations, not stars alone, that allow us to read the night sky.



Robert Hunziker

Fukushima is a national/worldwide emergency that is the worst kept secret ever because everybody knows it is happening; it is current; it is alive; it is deadly; it has killed and will kill many more as well as maim countless people over many decades.
Yet, the Abe administration is talking to Olympic officials about conducting Olympic events, like baseball, in Fukushima for Tokyo 2020. Are they nuts, going off the deep end, gone mad, out of control? After all, TEPCO readily admits (1) the Fukushima cleanup will take decades to complete, if ever completed, and (2) nobody knows the whereabouts of the worlds most deadly radioactive blobs of sizzling hot masses of death and destruction, begging the question: Why is there a Chernobyl Exclusion Zone of 1,000 square miles after one nuclear meltdown 30 years ago, but yet Fukushima, with three meltdowns, each more severe than Chernobyl, is already being repopulated? It doesn’t compute!
The short answer is the Abe administration claims the radioactivity is being cleaned up. A much longer answer eschews the Abe administration by explaining the near impossibility of cleaning up radioactivity throughout the countryside. There are, after all, independent organizations with boots on the ground in Fukushima that tell the truth, having measured dangerous levels of radiation throughout the region where clean up crews supposedly cleaned up.
The Columbia Journalism Review article, intentionally or not, paints a picture of “journalism by government decree” in Japan, which gainsays any kind of real journalism. It’s faux journalism, kinda like reading The Daily Disneyworld Journal & Times.

Martin Fackler

Abe and his supporters on the nationalistic right seized on missteps by the Asahi in its coverage of Fukushima and sensitive issues of World War II-era history to launch a withering barrage of criticism that the paper seemed unable to withstand. The taming of the Asahi set off a domino-like series of moves by major newspapers and television networks to remove outspoken commentators and newscasters.
Political interference in the media was one reason cited by Reporters Without Borders in lowering Japan from 11th in 2010 to 72nd out of 180 nations in this year’s annual ranking of global press freedoms, released on April 20, 2016.

Lawrence Lessig

codeislawIt is proper to let the market develop first. But as the Constitution checks and limits what Congress does, so too should constitutional values check and limit what a market does. We should test both the laws of Congress and the product of a market against these values. We should interrogate the architecture of cyberspace as we interrogate the code of Congress.
Unless we do, or unless we learn how, the relevance of our constitutional tradition will fade. The importance of our commitment to fundamental values, through a self-consciously enacted constitution, will fade. We will miss the threat that this age presents to the liberties and values that we have inherited. The law of cyberspace will be how cyberspace codes it, but we will have lost our role in setting that law.

Brewster Kahle

The World Wide Web is quite fragile. But it is huge. At the Internet Archive we collect one billion pages a week. We now know that Web pages only last about 100 days on average before they change or disappear. They blink on and off in their servers.
And the Web is massively accessible– unless you live in China. The Chinese government has blocked the Internet Archive, the New York Times, and other sites from its citizens. And other countries block their citizens’ access as well every once in a while. So the Web is not reliably accessible.
And the Web isn’t private. People, corporations, countries can spy on what you are reading. And they do. We now know, thanks to Edward Snowden, that Wikileaks readers were selected for targeting by the National Security Agency and the UK’s equivalent just because those organizations could identify those Web browsers that visited the site and identify the people likely to be using those browsers.



Matthew Hodgson

Ultimately, it’s hard to predict what final direction Web 3.0 will take us, and that’s precisely the point. By unlocking the web from the hands of a few players this will inevitably enable a surge in innovation and let services flourish which prioritise the user’s interests.
Apple, Google, Microsoft, and others have their own interests at heart (as they should), but that means that the user can often be viewed purely as a source of revenue, quite literally at the users’ expense.
As the Decentralised Web attracts the interest and passion of the mainstream developer community, there is no telling what new economies will emerge and what kinds of new technologies and services they will invent. The one certainty is they will intrinsically support their communities and user bases just as much as the interests of their creators.

Tim Berners-Lee

The web was designed to be decentralised so that everybody could participate by having their own domain and having their own webserver and this hasn’t worked out. Instead, we’ve got the situation where individual personal data has been locked up in these silos. … The proposal is, then, to bring back the idea of a decentralised web.
To bring back power to people. We are thinking we are going to make a social revolution by just tweaking: we’re going to use web technology, but we’re going to use it in such a way that we separate the apps that you use from the data that you use.

Booz Allen Hamilton Inc.

boozallenhamiltonThe sun rises. It’s the dawn of not just a new day, but of a new century in our partnerships with clients. Cybersecurity protections are now more thorough and powerful; lethal IEDs may have met their technological match; disease is being fought faster; the fingerprints of criminals tell a story in an instant. These are our clients’ stories—and ours, too.

On the journey from trusted partner to essential partner, we’ve changed just one word that changes everything for our clients.

Brittan Heller

People wanted a focus on tech and combating online hate for years, but recently there’s been an increase in online hate. A good personal example of this is that they put out a press release announcing my position (the Anti-Defamation League’s first director of technology and society) and they made an announcement on Twitter as well. Within minutes of A.D.L. announcing this position, I opened up my Twitter feed and I found hateful symbols, I found echoes and swastikas and green frogs and people discussing my death. Within hours it became enhanced with statements of Holocaust denial, and within days it’s become ad hominem attacks based on Jewish stereotypes and misogyny. At this point it’s not surprising anymore that this occurs, but the speed of it, and the ferocity of it — that I think is shocking.


%e6%9c%ac%e3%81%8c%e5%a3%b2%e3%82%8c%e3%81%aa%e3%81%84%e3%81%a8%e3%81%84%e3%81%86%e3%81%91%e3%82%8c%e3%81%a9第1章 日本の書店がアマゾンとメガストアだけになる日
第2章 活字ばなれといわれて40年
第3章 「街の本屋」は40年間、むしられっぱなし
第4章 「中くらいの本屋」の危機
第5章 電子書籍と出版界
第6章 本屋は儲からないというけれど
第7章 「話題の新刊」もベストセラーもいらない



The Economist

The tendency of netizens to form self-contained groups is strengthened by what Eli Pariser, an internet activist, identified five years ago as the “filter bubble”. Back in 2011 he worried that Google’s search algorithms, which offer users personalised results according to what the system knows of their preferences and surfing behaviour, would keep people from coming across countervailing views. Facebook subsequently became a much better—or worse—example. Although Mark Zuckerberg, the firm’s founder, insists that his social network does not trap its users in their own world, its algorithms are designed to populate their news feeds with content similar to material they previously “liked”. So, for example, during the referendum campaign Leavers mostly saw pro-Brexit items; Remainers were served mainly pro-EU fare.

Tali Sharot, Cass R. Sunstein

The clear implication is that for weak believers in man-made climate change, comforting news will have a big impact, and alarming news won’t. Strong believers will show the opposite pattern. And because Americans are frequently exposed to competing claims about the latest scientific evidence, these opposing tendencies will predictably create political polarization — and it will grow over time.
In the case of information about ourselves — about how attractive others perceive us to be, or how likely we are to succeed — people normally alter their beliefs more in response to good news. In certain circumstances, that will also be true for political issues — as in the case of weak climate change believers. But at times, good political news can threaten our deepest commitments, and we will give it less weight.
These findings help explain polarization on many issues. With respect to the Affordable Care Act, for example, people encounter good news, to the effect that it has helped millions of people obtain health insurance, and also bad news, to the effect that health care costs and insurance premiums continue to increase. For the act’s supporters, the good news will have far more impact than the bad; for the opponents, the opposite is true. As the sheer volume of information increases, polarization will be heightened as well.
Essentially the same tale can be told with respect to immigration, terrorism, increases in the minimum wage — and candidates for the highest office in the land.

Anthony W. Marx

All summer, kids have been hanging out in front of the Morris Park Library in the Bronx, before opening hours and after closing. They bring their computers to pick up the Wi-Fi signal that is leaking out of the building, because they can’t afford internet access at home. They’re there during the school year, too, even during the winter — it’s the only way they can complete their online math homework.

The Telegraph

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Patrick F. Walsh, Seumas Miller

Social media is defined as ‘both the technology and the use of a varied category of internet services inspired by the participatory web or web 2.0, which enables users to create and share digital content, whether textual, audio or video’. The intelligence community is increasingly embracing social media as both collection and analytical tools to support different decision making requirements. Ormand, Barlett and Miller provide a good overview of how social media has and could be used in national intelligence frameworks. For example, social media could be used for crowd sourcing information to get a better flow of information in emergency/crisis situations such as in natural disasters or riots. Social media is also useful in generating better understandings of indicators for violence and radicalization as well as providing what they refer to as ‘near time situational awareness’ where we can collect and cluster social media outputs to get a sense of unfolding events such as the current Ebola outbreak in West Africa. A good example, of providing situational awareness would be being able to monitor effectively Facebook and Twitter as they captured events leading up to the 2011 Egyptian revolution. Event detection technology can profile words over time suggesting that like events might be occurring.

Julia Angwin

Algorithms are ubiquitous in our lives. They map out the best route to our destination and help us find new music based on what we listen to now. But they are also being employed to inform fundamental decisions about our lives.
Companies use them to sort through stacks of résumés from job seekers. Credit agencies use them to determine our credit scores. And the criminal justice system is increasingly using algorithms to predict a defendant’s future criminality.





David H. Johnson

Though databases as tools for psychological research are in their infancy, thinking about their ideal organization is surprisingly far along. Three schools of thought have emerged. But the technology for databases is being innovated so rapidly that it is premature to judge any approach as best. In fact, a hybridization containing elements of all three is becoming possible thanks to technological developments and the work of some far-thinking scientists.



Robert Sparrow

Artificially intelligent weapon systems will thus be capable of making their own decisions, for instance, about their target, or their approach to their target, and of doing so in an ‘intelligent’ fashion. While they will be programmed to make decisions according to certain rules, in important circumstances their actions will not be predictable. However, this is not to say that they will be random either. Mere randomness provides no support for a claim to autonomy. Instead the actions of these machines will be based on reasons, but these reasons will be responsive to the internal states —‘desires’, ‘ beliefs’ and ‘values’— of the system itself. Moreover, these systems will have significant capacity to form and revise these beliefs themselves. They will even have the ability to learn from experience.

Daniela Landert, Andreas H. Jucker

Weintraub’s dimensions of public and private

Public Private
Visibility Open, revealed, accessible Hidden, withdrawn
Collectivity Affects the interests of a collective Pertains only to an individual

Dürscheid’s classification of private and public communication online

Public Non-public
Non-private Website of a company Spam emails
Private Recreational online chat Holiday greetings via email

Richard J. Evans

While conventional right-wing politicians delivered lectures, or spoke in a style that was orotund and pompous, flat and dull, or rough and brutish, Hitler followed the model of Social Democratic orators such as Eisner, or the left-wing agitators from whom he later claimed to have learned in Vienna. And he gained much of his oratorical success by telling his audiences what they wanted to hear. He used simple, straightforward language that ordinary people could understand, short sentences, powerful, emotive slogans. Often beginning a speech quietly, to capture his audience’s attention, he would gradually build to a climax, his deep, rather hoarse voice would rise in pitch, climbing in a crescendo to a ranting and screaming finale, accompanied by carefully rehearsed dramatic gestures…as he worked his audience into a frenzy emotion. There were no qualifications in what he said; everything was absolute, uncompromising, irrevocable, undeviating, unalterable, final…he exuded self-confidence, aggression, belief in the ultimate triumph of his party, even a sense of destiny.



Susan Griffiths

Soon after Malala woke up in a London hospital bed, Edelman announced it was handling her media needs pro bono. Edelman staff worked to help the family deal with the waves of media and public interest. Together, the group created a Malala brand: a brand of hope, advocacy and peace.
With only five team members on her account, Edelman has successfully managed her press (there is currently a weeklong waiting period for any interviews), her book coverage and her humanitarian efforts.
While her story is one to be remembered for decades, without the help of a dedicated PR team, it could easily lose its message. Many are unaware of Edelman’s work in this particular story. The agency did not boast about it or advertise it; its staff merely provided their services.

Tom Stafford

When you read the news, sometimes it can feel like the only things reported are terrible, depressing events. Why does the media concentrate on the bad things in life, rather than the good?
Many people often say that they would prefer good news: but is that actually true?

People who were more interested in current affairs and politics were particularly likely to choose the bad news.
And yet when asked, these people said they preferred good news. On average, they said that the media was too focussed on negative stories.

We pay attention to bad news, because on the whole, we think the world is rosier than it actually is. When it comes to our own lives, most of us believe we’re better than average, and that, like the clichés, we expect things to be all right in the end. This pleasant view of the world makes bad news all the more surprising and salient. It is only against a light background that the dark spots are highlighted.


運動会が開かれました、というよりも3組の山田くんが事故にあいましたの方が、みんなの話題になるでしょう? テレビはたくさんの人に見てもらわないとお金になりません。ですので、刺激的で話題性のあるものがニュースになるのです。

Michael Desch, Paul C. Avey

Finally, compared to the other disciplines, political science did rather poorly. This lower ranking may reflect the fact that in recent years the discipline has become dominated by more complex methodologies such as formal modeling and statistics. Policymakers tend to eschew, in the words of one respondent, “all formulaic academic, as opposed to historically based temperamental, realist projects,” preferring, in the words of another, “historical analysis, case studies, theoretical writings that illustrate theory with case studies and concrete examples.” The higher the respondent’s government rank, the less likely an individual was to rank political science positively. The same was true for respondents with greater education. Only policymakers with a political science background were more likely to rank the discipline highly than others.

Andrew Griffin

Algeria has blocked Facebook and other social networks in an attempt to stop people cheating in exams.
The country has taken the decision to cut off access to social networks after papers and exam questions were leaked online. The decision comes ahead of the beginning of retakes of some important exams after they were already leaked, and the government said that it had taken the decision so that people would no longer be able to share leaked papers.
Earlier this month, police arrested dozens of people in an attempt to find out how parts of high school exams had made it onto social media.
People are unable to access sites including Facebook and Twitter over both normal internet connections and 3G services.
In a statement Sunday, the Ministry of Post and Information and Communication Technology said that the “cut of social networks has a direct relationship with the matriculation exams” which begin Sunday. It said that it had made the move to protect students from “phony topics” that were being circulated online.
Officials said that it had taken the decisions because the papers being circulated were false and so would give students the wrong impression.
No other parts of the internet have been affected, meaning that people are still able to communicate – and potentially cheat – in private.

Pope Francis

Furthermore, when media and the digital world become omnipresent, their influence can stop people from learning how to live wisely, to think deeply and to love generously. In this context, the great sages of the past run the risk of going unheard amid the noise and distractions of an information overload. Efforts need to be made to help these media become sources of new cultural progress for humanity and not a threat to our deepest riches. True wisdom, as the fruit of self-examination, dialogue and generous encounter between persons, is not acquired by a mere accumulation of data which eventually leads to overload and confusion, a sort of mental pollution. Real relationships with others, with all the challenges they entail, now tend to be replaced by a type of internet communication which enables us to choose or eliminate relationships at whim, thus giving rise to a new type of contrived emotion which has more to do with devices and displays than with other people and with nature. Today’s media do enable us to communicate and to share our knowledge and affections. Yet at times they also shield us from direct contact with the pain, the fears and the joys of others and the complexity of their personal experiences. For this reason, we should be concerned that, alongside the exciting possibilities offered by these media, a deep and melancholic dissatisfaction with interpersonal relations, or a harmful sense of isolation, can also arise.

Joe Mullin

mickeyThe Walt Disney Company has a reputation for lobbying hard on copyright issues. The 1998 copyright extension has even been dubbed the “Mickey Mouse Protection Act” by activists like Lawrence Lessig that have worked to reform copyright laws.
This year, the company is turning to its employees to fund some of that battle. Disney CEO Bob Iger has sent a letter to the company’s employees, asking for them to open their hearts—and their wallets—to the company’s political action committee, DisneyPAC.

Rob Hughes

Fans read the papers and follow the rumors — that Benzema is unwanted at this time, in part, because of his Algerian ancestry.
Stories like that, fanned by the old French favorite Eric Cantona, are dangerously incendiary at a time when the country is trying to ensure that the 51-game tournament will be safe and secure.
Benzema doesn’t quite go along with the implication that racism is behind his exclusion from the team, but he lamented to a Spanish sports newspaper, Marca, last week that he feels unjustly victimized by the allegations without ever stepping foot in a court of law.
In the meantime, Giroud has his spot on the national team, and is doing the only thing he can do to keep his jersey: scoring goals.