ウィキペディア

クワエ (Kuwae) は、南太平洋の国バヌアツのシェパード諸島に存在する火山、海底火山、カルデラ。1452年から1453年にかけて発生した大噴火が知られている。火山爆発指数はVEI6。当時の噴火の様子を記録されたものはない。大量の火山噴出物は大気中に拡散して日射量を減少させ、世界各地で火山の冬(もしくは夏のない年のような状況)のような極端な寒冷化をもたらした。日本では、長禄・寛正の飢饉の引き金になったほか、欧州でも飢饉となり同時期(1453年5月)にコンスタンティノープルの陥落(東ローマ帝国の滅亡)も生じたことから関連付けて語られることがある。

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2 Responses to ウィキペディア

  1. shinichi says:

    Kuwae

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kuwae

    Kuwae is a submarine caldera between the Epi and Tongoa islands in Vanuatu. Kuwae Caldera cuts through the flank of the Tavani Ruru volcano on Epi and the northwestern end of Tongoa.

    Tongoa and Epi islands once formed part of a larger island called Kuwae. Local folklore tells of a cataclysmic eruption that split this island into two smaller islands with an oval 12 x 6 km caldera in between (but the story tells of an eruption south of Tongoa). Collapse associated with caldera formation may have been as much as 1100 m.[clarification needed] Around 32–39 km³ of magma was erupted, making the Kuwae eruption one of the largest in the last 10,000 years.

    In Antarctic and Greenland ice cores, a major eruption or series of eruptions is revealed as a spike in sulfate concentration, showing that the release in form of particles was higher than any other eruption since. Also, analysis of the ice cores pinpointed the event to late 1452 or early 1453. The volume of expelled matter is more than six times larger than that of the 1991 Pinatubo eruption and would have caused severe cooling of the entire planet the following three years.

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