Category Archives: globe

The Power and Peril of Curiosity (Christopher K. Hsee, Bowen Ruan)

Curiosity—the desire for information—underlies many human activities, from reading celebrity gossip to developing nuclear science. Curiosity is well recognized as a human blessing. Is it also a human curse? Tales about such things as Pandora’s box suggest that it is, but scientific evidence is lacking. In four controlled experiments, we demonstrated that curiosity could lead humans to expose themselves to aversive stimuli (even electric shocks) for no apparent benefits. The research suggests that humans possess an inherent desire, independent of consequentialist considerations, to resolve uncertainty; when facing something uncertain and feeling curious, they will act to resolve the uncertainty even if they expect negative consequences. This research reveals the potential perverse side of curiosity, and is particularly relevant to the current epoch, the epoch of information, and to the scientific community, a community with high curiosity.


Curious people do not always perform consequentialist cost-benefit analyses and may be tempted to seek the missing information even when the outcome is expectedly harmful.
On the bright side, understanding that curiosity has a dark side could help you modify your behavior and curb potentially self-destructive pursuits driven by the innate urge to close the curiosity gap. You can make better decisions if you stop and consider whether your decision making is being driven by curiosity. And, if closing the curiosity gap will have positive or negative outcomes.


「読む」「考える」の by chance
2023年12月1日 投稿者: AKIRA OZEKI

毎週 楽しみにしていた 尾関章さんの「めぐりあう書物たち」が「筆者のやむを得ない事情により」しばらく休むとのこと。毎週金曜日に受けていた刺激が急になくなり、仕方なく(尾関さんにメールするという形で)自分で刺激を作り出すことにした。

今週の書物/Paul Shapiro『Clean Meat』




今週の書物/Francis Jammes『Le Roman du Lièvre』

今週の書物/Alexis de Tocqueville『Democracy In America (Volume 2)』


今週の書物/Carlo Rovelli『White Holes』


今週の書物/坂口弘『歌集 常しへの道』

今週の書物/Fernando Pessoa『The Book of Disquiet: The Complete Edition』


小鵬汽車(Xpeng Motors)

Audience gather around Xpeng’s booth at this year’s Guangzhou International Automobile Exhibition, also known as Auto Guangzhou, held in the southern Chinese city of Guangzhou during Nov. 17-26, 2023.

Cultivated meat and seafood

Meat without killing is the central promise of what’s come to be known as cultivated meat. This isn’t a new plant-based alternative. It is, at least in theory, a few animal cells, nurtured with the right nutrients and hormones, finished with sophisticated processing techniques, and voilà: juicy burgers and seared tuna and marinated lamb chops without the side of existential worry.
It’s a vision of hedonism — but altruism, too. A way to save water, free up vast tracts of land, drastically cut planet-warming emissions, protect vulnerable species. It’s an escape hatch for humankind’s excesses. All we have to do is tie on our bibs.
Between 2016 and 2022, investors poured almost $3 billion into cultivated meat and seafood companies. Powerful venture capital and sovereign wealth funds — SoftBank, Temasek, the Qatar Investment Authority — wanted in. So did major meatpackers like Tyson, Cargill and JBS, and celebrities like Leonardo DiCaprio, Bill Gates and Richard Branson. Two of the leading companies — Eat Just and Upside Foods, both start-ups — reportedly achieved billion-dollar valuations. And today, a few products that include cultivated cells have been approved for sale in Singapore, the United States and Israel.

Junya Ito (Brigitte Macron, Didier Deschamps)

Brigitte Macron: Il y a un Japonais qui joue très bien à Reims. Comment s’appelle-t-il déjà ?
Un journaliste: Junya Ito ?
Brigitte Macron: Oui, Ito c’est ça. Il est très bon. Il faut le sélectionner dans l’équipe Didier ! Pourquoi vous ne le prenez pas ?
Didier Deschamps: Bah parce qu’il est Japonais.


南海トラフ巨大地震・首都圏大地震のような大地震が突然 起きた場合「どれだけの幅で株価が下がるのか}だが、日経平均株価でみて短期的には1万円を割ってしまうのは当然であり、場合によっては7000円割れ、最悪のシナリオを描くと5000円割れを覚悟すべきかもしれない。


どんなに古い神社でも、隅々まで掃き清められている。大祓詞には「祓へ給え 清め給へ」とある。何を祓い清めるのか。犯した罪や心身の穢れを祓い清める。そこに「美しいか、美しくないか」という基準がある。


ひとつの銀河に 3,000 億 (3 x 1011) 個の 星がある
銀河の数は、宇宙全体に 2兆 (2 x 1012) 個あるとして
宇宙に存在する星の数は 6×1023

私たち一人ひとりは 60兆個の細胞を持っている
そして 脳に 1,000 億 (1 x 1011) 個のニューロンという神経細胞を持っている
地球には 80億 (8 x 109) の人がいるから
地球上に生きている人間のニューロンを合わせると 8×1019


私たちは 1,000 億個のニューロンのすべてを意識しているわけではない



Trous blancs / White Holes (Carlo Rovelli)

to study something is to enter into a relation with that thing, to form correlations that allow us to represent, simplify and predict how that thing, that process, will unfold.

to understand is to identify with the thing understood, to construct a parallel between something in the structure of our synapses and the structure of the object in which we are interested. knowledge is a correlation between two parts of nature. understanding is a more abstract but also a more intimate commonality between our minds and phenomena.

this interweaving of correlations — between the endless richness of our individual and collective memory, and the fabulous richness of the structure of reality — is itself an indirect product of the equilibration of things in time.

Entanglement (Louisa Gilder)

Any time two entities interact, they entangle. It doesn’t matter if they are photons (bits of light), atoms (bits of matter), or bigger things made of atoms like dust motes, microscopes, cats or people. The entanglement persists no matter how far these entities separate, as long as they don’t subsequently interact with anything else – an almost impossibly tall order for a cat or a person, which is why we don’t notice the effect.
But the motions of subatomic particles are dominated by entanglement. It starts when they interact; in doing so, they lose their separate existence. No matter how far they move apart, if one is tweaked, measured, observed, the other seems to instantly respond, even if the whole world lies between them. And no one knows how.


Carlo Rovelli に導かれ、ブラックホールの奥のほうへの旅に出る。境界を超えて、宇宙の亀裂に転がり落ちる。急降下すると、ジオメトリーが折り畳まれるのがわかる。時間と空間が引っ張られ、伸びてゆく。ブラックホールの最深部に着くと、時空が完全に溶け、ホワイトホールが現れる。






君の時間と僕の時間は違う? それとも違うように見える? 時間の流れは、どのように「個人的」で「相対的」なのか? そもそも、時間の流れは「絶対的」ではないのか? ホワイトホールの先の時間が逆転した世界には、何があるのか? ブラックホールとホワイトホールは対のものなのか? ブラックホールの手前の宇宙とホワイトホールの先の宇宙とは、対なのか? 対称なのか? 何か関係があるのだろうか?


僕が Carlo Rovelli に近づくことは、永遠にない。そんな心配はしないでいい。君がブラックホールの手前の宇宙にいて、僕がホワイトホールの先の宇宙にいるなんていうことが起こらないように、僕は Carlo Rovelli に導かれたりはしない。君をこちら側に置いてあちら側にいくなんていうことは、考えたくもない。


White Holes (Carlo Rovelli)

Let us journey into the heart of a black hole. We slip beyond its horizon and tumble down this crack in the universe. As we plunge, we see geometry fold. Time and space pull and stretch. And finally, at the black hole’s core, space and time dissolve, and a white hole is born.

One of the most remarkable aspects of Einstein’s relativity is that your time is not my time. The flow of time is relative. It can change. In particular it depends how fast observers (i.e., us) move in relation to each other or how close we are to massive bodies (like a black hole). So, to an outside observer, someone falling towards a black hole seems to have their clocks slow down until they stop entirely at the event horizon’s edge. How this works? How the flow of time is both personal and relative?

If we approach the horizon and go beyond it, our watches do not slow and nothing strange happens to the space around us, just as nothing peculiar happens to a ship when it crosses the line of the horizon and disappears from our view.





国家財政と経済破綻(Carmen M Reinhart、Kenneth S Rogoff)

More money has been lost because of four words than at the point of a gun. Those words are “This time is different.”

What is certainly clear is that again and again, countries, banks, individuals, and firms take on excessive debt in good times without enough awareness of the risks that will follow when the inevitable recession hits.

The lesson of history, then, is that even as institutions and policy makers improve, there will always be a temptation to stretch the limits. Just as an individual can go bankrupt no matter how rich she starts out, a financial system can collapse under the pressure of greed, politics, and profits no matter how well regulated it seems to be.

Guesstimation (Lawrence Weinstein, John Adam)

How long would it take a running faucet to fill the inverted dome of the Capitol? What is the total length of all the pickles consumed in the US in one year? What are the relative merits of internal-combustion and electric cars, of coal and nuclear energy? The problems are marvelously diverse, yet the skills to solve them are the same.


The conversion efficiency (the ratio of animal feed to animal weight) varies from two for chickens and fish through four for pork to seven for beef.

信じることと 幸せと

貧しい人たちは 切実さのなかで神を信じ
豊かな人たちは 神を信じる必要などなくて

貧しい人たちは 信仰がなければ思い悩み
原則がなければ 何も決められない
豊かな人たちは 思い悩むことを楽しみ
原則をないことにして 自由を享受する

人は 神を信じることで 幸せになれる
人は 自由になることで 幸せになれる

時に 人は不幸せになる
時に 人は不幸せになる




貧しい人たちも 豊かな人たちも
今夜は ぐっすり眠ろう
今夜は とにかく眠ろう

BRICS (Thomas Piketty)

Expressed in terms of purchasing power parity, the combined GDP of the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) will exceed €40,000 billion by 2022, compared with just €30,000 billion for the G7 countries (United States, Canada, Japan, Germany, France, United Kingdom and Italy), and €120,000 billion on a global scale (an average of just over €1,000 per month for the world’s 8 billion people). Differences in average national income per capita remain considerable, of course: almost €3,000 per month in the G7, less than €1,000 per month in the BRICS and less than €200 per month in sub-Saharan Africa, according to the latest data from the World Inequality Lab.
In a few words, the BRICS present themselves to the world as the planet’s middle class – those who have succeeded, through hard work, in improving their condition, and who have no intention of stopping there.

Quantum holism (Jenann Ismael, Jonathan Schaffer)

Quantum mechanics is often said to implicate some form of holism.

Quantum mechanics seems to portray nature as nonseparable. Roughly speaking, this means that quantum mechanics seems to allow two entities to be in separate places, while being in states that cannot be fully specified without reference to each other.

Quantum Holism (I.Z.Tsekhmistro)

In modern physics the common relational approach should be extended to the concepts of element and set. The relationalization of the concepts of element and set means that in the final analysis the World exists as an indivisible whole, not as a set (of one or another kind of elements). Therefore, we have to describe quantum systems in terms of potentialities and probabilities: since quantum systems cannot be analyzed completely into sets of elements, we can speak only of the potentialities of isolating elements and sets within their structure. On the other hand this quantum property of the world as an indivisible whole accounts for the astonishing logical properties of the structure of the potentialities of quantum systems which it brings forth. This has been confirmed by quantum-correlation experiments (A.Aspect and oth.). These effects have a relational nature, not a physical-causal or material one, and they are brought forth by the changes (resulting from measurement or physical interaction) in the structure of the relations of the mutually complementary sides of reality. One of these sides expresses an actually existing structure of the system as a real (and physically verifiable) but only relatively separable set, and the other expresses the sets of potentialities in it which arise from the astonishing property of finite non-analyzability of the system into elements and sets (i.e. by the quantum property of the world as an indivisible unit).

God, Human, Animal, Machine (Meghan O’Gieblyn)

Today artificial intelligence and information technologies have absorbed many of the questions that were once taken up by theologians and philosophers: the mind’s relationship to the body, the question of free will, the possibility of immortality,” O’Gieblyn writes. “These are old problems, and although they now appear in different guises and go by different names, they persist in conversations about digital technologies much like those dead metaphors that still lurk in the syntax of contemporary speech. All the eternal questions have become engineering problems.
Some physicists have suggested that the cosmos is one entangled system, meaning it is not made up of individual systems but is itself an irreducible whole.
It was Max Planck, the physicist who struggled more than any other pioneer of quantum theory to accept the loss of a purely objective worldview, who acknowledged that the central problems of physics have always been reflexive. “Science cannot solve the ultimate mystery of nature,” he wrote in 1932. “And that is because, in the last analysis, we ourselves are part of nature and therefore part of the mystery that we are trying to solve.”

Biodiversity (World Wildlife Fund)

Biodiversity is all the different kinds of life you’ll find in one area—the variety of animals, plants, fungi, and even microorganisms like bacteria that make up our natural world. Each of these species and organisms work together in ecosystems, like an intricate web, to maintain balance and support life. Biodiversity supports everything in nature that we need to survive: food, clean water, medicine, and shelter.
But as humans put increasing pressure on the planet, using and consuming more resources than ever before, we risk upsetting the balance of ecosystems and losing biodiversity.

General Entertainment Authority (GEA)

الهيئة العامة للترفيه

The Saudi population spends $22 billion dollars in tourism and entertainment outside the country every year. The government aims to transform 25% of that spending into local travel and entertainment to create a solid Saudi tourism economy. The Saudi Vision 2030 plan aims to raise capital by harnessing the previously unaddressed entertainment sector, helping to “nurture entertainment in all its forms, while also seeking to safeguard our precious cultural heritage”.



  1. 胸腺ストロマ細胞(胸腺上皮細胞)の発生と機能の解明
  2. iPS細胞を用いた胸腺上皮細胞の誘導と胸腺機能の再構築
  3. 胸腺退縮メカニズムの解明と胸腺機能賦活化法の開発
  4. T細胞の加齢変化(T細胞老化)が加齢関連疾患発症と病態形成に果たす役割の解明
  5. ヒトT細胞老化の実態およびメカニズムの解明と制御法の開発


二日月 君が小指の爪よりも ほのかにさすは あはれなるかな

すがれたる 薔薇をまきて おくるこそ ふさはしからむ 恋の逮夜は

美しき 人妻あらむ かくてあゝ わが世かなしく なりまさるらむ

What is Crypto Anarchy? (Timothy C. May)

Some of us believe various forms of strong cryptography will cause the power of the state to decline, perhaps even collapse fairly abruptly. We believe the expansion into cyberspace, with secure communications, digital money, anonymity and pseudonymity, and other crypto-mediated interactions, will profoundly change the nature of economies and social interactions. Governments will have a hard time collecting taxes, regulating the behavior of individuals and corporations (small ones at least), and generally coercing folks when it can’t even tell what continent folks are on!


ガイアは自らの力だけでウーラノス(天)、ポントス(海)、ウーレアー(山)を産み、母となる。エロースの働きでウーラノスと親子婚し夫とする。そしてウーラノスとの間にクロノス、オーケアノス、コイオス、クレイオス、ヒュペリーオーン、イーアペトス、テイア、レアー、テミス、ムネーモシュネー、ポイベー、テーテュースを生んだ。またキュクロープス, ヘカトンケイル, ギガース, エリーニュス, メリアスといった魔神・怪物を産んだ。


Face à Gaïa (Bruno Latour)

Bruno Latour invoque Gaïa afin que la catastrophe écologique ne s’aggrave pas. Au-delà du nom mythologique, Gaïa est pour Latour surtout un concept bien construit qui propose un cadre pour penser sans la dichotomie nature/culture. Selon l’anthropologue des sciences, si nous n’agissons pas plus vite pour chercher des solutions aux problèmes écologiques, ce serait à cause de cette dichotomie.

Butterfly effect

In chaos theory, the butterfly effect is the sensitive dependence on initial conditions in which a small change in one state of a deterministic nonlinear system can result in large differences in a later state.
The term is closely associated with the work of mathematician and meteorologist Edward Norton Lorenz. He noted that the butterfly effect is derived from the metaphorical example of the details of a tornado (the exact time of formation, the exact path taken) being influenced by minor perturbations such as a distant butterfly flapping its wings several weeks earlier. Lorenz originally used a seagull causing a storm but was persuaded to make it more poetic with the use of a butterfly and tornado by 1972. He discovered the effect when he observed runs of his weather model with initial condition data that were rounded in a seemingly inconsequential manner. He noted that the weather model would fail to reproduce the results of runs with the unrounded initial condition data. A very small change in initial conditions had created a significantly different outcome.
The butterfly effect concept has since been used outside the context of weather science as a broad term for any situation where a small change is supposed to be the cause of larger consequences.

One Health (American Veterinary Medical Association)

The veterinary profession must implement solutions to the critical workforce challenges in collaboration with multiple professions, including public health, human medicine, bio-engineering, animal science, environmental science, and wildlife. By working together, more can be accomplished to improve health worldwide, and the veterinary medical profession has the responsibility to assume a major leadership role in that effort. One Health calls for the collaborative efforts of multiple disciplines working locally, nationally, and globally to attain optimal health for people, animals and our environment.

Loss of biodiversity (Jeroen Douwes)

Loss of biodiversity is a double-edged sword. On the one hand, it promotes contact with pathogens that humans have never encountered before; on the other, it makes humans more susceptible to being profoundly affected by these new infectious micro-organisms.




Civitello Lab (Emory University)

Why do epidemics grow large in some places but not others? We build and test theory for disease outbreaks that can explain parasite transmission and reproduction in heterogeneous populations and dynamic environments. We combine field surveys, experiments, and mathematical modeling to improve predictions and control of disease outbreaks that are relevant for biodiversity conservation and human health.

Les monocultures favorisent les épidémies (Christian Lannou)

L’absence de biodiversité dans les champs est une cause majeure des maladies des cultures

C’est précisément parce que la diversité génétique est très faible dans les cultures intensives que les agriculteurs utilisent autant de pesticides. Le problème a commencé au néolithique : à partir du moment où on met une plante sauvage en culture et qu’on rassemble dans un même champ des végétaux très proches génétiquement, on crée un système qui favorise les épidémies. Le modèle agro-industriel a porté cette fragilité au centuple, car dans un champ de blé moderne, toutes les plantes sont des clones. Quand un parasite y fait irruption, il se répand comme une traînée de poudre.


多様性(たようせい、: diversity)とは、「ある集団の中に異なる特徴•特性を持つ人がともに存在する」ことである。















United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (1992)

The Contracting Parties.
⁠Conscious of the intrinsic value of biological diversity and of the ecological, genetic, social, economic, scientific, educational, cultural, recreational and aesthetic values of biological diversity and its components.
⁠Conscious also of the importance of biological diversity for evolution and for maintaining life sustaining systems of the biosphere.
⁠Affirming that the conservation of biological diversity is a common concern of humankind.

IPBES Workshop Report on Biodiversity and Pandemics

Pandemics emerge from the microbial diversity found in nature

  • The majority (70%) of emerging diseases (e.g. Ebola, Zika, Nipah encephalitis), and almost all known pandemics (e.g. influenza, HIV/AIDS, COVID-19), are zoonoses – i.e. are caused by microbes of animal origin. These microbes ‘spill over’ due to contact among wildlife, livestock, and people.
  • An estimated 1.7 million currently undiscovered viruses are thought to exist in mammal and avian hosts. Of these, 631,000-827,000 could have the ability to infect humans.
  • The most important reservoirs of pathogens with pandemic potential are mammals (in particular bats, rodents, primates) and some birds (in particular water birds), as well as livestock (e.g. pigs, camels, poultry).

Anne Larigauderie

The hope is that… we can have an impact on the issue at stake, which is the loss of biodiversity, the extinction of species, the damaging of ecosystems, and also the loss of the services that we derive from this biodiversity.

Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES)

The biosphere upon which humanity depends, has been deeply reconfigured by human activities

  • 75% of the land area has been significantly altered, negatively impacting the well-being of 3.2 billion people
  • 3% of the oceans is unaffected by human activities
  • >85% of wetland area has been lost
  • 90% of land is projected to be significantly altered, by 2050
  • 1 million of plants and animal species out of an estimated total of 8.1 million species are at risk of extinction




Schwerin の犯罪発生率はドイツで一番だという

経済成長のためには 貧富格差は必要だと
経済学者たちが 口を揃える

物乞いが違法という国には 物乞いはいない
個人より国のほうが大事ならば 個人は貧しくなる
統計の取り方ひとつで 現実は違って映る



Antarctic Sea Ice

It’s winter in the Southern Hemisphere, when ice typically forms around Antarctica. But this year, that growth has been stunted, hitting a record low by a wide margin.
The sharp drop in sea ice is alarming scientists and raising concerns about its vital role in regulating ocean and air temperatures, circulating ocean water and maintaining an ecosystem crucial for everything from microscopic plankton to the continent’s iconic penguins.


Planche 322a. et 322b. « Cannabis foemina » et « cannabis mas » issues du livre « Herbarium Blackwellianum » d’Elisabeth Blackwell (1757). Bibliothèque Medica / Université Paris Cité

Unregulated AI will worsen inequality (Joseph E. Stiglitz)

With the right policies, we could have higher productivity and less inequality, and everybody would be better off. But you might say the political economy, the way our politics have been working, has not been going in that direction. So at one end, I’m hopeful that if we did the right thing, AI would be great. But the question is: Will we be doing the right thing in our policy space? And I think that’s much more problematic.


민들레 풀씨처럼
높지도 않고 낮지도 않게
그렇게 세상의 강을 건널 수는 없을까
민들레가 나에게 가르쳐 주었네
슬프면 때로 슬피 울라고
그러면 민들레 풀씨처럼 가벼워진다고

슬픔은 왜
저만치 떨어져서 바라보면
슬프지 않은 것일까
민들레 풀씨처럼
얼마만큼의 거리를 갖고
그렇게 세상 위를 떠다닐 수는 없을까
민들레가 나에게 가르쳐 주었네
슬프면 때로 슬피 울라고
그러면 민들레 풀씨처럼 가벼워진다고


Votre colis n’est pas sur le bon chemin.
Une erreur s’est produite dans l’acheminement de votre colis. Nous mettons tout en œuvre pour qu’il reprenne son parcours.

2018 PISA Score by Country

With a mean score of 1,736, China topped the list ahead of Singapore in the second spot and Estonia in the third spot. The United States only made it into 22nd place with a total average score of 1,485, just slightly above the 1,465 average scores for all OECD countries assessed.

Electron (Wikipedia)

The electron (
) is a subatomic particle with a negative one elementary electric charge. Electrons belong to the first generation of the lepton particle family, and are generally thought to be elementary particles because they have no known components or substructure. The electron’s mass is approximately 1/1836 that of the proton. Quantum mechanical properties of the electron include an intrinsic angular momentum (spin) of a half-integer value, expressed in units of the reduced Planck constant, ħ. Being fermions, no two electrons can occupy the same quantum state, per the Pauli exclusion principle. Like all elementary particles, electrons exhibit properties of both particles and waves: They can collide with other particles and can be diffracted like light. The wave properties of electrons are easier to observe with experiments than those of other particles like neutrons and protons because electrons have a lower mass and hence a longer de Broglie wavelength for a given energy.

Electrons play an essential role in numerous physical phenomena, such as electricity, magnetism, chemistry, and thermal conductivity; they also participate in gravitational, electromagnetic, and weak interactions. Since an electron has charge, it has a surrounding electric field; if that electron is moving relative to an observer, the observer will observe it to generate a magnetic field. Electromagnetic fields produced from other sources will affect the motion of an electron according to the Lorentz force law. Electrons radiate or absorb energy in the form of photons when they are accelerated.
Laboratory instruments are capable of trapping individual electrons as well as electron plasma by the use of electromagnetic fields. Special telescopes can detect electron plasma in outer space. Electrons are involved in many applications, such as tribology or frictional charging, electrolysis, electrochemistry, battery technologies, electronics, welding, cathode-ray tubes, photoelectricity, photovoltaic solar panels, electron microscopes, radiation therapy, lasers, gaseous ionization detectors, and particle accelerators.

Interactions involving electrons with other subatomic particles are of interest in fields such as chemistry and nuclear physics. The Coulomb force interaction between the positive protons within atomic nuclei and the negative electrons without allows the composition of the two known as atoms. Ionization or differences in the proportions of negative electrons versus positive nuclei changes the binding energy of an atomic system. The exchange or sharing of the electrons between two or more atoms is the main cause of chemical bonding. In 1838, British natural philosopher Richard Laming first hypothesized the concept of an indivisible quantity of electric charge to explain the chemical properties of atoms.[3] Irish physicist George Johnstone Stoney named this charge ‘electron’ in 1891, and J. J. Thomson and his team of British physicists identified it as a particle in 1897 during the cathode-ray tube experiment. Electrons can also participate in nuclear reactions, such as nucleosynthesis in stars, where they are known as beta particles. Electrons can be created through beta decay of radioactive isotopes and in high-energy collisions, for instance, when cosmic rays enter the atmosphere. The antiparticle of the electron is called the positron; it is identical to the electron, except that it carries electrical charge of the opposite sign. When an electron collides with a positron, both particles can be annihilated, producing gamma ray photons.



Babel (R. F. Kuang)

 ”Which seems right to you? Do we try our hardest, as translators, to render ourselves invisible? Or do we remind our reader that what they are reading was not written in their native language?”
 ”That’s an impossible question,” said Victoire. “Either you situate the text in its time and place, or you bring it to where you are, here and now. You’re always giving something up.”
 ”Is faithful translation impossible, then?” Professor Playfair challenged. “Can we never communicate with integrity across time, across space?”
 ”I suppose not,” Victoire said reluctantly.
 ”But what is the opposite of fidelity?” asked Professor Playfair. He was approaching the end of this dialectic; now he needed only to draw it to a close with a punch. “Betrayal. Translation means doing violence upon the original, means warping and distorting it for foreign, unintended eyes. So then where does that leave us? How can we conclude, except by acknowledging that an act of translation is then necessarily always an act of betrayal?
 He closed this profound statement as he always did, by looking at each of them in turn. And as Robin’s eyes met Professor Playfair’s, he felt a deep, vinegary squirm of guilt in his gut.

Earth (Raymond Zhong)

Something was messing with Earth’s axis. The answer has to do with us.

Scientists knew the planet’s centerline could move. But it took a sharp turn sometime around the start of the 2000s.

Though you can’t feel it, Earth’s rotation is nowhere near as smooth as that of the globe on your desk.

European Parliament Members (MEPs)

We believe that the current economic model, based on endless growth, has reached its limits.
Firstly, continuous economic growth, especially based on the consumption of fossil fuels, is leading to catastrophic global warming.
Secondly, the infinite pursuit of growth relies on the depletion of natural resources, the destruction of biodiversity and the accumulation of waste and pollution. This also poses risks to our health, our economies and our societies writ large.
Thirdly, the current economic model is contributing to social inequality and exclusion.
The emphasis on economic growth has not translated into equal distribution of wealth or opportunities. Instead, it has resulted in a concentration of wealth and power in the hands of a few leaving many behind.
Fourthly, the current economic model is inherently unstable and prone to crises, as seen, for example, during the 2008 financial crisis and the COVID-19 pandemic.
The pursuit of growth at all costs has created a global economic system that is fragile and vulnerable to shocks.

The differences between the Universe and the Cosmos

Universe Cosmos
It connotes a smaller scope. It connotes a larger scope.
It was first used by the Roman philosopher, theorist, and statesman — Cicero. It was first used by the Greek philosopher and mathematician — Pythagoras.
It means whole or entire. It means order or orderly arrangement.
It is everything that exists and that includes time and space, matter, and even the natural laws. It is a whole harmonious and orderly system governed by natural laws.


The universe is composed almost completely of dark energy, dark matter, and ordinary matter. Other contents are electromagnetic radiation (estimated to constitute from 0.005% to close to 0.01% of the total mass–energy of the universe) and antimatter.
The proportions of all types of matter and energy have changed over the history of the universe. The total amount of electromagnetic radiation generated within the universe has decreased by 1/2 in the past 2 billion years. Today, ordinary matter, which includes atoms, stars, galaxies, and life, accounts for only 4.9% of the contents of the Universe. The present overall density of this type of matter is very low, roughly 4.5 × 10−31 grams per cubic centimetre, corresponding to a density of the order of only one proton for every four cubic metres of volume. The nature of both dark energy and dark matter is unknown. Dark matter, a mysterious form of matter that has not yet been identified, accounts for 26.8% of the cosmic contents. Dark energy, which is the energy of empty space and is causing the expansion of the universe to accelerate, accounts for the remaining 68.3% of the contents.








60兆個の細胞で構成される。幹細胞、造血幹細胞、血球、神経幹細胞、神経細胞、ナチュラルキラー細胞 など。1個の受精卵が46回細胞分裂を繰り返すと60兆個の細胞数に達する。



     ヒューロニアン氷期(Huronian glaciation):24億年前〜21億年前

 顕生代(Phanerozoic eon):約5億4100万年前~現在
  古生代(Paleozoic era):約5億4100万年前〜約2億5190万年前
   オルドビス紀(Ordovician Period):約4億8540万年前〜4億4380万年前
     アンデス−サハラ氷期(Andean-Saharan glaciation):4億6千万年前〜4億3千万年前
   シルル紀(Silurian Period):約4億4380万年前〜4億1920万年前
   デボン紀(Devonian Period):約4億1920万年前〜3億5890万年前
   石炭紀(Carboniferous Period):約3億5890万年前〜2億9890万年前
     カルー氷期(Karoo ice age):約3億6千万年前〜2億5500万年前
   ペルム紀(Permian Period):約2億9890万年前〜2億5190万年前
  中生代(Mesozoic era):約2億5217万年前〜約6600万年前
  新生代(Cenozoic era):約6,600万年前~現在
   第四紀(Quaternary period):258万8000年前~現在
     第四紀氷河時代(Quaternary glaciation):約260万年前~現在
       最終氷期(Last Glacial Period):約11万年前~約15,000年前 or 約11,700年前
         最終氷期の最寒冷期(Last Glacial Maximum、LGM):約21,000万年前

Bølling–Allerød and Younger Dryas

The Bølling–Allerød interstadial, also called the Late Glacial Interstadial, was an abrupt warm and moist interstadial period that occurred during the final stages of the Last Glacial Period. This warm period ran from 14,690 to 12,890 years before the present (BP). It began with the end of the cold period known as the Oldest Dryas, and ended abruptly with the onset of the Younger Dryas, a cold period that reduced temperatures back to near-glacial levels within a decade.

The Younger Dryas, which occurred circa 12,900 to 11,700 years BP, was a return to glacial conditions which temporarily reversed the gradual climatic warming after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), which lasted from circa 27,000 to 20,000 years BP. The Younger Dryas was the last stage of the Pleistocene epoch that spanned from 2,580,000 to 11,700 years BP and it preceded the current, warmer Holocene epoch. The Younger Dryas was the most severe and longest lasting of several interruptions to the warming of the Earth’s climate, and it was preceded by the Late Glacial Interstadial, an interval of relative warmth that lasted from 14,670 to 12,900 BP.
The change was relatively sudden, took place over decades, and resulted in a decline of temperatures in Greenland by 4~10 °C (7.2~18 °F), and advances of glaciers and drier conditions over much of the temperate Northern Hemisphere. A number of theories have been put forward about the cause, and the most widely supported by scientists is that the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, which transports warm water from the Equator towards the North Pole, was interrupted by an influx of fresh, cold water from North America into the Atlantic.

最終氷期の気温(University of Arizona)


太陽が死んだ後の太陽系(University of Tasmania)


地球が予想より速く冷えている(ETH Zürich)


原子核の周囲を電子がぐるぐるまわるモデルは正確とはいえない(Olivia Gordon)












一を 背の高い大人の大股の一歩の長さとすると
十は ペナルティーキックのボールからゴールまでの距離で
百は サッカーグランドのゴールからゴールまでの距離で
千は 新橋から有楽町までの距離で
万は 対流圏の上のほうの高さ 飛行機の巡航高度で
十万は 大気がほとんどなくなり そこから先は宇宙という高さで
百万は 東京から小笠原諸島までの距離で
千万は 地球や金星の大きさで
一億は 土星や木星の大きさで
十億は 太陽の大きさで
百億は 大きな星の大きさで
千億は 地球から太陽までの距離で
その上の 一兆、十兆、百兆、千兆のあとの一京は 太陽系の大きさで
その上の 十京、百京、千京、一垓のあとの十垓は 銀河系の大きさで
その上の 百垓、千垓、一秭、十秭、百秭のあとの千秭は 宇宙の大きさだ
じゃあ その上の 一穣、十穣、百穣、千穣とか
そのまた上の 一溝、十溝、百溝、千溝とか

地球から見た人間の大きさは 人間から見たウイルスの大きさ
太陽から見た人間の大きさは 人間から見た水の分子の大きさ
太陽系から見た人間の大きさは 人間から見た電子の大きさ
その辺のことまでは なんとかかんとかわかっている
でも その先のことは 実のところあんまりよくわかっていない

Exploring the Dark Side of the Univers-Tools 2024

EDSU conferences are among the major venues of interaction between cosmologists and particle and astroparticle physicists. The main goal is to discuss progress and future directions related to outstanding issues, both in Cosmology and in Particle Physics.
EDSU_Tools 2024 has two major additional features :

  • focusing on tools allowing physics progress in the above domains ie : detectors, electronics, big data, AI, theories, soft skills…
  • and introducing mini-sesssions on tools used in other domain of physics such as astronomy, laser physics…

The “era of life” will have passed

The multiverse hypothesis is not accepted by all scientists. But one thing is almost certain: Life in our universe is extremely rare. I have already explained that life is rare in space—only a small fraction of matter exists in living form. Life is also rare in time, in the long unfolding history of the universe. At some point in the future, in perhaps a few hundred billion years, after all of the stars have burned out and all sources of energy have been exhausted, life in our universe will end—not just life similar to that on Earth, but life of all kinds. The “era of life” will have passed.



Whodunit Howdunit Whydunit Books

Whodunit Books

The Mysterious Affair at Styles
by Agatha Christie
Howdunit Books

Salvation of a Saint
by Keigo Higashino
Whydunit Books

The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo
by Stieg Larsson
Whodunit Howdunit Whydunit Books

The Inugami Curse
by Seishi Yokomizo



「変化は時間変数“t”の関数で表すもの」という常識が出来上がったのは、人間が「人間中心の時間的な視点」を持っているからではないか。人間中心に考えなければ、event のほうが“t”よりも重要ではないか。多様性が極端に少ないミクロの世界での常識が、多様性が溢れんばかりのマクロの世界の常識と同じとは思えないけれど、でも、どちらの世界にも人間の直感的な常識が通用しないのは間違いない。

ややこしいのは、人間という存在がミクロの世界を基に成り立っているということ、そして、人間の世界がマクロの世界のほんの一部だということだ。人間の世界に、ミクロの世界の常識やマクロの世界の常識が通用しないはずがない。ミクロの世界の常識やマクロの世界の常識で私たち自身のことをわかろうとするならば、一旦、人間の常識を忘れたほうがいいのではないか? ミクロの世界での常識やマクロの世界の常識で考えたら、人間のことがもっとよくわかるのではないか?