Simina Mistreanu

Rongcheng is a microcosm of what is to come. The national credit system planned for 2020 will be an “ecosystem” made up of schemes of various sizes and reaches, run by cities, government ministries, online payment providers, down to neighborhoods, libraries, and businesses, say Chinese researchers who are designing the national scheme. It will all be interconnected by an invisible web of information.
But contrary to some Western press accounts, which often confuse existing private credit systems with the future schemes, it will not be a unified platform where one can type in his or her ID and get a single three-digit score that will decide their lives. This caricature of a system that doles out unique scores to 1.4 billion people could not work technically nor politically. The system would instead expand and automatize existing forms of bureaucratic control, formalizing the existing controls and monitoring of Chinese citizens.
The social credit system is just really adding technology and adding a formality to the way the party already operates.

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  1. shinichi Post author

    Life Inside China’s Social Credit Laboratory

    The party’s massive experiment in ranking and monitoring Chinese citizens has already started.

    by Simina Mistreanu

    Rongcheng was built for the future. Its broad streets and suburban communities were constructed with an eye to future expansion, as the city sprawls on the eastern tip of China’s Shandong province overlooking the Yellow Sea. Colorful billboards depicting swans bank on the birds — one of the city’s tourist attractions — returning there every winter to escape the Siberian cold.

    In an attempt to ease bureaucracy, the city hall, a glass building that resembles a flying saucer, has been fashioned as a one-stop shop for most permits. Instead of driving from one office to another to get their paperwork in order, residents simply cross the gleaming corridors to talk to officials seated at desks in the open-space area.

    At one of these stations, Rongcheng residents can pick up their social credit score.

    In what it calls an attempt to promote “trustworthiness” in its economy and society, China is experimenting with a social credit system that mixes familiar Western-style credit scores with more expansive — and intrusive — measures. It includes everything from rankings calculated by online payment providers to scores doled out by neighborhoods or companies. High-flyers receive perks such as discounts on heating bills and favorable bank loans, while bad debtors cannot buy high-speed train or plane tickets.

    By 2020, the government has promised to roll out a national social credit system. According to the system’s founding document, released by the State Council in 2014, the scheme should “allow the trustworthy to roam everywhere under heaven while making it hard for the discredited to take a single step.” But at a time when the Chinese Communist Party is aggressively advancing its presence across town hall offices and company boardrooms, this move has sparked fears that it is another step in the tightening of China’s already scant freedoms.

    But it has been hard to distinguish future promises — or threats — from the realities of how social credit is being implemented. Rongcheng is one place where that future is visible. Three dozen pilot systems have been rolled out in cities across the country, and Rongcheng is one of them. According to Chinese officials and researchers, it’s the best example of the system working as intended. But it also illustrates those intentions may not be as straightforward as they like to claim.

    The system is the brainchild of city hall staff, says He Junning, the deputy director of the Rongcheng Social Credit Management Office.

    The bureaucrat, wearing square glasses and a black checkered sweater, shares the social credit department with seven other employees on the second floor of the city hall. The system they have devised assigns 1,000 points at the beginning to each of Rongcheng’s 740,000 adult residents. From there, the math begins.

    Get a traffic ticket; you lose five points. Earn a city-level award, such as for committing a heroic act, doing exemplary business, or helping your family in unusual tough circumstances, and your score gets boosted by 30 points. For a department-level award, you earn five points. You can also earn credit by donating to charity or volunteering in the city’s program.

    He stresses that “anything that influences your points needs to be backed by official facts with official documents.” That reduces subjectivity and limits penalties to mainly breaking laws and regulations.

    Depending on their score bracket, residents hold a grade ranging from A+++ to D. Some offenses can hurt the score pretty badly. For drunk driving, for example, one’s score plummets straight to a C. On the other hand, triple As are rewarded with perks such as being able to rent public bikes without paying a deposit (and riding them for free for an hour and a half), receiving a $50 heating discount every winter, and obtaining more advantageous terms on bank loans.

    Companies are also included in the gauntlet of social credit. They can remain in good standing if they pay taxes on time and avoid fines for things such as substandard or unsanitary products — a sore point for Chinese people, who tend to mistrust firms and service providers due to frequent scams and food safety scandals. High-scoring businesses pass through fewer hoops in public tenders and get better loan conditions.

    But even though the system, established in late 2013, theoretically extends to every part of people’s lives, many of the city’s residents don’t even know it exists yet. Sometimes people only realize it when their big life plans — buying a home, applying for a government position or an academic title — take them to the bright hallways of the city hall.

    Yu Guanqing sports black Nike sneakers as he rushes from one counter to another, his wife by his side. The 30-year-old company employee needs his social credit score among other documents to apply for a house loan.

    “This is making me do extra work! It’s too troublesome,” Yu says while walking, his documents in hand. He hasn’t given the social credit too much thought but says it might help improve people’s behavior. When asked, he checks his score. “I’m an A,” he says — just like 90 percent of Rongcheng’s population.

    Oversized pictures depicting the heroes of this brave new world are displayed outside the city hall. They include Bi Haoran, a 24-year-old policeman, who saved some students one evening by pushing them out of the way of a car that crashed into the crowd. Yuan Suoping, a 55-year-old villager, is also there. After her husband’s death, she took care of her bedbound mother-in-law, and when she remarried years later, her only condition for her new husband was that the old woman come live with them.

    High-scoring residents are shown outside the public library and in residential communities and villages, which are already operating their own trial social credit systems. Boards explaining how you can win or lose points and showing pictures of the best scorers are a common sight in Rongcheng; passersby talk about them with pride.

    But the most startling thing is that cars yield to pedestrians at the crosswalk — a sight I’ve never seen in another Chinese city.

    “I feel like in the past six months, people’s behavior has gotten better and better,” says Chen, a 32-year-old entrepreneur who only wanted to give his last name. “For example, when we drive, now we always stop in front of crosswalks. If you don’t stop, you will lose your points. At first, we just worried about losing points, but now we got used to it.”


    Rongcheng is a microcosm of what is to come. The national credit system planned for 2020 will be an “ecosystem” made up of schemes of various sizes and reaches, run by cities, government ministries, online payment providers, down to neighborhoods, libraries, and businesses, say Chinese researchers who are designing the national scheme. It will all be interconnected by an invisible web of information.

    But contrary to some Western press accounts, which often confuse existing private credit systems with the future schemes, it will not be a unified platform where one can type in his or her ID and get a single three-digit score that will decide their lives. This caricature of a system that doles out unique scores to 1.4 billion people could not work technically nor politically, says Rogier Creemers, a scholar of Chinese law at the Leiden University Institute for Area Studies in the Netherlands. The system would instead expand and automatize existing forms of bureaucratic control, formalizing the existing controls and monitoring of Chinese citizens.

    “The social credit system is just really adding technology and adding a formality to the way the party already operates,” says Samantha Hoffman, a consultant at the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) who researches Chinese social management.

    The Communist Party has experimented with forms of social control ever since it came to power in 1949, though China’s self-policing tradition stretches back to the Song dynasty. An 11th-century emperor instituted a grid system where groups of five to 25 households kept tabs on each other and were empowered to arrest delinquents.

    But previous efforts largely focused on groups, not individuals. As early as the 1950s, during Mao Zedong’s rule, rural Chinese were forced into communes that farmed collectively — to disastrous effect — and had their status measured as a group. Similarly, danwei were work units whose members were apportioned public goods and were ranked based on their “good” or “bad” political standing. Such groups were supposed to police their own members — efforts inevitably tied to the violent political struggles of the Maoist era.

    Post-1980s, the state relied on hukou, or housing registration, to keep tabs on where people lived, worked, and sent their children to school. But the hukou system often broke down when confronted with China’s mass urbanization in recent decades, which saw hundreds of millions of migrant workers move into metropolises despite poor access to housing and social services.

    Along with society at large, the Communist Party has always monitored its own members for both ideological and personal loyalties. E-government projects that started in the 1990s, such as the Golden Shield, which connected public security bureaus across the country through an online network, have been aimed at both efficiency and control.

    Former President Jiang Zemin in 1995 called for “the informatization, automation, and intelligentization of economic and social management.” In the early 2000s, his successor, Hu Jintao, attempted to automate social surveillance through modern grid policing projects in cities such as Shanghai. Hu, with his minister of public security, Zhou Yongkang, dreamed up a monitoring system capable of functioning automatically, with the end goal being to keep the Communist Party in power.

    The result of decades of control, however, is that Chinese society suffers from a lack of trust, says veteran sociologist Zhang Lifan. People often expect to be cheated or to get in trouble without having done anything. This anxiety, Zhang says, stems from the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976), when friends and family members were pitted against one another and millions of Chinese were killed in political struggles.

    “It’s a problem the ruling party itself has created,” Zhang says, “and now it wants to solve it.”

    But around Rongcheng, nobody wants to talk to foreign journalists about the difficult times. “Life in our village has always been good,” says Mu Linming, a 62-year-old resident of Daxunjiangjia Village. “After introducing the system, it’s gotten even better.”

    The retiree and his wife treat visitors the way people used to in the old days: They invite us into their home, insist that we have some noodles, and practically force bags of apples and nuts into our hands before we depart. The orderly village, where some rooftops are covered with seaweed, has its own social credit system that’s separate from Rongcheng’s. Here, the criteria boil down to whether you take care of your parents and treat your neighbors nicely.

    Most people’s scores are middle of the road, Mu says, though the top rankers are displayed on a board near the village center.

    “We are all good, and we can all encourage bad people to be good,” he says.


    In Beijing, Zhang Lili is one of the researchers designing the national social credit system. She works at Peking University’s China Credit Research Center, which was established more than 15 years ago for this purpose.

    Zhang, wearing her hair in a ponytail, talks about how the idea for the system originated in China’s rapid economic expansion. It’s a narrative commonly put forward in China: Because the Chinese market economy didn’t take centuries to expand like in the West, people need the government to keep companies and businesspeople in check, as well as to ensure a smooth urbanization.

    The Peking University credit center started in the early 2000s with social credit projects for tourism agencies, the Ministry of Commerce, and academic researchers. The rankings were based on criteria such as permits and professional qualifications.

    “But now with the inclusion of personal information, because there’s more debate about it, [the government] is more cautious,” Zhang says.

    The experience of an early citywide experiment might explain why. In 2010, authorities in Suining, a county in Jiangsu province near Shanghai, launched a pilot project that included criteria such as residents’ education level, online behavior, and compliance with traffic laws. Locals would earn points for looking after elderly family members or helping the poor and lose them for minor traffic offenses or if they illegally petitioned higher authorities for help. High scorers were fast-tracked for job promotions and gained access to top schools, while those at the bottom were restricted from some permits and social services.

    The scheme was a disaster. Both residents and state media blasted it for its seemingly unfair and arbitrary criteria, with one state-run newspaper comparing the system to the “good citizen” certificates issued by Japan during its wartime occupation of China. The Suining pilot was canceled but not before teaching the government some lessons about what is palatable to the public.

    The reason why Rongcheng has the most successful social credit system so far is that the community has embraced it, Zhang says. And that has happened because the scheme basically only deducts points for breaking the law. It is precise in its punishment and generous in its rewards.

    As a result, schools, hospitals, and neighborhoods are independently running versions of it. “It’s not because the government has asked them to do it,” Zhang says. “It’s because they feel it’s better for their own administration.”

    One such microsystem has been built by residents of First Morning Light, a neighborhood of 5,100 families a stone’s throw from Rongcheng city hall. The spacious, modern-looking community has been divided into grids of 300 families, each grid overseen by a management team. Residents have even taken the official Rongcheng credit system a few steps further by adding penalties for illegally spreading religion — echoing recent countrywide crackdowns on religious practice — abusing or abandoning family members, and defaming others online.

    The effects have been positive, says Yang Lihong, a resident in her 30s who uses a pseudonym. Quality of life in First Morning Light has shot up — along with property prices. Yang, who asked that her real name not be used, says she sees no downsides to the social credit system and has no privacy-related concerns.

    “I trust the government,” she says. “Who else can you trust if not them?”

    China needs a “very delicate” type of administration, Zhang adds.


    As Rongcheng shows, enforcing the law is a priority of the social credit system. Chinese courts struggle to enforce their judgments, especially civil ones. They’re hampered by their relatively low status in the political system, the country’s sheer size and scale, and the varied and often contentious levels of law enforcement.

    On the one hand, the scheme wants to address real problems that Chinese society is confronting, such as financial scams, counterfeit products, and unsanitary restaurants, which amount to a “lack of trust in the market,” says Creemers of the Leiden Institute.

    “Yes, the social credit system is connected with maintaining the integrity and stability of the political regime,” he says. “It is also the case that it tries to do so by addressing legitimate concerns. And that complicates the criticism.”

    Perhaps the most controversial initiative so far is a supreme court blacklist of 170,000 defaulters who are barred from buying high-speed train or airplane tickets or staying at luxury hotels as a means to pressure them to repay their debt.

    The public blacklist has been incorporated by another incarnation of the social credit system — Zhima Credit, a service of the mobile payment provider Alipay. China has a huge mobile payment market, with transactions totaling $5.5 trillion in 2016, compared with $112 billion in the United States. Alipay, owned by Ant Financial, and WeChat Pay dominate the still-growing Chinese market.

    Zhima Credit is an optional service embedded in Alipay that calculates users’ personal credit based on data such as spending history, friends on Alipay’s social network, and other types of consumer behavior. Zhima Credit’s technology director controversially told the Chinese magazine Caixin in 2015 that buying diapers, for example, would be considered “responsible” behavior, while playing video games for hours could be counted against you.

    Hu Tao, Zhima Credit’s general manager, paints a different picture now. She says the app doesn’t monitor social media posts “nor does it attempt to measure qualitative characteristics like character, honesty, or moral value.” Zhima Credit is not a pilot for the social credit system and doesn’t share data with the government without users’ consent, she says.

    However, the company is blending into the invisible web of China’s upcoming social credit system. Ant Financial has already signed a memorandum of understanding with Rongcheng, whose residents will be able to pay their utility bills using Alipay and show their Zhima Credit score — if high enough — to obtain better health insurance and borrow library books and rent public bikes without a deposit.

    There’s no single institution in command of the social credit system. Instead, the web made of various schemes stretches and blends, inching from the more popular restrictions for breaking laws to new, grayer areas. The National Development and Reform Commission, a powerful central body, said in March that it would extend train and flight travel restrictions for actions such as spreading false information about terrorism and using expired tickets.

    The government will in the end have inordinate amounts of data at its disposal to control and intervene in society, politics, and the economy. This strategy is deliberate and well thought out, argues Sebastian Heilmann of the Mercator Institute for China Studies in Berlin. “With the help of Big Data, China’s leadership strives to eliminate the flaws of Communist systems,” he wrote in a Financial Times op-ed. China’s troves of data will help the government allocate resources, solve problems, and squelch dissent — or so, at least, the government hopes.


    Some people already feel trapped in China’s social credit web. Investigative reporter Liu Hu in 2013 published an article alleging someone was an extortionist. The man sued Liu for defamation and won. The court ordered the journalist to pay a fine, which he says he did. However, when Liu next tried to book a plane ticket using a travel app, he was notified that the transaction couldn’t go through because he had been included on the supreme court’s blacklist.

    He contacted the local court and learned he had transferred the money to the wrong account. He hurried to repay the fine and sent the judge a picture of his transfer. He didn’t hear back. Later, through connections, he managed to meet the judge and plead with him to be removed from the blacklist, but so far nothing has happened. Through a loophole, Liu can buy plane tickets using his passport, but he feels like there’s nothing he can do to get himself off the blacklist. “It’s helpless,” he says.

    The unified social credit system will rally all sectors of society against those deemed untrustworthy, says author Murong Xuecun, who has had run-ins with the Chinese government because of his writings. Murong believes dissidents will experience a “multifaceted punishment,” and more and more people will become cautious about their remarks.

    “The Chinese government is increasingly inclined to use high tech to monitor ordinary people, turning China into a police state, a big prison,” says Zhang Lifan, the sociologist.

    Zhang and Murong’s voices, however, are so far exceptions. If people have doubts, they’re not voicing them. In Rongcheng, at least, the social credit system has been embraced. If that continues elsewhere, the system will be a success. And the government will see to it that it does.

    In the larger picture, the Communist Party is trying to stay in power “by making China a pleasant and acceptable place for people to live in order to not get angry,” Creemers says. “It doesn’t mean it’s benevolent. Keeping people happy is a much more effective means than employing force.”

    The party is using both coercion and cooperation to integrate the scheme into people’s lives and have it bring benefits to them. “To me, that’s what makes it Orwellian,” says Hoffman of IISS. The social credit system provides incentives for people to not want to be on a blacklist. “It’s a preemptive way of shaping the way people think and shaping the way people act,” she says. And to the extent that people believe they can benefit socially and economically from the Communist Party staying in power, the system is working.

  2. shinichi Post author

    Planning Outline for the Construction of a Social Credit System (2014-2020)

    by Rogier Creemers

    A social credit system is an important component part of the Socialist market economy system and the social governance system. It is founded on laws, regulations, standards and charters, it is based on a complete network covering the credit records of members of society and credit infrastructure, it is supported by the lawful application of credit information and a credit services system, its inherent requirements are establishing the idea of an sincerity culture, and carrying forward sincerity and traditional virtues, it uses encouragement to keep trust and constraints against breaking trust as incentive mechanisms, and its objective is raising the honest mentality and credit levels of the entire society.

    Accelerating the construction of a social credit system is an important basis for comprehensively implementing the scientific development view and building a harmonious Socialist society, it is an important method to perfect the Socialist market economy system, accelerating and innovating social governance, and it has an important significance for strengthening the sincerity consciousness of the members of society, forging a desirable credit environment, raising the overall competitiveness of the country and stimulating the development of society and the progress of civilization.

    On the basis of the general requirement to “strengthen sincerity in government affairs, commercial sincerity, social sincerity and judicial credibility construction” as put forward by the 18th Party Congress, “establish and complete a social credit system, commend sincerity and punish insincerity” as put forward by the 3rd Plenum of the 18th Party Congress, “establish and complete a social credit system” as put forward in the “CCP Central Committee and State Council Opinions concerning Strengthening and Innovating Social Management”, as well as “accelerate the construction of a social credit system” as put forward in the “12th Five-Year Planning Outline of the Economic and Social Development of the People’s Republic of China” (hereafter simply named the “12th Five-Year Plan”), this Planning outline has been formulated. The planning period is 2014-2020.

    I, The overall line of thinking for the construction of a social credit system

    (1) Development situation.

    The Party Centre and the State Council pay high regard to the construction of a social credit system. Relevant regions, departments and work units have explored and moved the matter forward, and positive headway has been made in social credit system construction. The State Council has established an interministerial joint conference for social credit system construction to comprehensively move social credit system construction forward, which promulgated and implemented the “Credit Investigation Sector Management Regulations”, and a batch of rules and standards for credit system construction have been successively rolled out. A nationwide uniform financial credit information database has been created, the construction of a credit system for small and micro-enterprises and the countryside has been vigorously moved forward; various ministries have promoted credit information openness, launched industry credit evaluation, and implemented categorized supervision and management over credit; various sectors have vigorously launched propaganda and education on sincerity and sincerity self-discipline activities; various regions have explored the establishment of comprehensive credit information sharing platforms, stimulating the comprehensive use of credit information by various departments and work units; social demand for credit services and products is growing every day, and the credit services market is incessantly expanding in scale.

    Although certain headway has been made in the construction of our country’s social credit system, the contradictions that it is not matched, not coordinated and not adapted to economic development levels and the social development stage remain prominent. The main problems that exist include: a credit investigation system that covers all of society has not yet been formed, credit records of the members of society are gravely flawed, incentive mechanisms to encourage keeping trust and punishments for breaking trust are incomplete, trust-keeping is insufficiently reward, the costs of breaking trust tend to be low; credit services markets are not developed, service systems are immature, there are no norms for service activities, the credibility of service bodies is insufficient, and the mechanisms to protect the rights and interests of credit information subjects are flawed; the social consciousness of sincerity and credit levels tend to be low, and a social atmosphere in which agreements are honoured and trust are honestly kept has not yet been shaped, especially grave production safety accidents, food and drug security incidents happen from time to time, commercial swindles, production and sales of counterfeit products, tax evasion, fraudulent financial claims, academic impropriety and other such phenomena cannot be stopped in spite of repeated bans, there is still a certain difference between the extent of sincerity in government affairs and judicial credibility, and the expectations of the popular masses.

    (2) Circumstances and requirements

    Our country is currently in the assault phase of deepening economic structural reform and perfecting the Socialist market economy system. The modern market economy is a credit economy, establishing and completing an social credit system is an important step in rectifying and standardizing the market economy order, improving the market’s credit environment, reducing transaction costs and preventing economic risk, and is an urgent requirement to reduce administrative governmental interference in the economy and perfecting the Socialist market economy system.

    Our country is in a period of strategic opportunity to accelerate the transformation its development method and realize scientific development. Accelerating the promotion of social credit system construction is an important precondition for stimulating optimized resource allocation, broadening internal demand and stimulating the structural optimization and improvement of industrial structures, and is an urgent requirement to perfect scientific development mechanisms.

    Our country is in a crucial period of economic and social transformation. Interest subjects are becoming more pluralized, various social contradictions are prominent, and social organizations and management methods are seeing profound change. Completely moving the construction of a social credit system forward is an effective method to strengthen social sincerity, stimulate mutual trust in society, and reducing social contradictions, and is an urgent requirement for strengthening and innovating social governance, and building a Socialist harmonious society.

    Our country is in a period of expansion in which the openness levels of the economy are rising on an even greater scale, across even broader fields, and at even deeper levels. Economic globalization has enabled an incessant increase of our country’s openness towards the world, and economic and social interaction with other countries and regions is becoming ever closer. Perfecting the social credit system is a necessary condition to deepen international cooperation and exchange, establishing international brands and reputations, reducing foreign-related transaction costs, and improving the country’s soft power and international influence, and is an urgent requirement to promote the establishment of an objective, fair, reasonable and balanced international credit rating system, to adapt to the new circumstances of globalization, and master new globalized structures.

    (3) Guiding ideology and target principles.

    To comprehensively move the construction of a social credit system forward, we must persist in taking Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important “Three Represents” thought and the scientific development view as guidance, act according to the spirit of the 18th Party Congress, the 3rd Plenum of the 18th Party Congress, and the “12th Five-Year Plan”, take completing credit laws, regulations and standard systems and shaping a credit investigation system covering all of society as the basis, take moving forward the construction of sincerity in government affairs, commercial sincerity, social sincerity and judicial credibility as main content, take moving forward the construction of an sincerity culture and establishing mechanisms to encourage sincerity and punish insincerity as focal points, take moving forward the construction of sectoral credit, the construction of local credit and the development of credit services markets as support, take raising the entire society’s sense of sincerity and credit levels and improving the economic and social operating environment as targets, put people first, broadly shape a thick atmosphere in the entire society that keeping trust is glorious and breaking trust is disgraceful, and ensure that sincerity and trustworthiness become conscious norms of action among all the people.

    The main objectives of the construction of a social credit system are: by 2020, basically having established fundamental laws, regulations and standard systems for social credit, basically having completed a credit investigation system covering the entire society with credit information and resource sharing at the basis, basically having completed credit supervision and management systems, having a relatively perfect credit service market system, and giving complete rein to mechanisms to encourage keeping trust and punish breaking trust. Having made clear headway in the construction of sincerity in government affairs, commercial sincerity, social sincerity and judicial credibility, and a substantial rise in market and social satisfaction levels. Having broadly strengthened the sense of sincerity in the entire society, achieved a clear improvement in the credit environment for economic and social development, and a market improvement of the economic and social order.

    The main principles for social credit system construction are:

    Government promotion, joint construction with society. Fully give rein to the organizational, guiding, promoting and demonstration roles of government. The government is responsible for formulating and implementing development plans, completing regulations and standards, fostering and supervising credit service markets. Focus on giving rein to the role of market mechanisms, coordinate and optimize resource allocation, encourage and muster social forces, broaden participation, move forward together, shape joint forces for social credit system construction.

    Completing the legal system, standardizing development. Progressively establish and complete credit law and regulation systems and credit standards systems, strengthen credit information management, standardize the development of credit service structures, safeguard the security of credit information, and the rights and interests of information subjects.

    Comprehensive planning, graduated implementation. In view of the long-term nature, systemic nature and complexity of social credit system construction, strengthen top-level design, stand on the present, gaze towards the future, plan the overall picture comprehensively, plan systematically, organize implementation in a planned and graduated manner.

    Breakthroughs in focus points, strengthen application. Choose focus areas and model regions to launch credit construction demonstrations. Vigorously spread the socialized application of credit products, stimulate the interaction, exchange, coordination and sharing of credit information, complete combined social credit reward and punishment mechanisms, construct a social credit environment of sincerity, self-discipline, trust-keeping and mutual trust.

    II, Move sincerity construction forward in focus areas

    (1) Accelerating the construction of government affairs sincerity.

    Sincerity in government affairs is the crux of social credit system construction, the level of sincerity of all sorts of governmental actors plays an important model and guidance role for the construction of sincerity among other social subjects.

    Persisting in administration according to the law. Administration according to the law penetrates the entire process of policymaking, implementation, supervision and service, comprehensively move government affairs openness forward, under the precondition of protecting national information security, commercial secrets and individual privacy, publish credit information obtained in administrative management according to the law, and establish effective information sharing mechanisms. Realistically raise government work efficiency and service levels, transform the functions of government. Complete systems to constrain and supervise the use of power, ensure that policymaking powers, implementation powers and supervision powers are mutually constraining and mutually coordinating. Perfect mechanisms and procedures for government policymaking, raise the transparency of policymaking. Further expand the major policy decision publication and haring system, broaden channels for public participation in government policymaking, strengthen social supervision over and constraints on the use of power, improve government credibility, establish an honest image of an open, fair and clean government.

    Give rein to the demonstration role of government in sincerity construction. All levels’ People’s Governments must first and foremost strengthen their own sincerity construction, and drive the establishment of an sincerity consciousness in all of society and an increase in the levels of sincerity through honest governing by governments. Take the lead in using credit information and credit products in administrative permission, government procurement, tendering and budding, labour and employment, social security, scientific research management, cadre promotion and appointment, management and supervision, application for government financial support and other such areas, and foster the development of a credit services market.

    Accelerate the construction of government trust-keeping and commitment mechanisms. Strictly carry out the commitments that government has made to society, bring the honouring of agreements and keeping of service commitments in government affairs into the government achievements evaluation system, make development planning and government work reporting concerning the implementation situation of economic and social development objectives, as well as the situation of keeping commitments in handling affairs for the common people into an important content for evaluating the level of government honest, and promote the progressive establishment and completion of government affairs and administrative commitment-keeping assessment system in all localities and all departments. All levels’ People’s Governments’ political commitments and all categories of agreements signed according to the law must be earnestly carried out and honoured. It is necessary to vigorously create a fair, competitive, uniform and highly efficient market environment, it is not permitted to engage in local protectionism measures, such as abusing administrative powers to close off markets, cover up or connive at acts violating laws, regulations or trust by social subjects within an administrative region. It is necessary to support statistics departments in creating statistics according to the law, and creating accurate statistics. Government borrowing must take place according to the law and regulations, appropriate in scope, with controllable risks and transparent procedures. Budget controls must be strengthened in government revenues and expenses, and transparency raised. Strengthen and perfect mass supervision and public opinion supervision mechanisms,. Perfect government information sincerity restraint and accountability mechanisms. All levels’ People’s Governments must consciously accept legal supervision from that level’s People’s Congress and the democratic supervision of the Consultative Conference. Expand the supervision and auditing strength of supervision, auditing and other such bodies concerning administrative acts.

    Strengthen sincerity management and education among civil servants. Establish civil servant sincerity dossiers, enter civil servants’ personal credit information concerning reports on events, records of sincerity and cleanliness in government affairs, the results of annual evaluations, acts violating laws, disciplines and contract into their files, and make civil servants’ sincerity records into an important basis for assessment, employment and rewards. Deeply launch education concerning sincerity, abiding by the law and morality among civil servants, strengthen study of legal knowledge and credit knowledge, compile civil servants’ sincerity manuals, strengthen the legal and sincerity consciousness of civil servants, establish a line of civil servant teams that abide by the law and by sincerity, are highly efficient and clean.

    (2) Deeply move the construction of commercial sincerity forward.

    Raising sincerity levels in commercial affairs is a focus point of the construction of the social credit system, it is a basic condition for commercial relations to be effectively upheld, commercial operating costs to effectively lower, and the commercial environment to effectively improve, it is the root for the existence of the sustainable development of all kinds of commercial subjects, and is a basic guarantee for the effective conduct of all kinds of economic activities.

    Credit construction in the area of production. Build credit reporting structures for safe production, perfect safe production commitment, bad safe production credit record and safe production trust-breaking punishment systems. Take the mining, non-coal mining, hazardous chemical product, fireworks, and special equipment production enterprises as well as civil explosive product production and sales enterprises and demolition enterprises or work units as focus point, complete safe production access and withdrawal credit examination and verification mechanisms, and stimulate enterprises to implement safe production responsibility systems. Take food, medicine, daily consumables, agricultural produce and farming inputs into focus points, to strengthen and perfect 12365 product quality input reporting consulting service platforms, build systems for honest quality reporting, trust-breaking blacklist and exposure, market prohibition and withdrawal.

    Credit construction in the logistics sector. Research and formulate collection and sharing systems for enterprise credit information in the area of trading and logistics, perfect basic credit evaluation norms and indicator systems for trading and logistics enterprises. Move forward the construction of credit in wholesale and retail, trading and logistics, accommodation, food and drink, and residents’ services, launch categorized enterprise credit management. Perfect credit cooperation models between retailers and suppliers. Strengthen anti-monopoly and anti-unfair competition law enforcement, strengthen investigation and prosecution of acts of market distortion, false propaganda, commercial swindling, commercial slander, commercial bribes and other such unlawful acts, expose model cases and major cases increase the costs for enterprises to break trust, and stimulate sincere business and fair competition. Progressively establish nationwide product circulation tracing systems with product bar codes and other such symbols as a basis. Strengthen the construction of sincerity systems for quality and health inspection. Support commerce and trade services enterprises’ credit funding, develop commercial factoring, standardize advance payment and consumption acts. Encourage enterprises to broaden credit selling, stimulate individuals to consume on credit. Move forward with the construction of credit in external commerce and trade, further strengthen credit information management, credit risk monitoring and advance warning, as well as enterprise credit ranking management in foreign trade, foreign aid, foreign investment cooperation and other such areas. With the aid of electronic port management platforms, establish and perfect import and export enterprise credit evaluation systems, credit category management and joint supervision and management systems.

    Credit construction in the area of finance. Innovate financial credit products, improve financial services, safeguard the security of personal information of financial consumers, and protect the lawful rights and interests of financial consumers. Strengthen punishment of financial swindles, malicious evasion of loan repayments, insider trading, selling fake warranties, insurance and compensation fraud, disclosure of false information, illegal fundraising, obtaining foreign currency under false pretences and other acts of financial trust-breaking, and standardize the order of financial markets. Strengthen the construction of financial credit information infrastructure, further broaden the coverage of credit records, and strengthen the incentivizing role of the financial sector to those keeping trust, and its constraining role towards trust-breakers.

    Credit construction in the area of taxation. Establish intra-departmental credit information sharing mechanisms. Launch the exchange, verification and application of basic information about taxpayers, all kinds of trading information, asset ownership and transfer information as well as taxation records and other such tax-related kinds of information. Further perfect tax payment information ranking evaluation and publication systems, strengthen credit categorization management in the area of taxation, and give rein to the role of credit evaluation differentials in rewarding or punishing taxpayers. Establish black-list systems for legal violations concerning taxation. Move forward the joint management of taxation information and other kinds of social information, and ensure that taxpayers comply with fiscal law.

    Credit construction in the area of pricing. Guide enterprises and businesses to strengthen self-discipline in pricing, standardize and guide businesses’ pricing acts, implement systems for businesses to clearly indicate their prices and fees, and strive for “clear real prices”. Supervise and urge businesses in strengthening internal pricing management, establish and complete internal pricing management systems on the basis of the condition of the business. Perfect business pricing sincerity systems, complete information disclosure work, and promote realistic reward and punishment systems. Strengthen pricing law enforcement inspection and anti-monopoly law enforcement, investigate and prosecute the concoction and dissemination of price-rising information, pricing swindles, pricing monopolies and other such trust-breaking activities in pricing, openly expose model cases, and standardize the market pricing order.

    Credit construction in the area of project construction. Move credit system construction forward in the project construction market. Accelerate the construction for credit regulation systems in the project construction market, and formulate credit standards for all kinds of subjects and employees in the project construction market. Move forward the construction of a credit openness and sincerity system for project construction information, completely establish programme information and credit information openness and sharing columns on governmental websites, concentrate open project construction programme information and credit information, promote the construction of nationwide comprehensive search platforms, and realize “one-stop” comprehensive search services for project construction programme information and credit information openness and sharing. Deeply launch the construction of project quality and sincerity. Perfect entry and withdrawal structures for the project construction market, and strengthen punishment against enterprises where major project quality or security accidents occur, or other major trust-breaking acts occur, as well as their employees. Establish connected management mechanisms linking credit evaluation result, qualification examination and approval, professional qualification registration, qualification cancellation, and other such examination, approval and verification procedures for enterprises and employees. Establish scientific and effective employee credit evaluation mechanisms and trust-breaking liability prosecution systems for the construction area, and bring dismembered contracting, out-contracting, unlawful sub-contracting, late payment of project funds and peasant worker salaries, etc., into the scope of liability for trust-breaking.

    Credit construction in the area of government procurement. Strengthen government procurement credit management, strengthen joint mechanisms, and protect the lawful rights and interests of parties in government procurement. Formulate credit record standards for suppliers, evaluation experts, government procurement agencies as well as corresponding employees. Establish records for bad conduct by government procurement suppliers according to the law, and prohibit suppliers with a record of bad conduct to participate in government procurement activities for a certain period of time. Perfect access and withdrawal mechanisms for the government procurement market, fully use the credit information provided by industry and commerce, taxation, finance, prosecutorial and other such departments to strengthen credit management of government procurement parties and corresponding personnel. Accelerate the construction of nationwide, uniform government procurement management and trading systems, raise the transparency of government procurement activities, and realize the uniform publication and sharing of credit information.

    Credit construction in the area of tendering and bidding. Broaden the scope of information openness and sharing concerning tendering and bidding, establish credit evaluation indicators and evaluation standard systems covering tendering and bidding situations, and complete credit information openness and sharing systems for tendering and bidding. Further implement recording and publication rules for unlawful acts in the tendering and bidding process, and promote the perfection of joint reward and punishment mechanisms. Realize the interaction and interconnection of tendering and bidding contract implementation and other such credit information, as well as real-time exchange, integration and sharing, with the use of electronic tendering and bidding systems and public service platforms. Encourage market subjects to utilize basic credit information and third-party credit evaluation results, and make them into an important basis for inspecting the credentials of and evaluating bidders, deciding on contracts and signing contracts.

    Credit construction in the area of traffic and transportation. Shape a traffic and transportation credit regulation system by integrating departmental regulations and local regulations and government rules. Perfect credit assessment standards, implement categorized assessment, supervision and management. Formulate assessment standards aimed at the different operational categories of public roads, railways, waterways, aviation, channels and other such transportation markets, strengthen credit assessment, evaluation, supervision and management, vigorously guide third-party bodies to participate in credit assessment and evaluation, progressively establish a comprehensive assessment and evaluation system that integrates traffic and transportation management bodies with social credit evaluation bodies, and that contains supervision, complaints and redress mechanisms. List all kinds of unlawful traffic and transportation acts into trust-breaking records. Encourage and support all work units to give preference to choose traffic and transportation enterprises and employees with high credit assessment ratings in areas such as purchasing traffic and transportation services, tendering and bidding, personnel employment, etc. It is necessary to strengthen supervision, management and punishment of trust-breaking enterprises and employees, and progressively establish cross-regional and cross-sectoral credit reward and punishment mechanisms.

    Credit construction in the area of e-commerce. Build and complete e-commerce enterprise and client credit management and transaction credit evaluation systems, strengthen quality supervision by e-commerce enterprises of credit products they exploit and sell. Carry out the e-commerce subject identification rules, perfect website real-name systems. Strengthen website product quality inspection, strictly investigate and prosecute the production and sale of counterfeit goods, pyramid selling, false advertising, selling seconds as top-quality, violation of service contracts and other such swindling activities in the area of e-commerce. Attack inside-outside collusion, counterfeiting of flow rates and commercial reputation acts, and establish fixed-term sectoral prohibition rules for subjects breaking trust. Stimulate the broad application of e-commerce credit products in e-commerce. Launch trustworthiness authentication service work among e-commerce websites, spread the application of website trustworthiness symbols, and provide methods for e-commerce users to distinguish the real from the fake, and to recognize phishing websites.

    Credit construction in the area of statistics. Launch sincere statistics commitment activities among enterprises, create a fine wind of sincere reporting being glorious and trust-breaking and reporting falsehoods being disgraceful. Perfect statistical sincerity evaluation standard systems. Establish and complete sincerity evaluation structures for enterprise statistics and sincerity files for statistical personnel. Strengthen law enforcement and inspection, straiten investigation and prosecution of fraudulent acts in the area of statistics, and establish structures to report and expose trust-breaking acts in statistics. Expand joint punishment of enterprises breaking trust concerning statistics. Enter the name list files of enterprises breaking trust in statistics and information about their breach of laws and regulations into the credit information systems of finance, industry and commerce and other such sectors and departments directly couple statistics credit records with enterprise finance, government subsidies, industry and commerce registration and other such measures, and realistically strengthen punishment and constraint of trust-breaking acts in statistics.

    Credit construction in the intermediary services sector. Establish and perfect credit records and exposure systems for intermediary services bodies and their employees, and make them into an important basis for administrative market law enforcement departments’ carrying out categorized credit management. Focus on strengthening the management of notarization and arbitration, lawyers, accountancy, guarantees, authentication, inspection and monitoring, evaluation, accreditation, agency, brokerage, professional recommendation, consulting, trading and other such bodies, and explore the establishment of scientific and rational evaluation indicator systems, evaluation structures and work mechanisms.

    Credit construction in the area of exhibitions and advertising. Promote sincere exhibition-running among exhibition organizing bodies, carry out the sincere service contract, establish structures to expose credit files and information about enterprises breaking laws and regulations, and broaden the application of credit services and products. Strengthen the construction of sincerity in the advertising sector, establish and complete categorized credit management structures for the advertising sector, attack all kinds of false advertising, give prominence to the responsibility of participants in advertising production and dissemination, and perfect trust-breaking punishment mechanisms for advertising subjects and elimination mechanisms for grave trust-breaking.

    Constructing sincerity management systems in enterprises. Launch sincerity commitment activities in enterprises in all sectors, strengthen propaganda about enterprises that are models of sincerity, and exposure of model cases of trust-breaking, guide enterprises to strengthen their sense of social responsibility, strengthen credit self-discipline in production and operations, financial management and labour management, and improve the commercial credit ecology environment. Encourage enterprises to establish client files and launch client sincerity evaluation, enter sincere trading records of clients into receivable account management and credit issuance quota calculations for credit sales, establish scientific enterprises credit management workflows, prevent credit risks, and enhance enterprise’ comprehensive competitiveness. Strengthen enterprises’ sincerity and contract compliance in debt issuance, lending, guarantees and other activities concerning debts, liabilities, credit trading, production and operations. Encourage and support enterprises meeting conditions to establish credit supervisors. Encourage enterprises to establish internal staff sincerity assessment and evaluation structures. Strengthen the credit self-construction of enterprises in water supply, electricity supply, heating supply, gas supply, telecommunications, railways, aviation and other sectors that relate to the popular masses’ daily lives.

    (3) Comprehensively move forward the construction of social sincerity.

    Social sincerity is the basis for building the social credit system, only if there is mutual sincere treatment between members of society, and only if sincerity is fundamental, will it be possible to create harmonious and amicable interpersonal relationships, will it be possible to stimulate the progress of society and civilization, and realize social harmony, stability and a long period of peace and order.

    Credit construction in the areas of healthcare, hygiene and birth control. Strengthen the construction of credit management and sincere sectoral work styles in healthcare and hygiene bodies. Establish a value view of sincerity and sincerity among skilful physicians, and persist in the professional integrity of benevolence in heart and deeds. Foster ideas about sincerity in work, sincerity in purchasing, sincerity in diagnosis and treatment, sincerity in fee charging and sincerity in healthcare protection, persist in reasonable examinations, reasonable use of medicine, reasonable treatment, reasonable fee charging and other such service norms in sincere healthcare, comprehensively establish publication systems for drug prices and healthcare service prices, launch foundational activities for sincere hospitals and sincere pharmacies, formulate credit evaluation indicators and standards for healthcare bodies and professional doctors, pharmacists, nurses and other healthcare personnel, and move forward with examination and evaluation of hospitals and the regular assessment of doctors, launch comprehensive evaluation of the medical deontology of healthcare personnel, punish unlawful and trust-breaking acts such as taking bribes, excessive treatments, etc., and establish a sincere healthcare service system. Accelerate the perfection of credit structures in the area of drug security, establish credit files for drug research, development, production and circulation enterprises. Vigorously launch sincerity commitment activities for drug safety with “sincerity is supreme, score successes with quality” as focus point, realistically raise credit supervision and management levels concerning drug security, strictly attack acts of counterfeiting and falsification, and guarantee that the popular masses use drugs in a safe and effective manner. Strengthen credit construction in the area of population and birth control, and launch credit information sharing work in population and birth control.

    Credit construction in the area of social security. Establish comprehensive sincerity systems in areas such as disaster relief, aid, care for the elderly, social security, charity, lotteries, etc., attack all kinds of trust-breaking acts such as swindling and deception. Establish and complete sincerity systems in all segments, such as application, verification and withdrawal concerning the implementation of policies affecting people’s livelihoods, such as social aid, social housing, et., strengthen the verification of conditions for applications in policies concerning people’s livelihoods, strengthen dynamic management for social aid and supervision and management for the use of social housing, and put individuals breaking trust and violating regulations on a credit blacklist. Build information systems for the verification of residents’ and households’ economic situation, establish and perfect authentication mechanisms for low-income households, guarantee that social aid, social housing and other such policies concerning the people’s livelihood are carried out in a fair, just and healthy manner. establish and complete social security sincerity management systems, strengthen management in social security, strengthen labour guarantees and supervision of law enforcement in the area of social security, standardize benefits payment activities, strengthen punishment for acts violating regulations, cheating or deceiving insurance, all kinds of social security hospitals, pharmacies, industrial injury insurance-funded healthcare bodies and other social security service bodies as well as their work personnel, prevent and attack all kinds of insurance fraud. Further perfect social security finance management systems, raise the transparency of fee collection, management, payment and all other segments, promote the construction of sincerity systems in social insurance, standardize the payment acts of those participating in the insurance, and guarantee the safe operation of social security funds.

    Credit construction in the area of labour and employment. Further implement and perfect the structure for sincerity and legal compliance concerning labour guarantees in enterprises, formulate rules to publicize major unlawful acts concerning labour guarantees to society. Establish systems to publicize unlawful acts by employing work units concerning wages payment arrears, and complete hierarchical credit evaluation rules for labour guarantees in employing work units. Standardize employment activities, strengthen management of the implementation and mediation of labour contracts, promote that enterprise vigorously launch activities to build harmonious labour relationships. Strengthen supervision and law enforcement lf labour guarantees, and strengthen the attack against unlawful acts. Strengthen the construction of sincerity in the human resources market, standardize the activities of professional intermediaries, attack all kinds of unlawful and trust-breaking activities of black intermediaries, black employers, etc.

    Credit construction in the area of education and scientific research. Strengthen education about sincerity among educational and research personnel. Launch activities concerning sincerity commitments among teachers, and consciously accept supervision by the broad students, parents and all walks of society. Give rein to the influential role of teachers in education about sincerity and being a model of virtue for others. Strengthen education about sincerity among students, foster good habits of sincerity and trust-keeping, and lay the basis to raise the sincerity and quality of the entire nation. Explore the establishment of credit evaluation systems for education bodes and their employees, teachers and students, research bodies and scientific and technological communities, as well as research personnel, link up credit evaluation with examinations and student recruitment, student status management, grant of degrees and transcripts, research programme establishment, the professional evaluation of specialized technological position, appointment and employment, award selection, etc., strive to resolve the problems that schooling records are fabricated, dissertations are plagiarized, there is academic impropriety, there is fraud in examinations and student recruitment, etc.

    Credit construction in the areas of culture, sports and tourism. With the support of the nationwide cultural market technological supervision, management and public service platforms, establish and complete credit information databases of cultural enterprise subjects, employees and cultural products in areas such as entertainment, performance, artworks, online culture, etc.; formulate management measures for sincerity in cultural markets according to the law, and strengthen dynamic supervision and management in cultural markets. Formulate credit employment standards for professional sports employees, establish rules for third-party evaluation of credit rankings of professional sports employees, professional sports clubs and intermediary organizations, move forward the broad utilization of corresponding credit information records and credit ranking in participating in or organizing professional sports matches, professional sports access and transfer sessions, etc. Formulate sincerity service norms for professional tourism personnel, establish open customer feedback and complaints recording structures for the tourism industry, establish third-party evaluation systems for credit ranking of travel companies, tourism destinations, hotels, restaurants, etc.

    Credit construction in the area of intellectual property rights. Establish and complete intellectual property rights sincerity management structures, and publish credit evaluation rules for intellectual property protection. Focus on attacking infringements of intellectual property rights and the sale of fake and shoddy products, bring intellectual property rights infringement acts into trust-breaking records, strengthen the joint punishment of piracy, infringement and other such trust-breaking acts of intellectual property rights infringement, and raise the intellectual property rights protection consciousness of the entire society. Launch credit construction among intellectual property service bodies, explore the establishment of various kinds of standard-setting systems and sincerity evaluation systems for intellectual property rights services.

    Credit construction in the areas of environmental protection and energy saving. Move forward the construction of state capabilities for environmental monitoring, information and statistics, strengthen the collection and integration of environmental protection credit data, realize coordination and information sharing in environmental protection work, perfect open catalogues of environmental information. Establish open structures for environmental management and survey information. Perfect liability investigation mechanisms for environmental assessment documents, establish sincerity file databases for environmental assessment bodies, their employees and evaluation experts, strengthen categorized supervision and management over credit assessment of environmental bodies, their employees and evaluation experts. Establish structures for enterprises to launch self-monitoring of the pollutants they emit, publish the situation of their pollution emissions as well as to discover and deal with sudden incidents. Establish credit evaluation structures for enterprises’ environmental behaviour, regularly publish evaluation results, and organize the carrying out of dynamic and categorized management, issue corresponding rewards, warnings and punishments on the basis of the enterprises’ credit rank. Perfect credit information sharing mechanisms for enterprises’ environmental activities, and strengthen links with banks, securities, insurance, commercial and other such departments. Strengthen the construction of capacity to report and analyse statistics and data on national energy use. Strengthen the assessment of focus work units’ responsibilities concerning their energy use targets, regularly publish assessment results, and research the establishment of credit evaluation mechanisms for focus work units. Strengthen energy auditing, energy saving evaluation and reporting mechanisms, as well as evaluation and supervision of employees’ credit. Research the carrying out of energy saving service companies’ credit evaluation work, and progressively publish credit evaluation results to society in a regular manner. Strengthen credit assessment and management concerning environmental project evaluation experts’ employment situations.

    Sincerity construction in social organizations. With the support of legal person work unit information resource databases, accelerate the perfection of social organization registration and management information. Complete social organization information openness systems, guide social organizations to enhance the openness and transparency of their operations, and standardize the information openness behaviour of social organizations. Include sincerity construction content into the articles of association of all kinds of social organizations, strengthen the sincerity self-discipline of social organization, and raise the credibility of social organizations. Give rein to the role of social associations (commercial organizations) in the construction of sectoral credit, and strengthen members’ sincerity propaganda, education end training.

    Credit construction among natural persons. Give prominence to the fundamental role of natural persons’ credit construction in the construction of a social credit system, with the support of national population information resource databases, establish and perfect credit records for natural persons in economic and social life, and realize that natural persons’ credit records are completely covered on a nationwide scale. Strengthen professional credit construction among focus groups, establish personal credit records among public servants, enterprises’ legal representatives, lawyers, accounting employees, registered accountants, statists employees, registered tax advisors, auditors, evaluators, authentication, monitoring and survey employees, securities and futures employees, high-level managers in publicly traded companies, insurance brokers, medical personnel, teachers, scientific research personnel, patent service employees, project managers, news and media employees, tourist guides, professional veterinarians and other such persons, and record their credit ranking. broaden the use of professional credit reports, and guide toe construction of professional ethics and behavioural norms.

    Credit construction in the area of Internet applications and services. Forcefully move forward the construction of online sincerity, foster ideas of running the Internet according to the law and using the Internet in a sincere manner, progressively implement the online real-name system, perfect legal guarantees for the construction of online credit, forcefully move forward the construction of online credit supervision and management mechanisms. Establish online credit evaluation systems, evaluate the credit of the operational behaviour of Internet enterprises and the online behaviour of netizens, and record their credit rank. Establish network credit files covering Internet enterprises and individual netizens, vigorously move forward with the establishment of exchange and sharing mechanisms for online credit information and corresponding credit information in other areas, forcefully promote the broad application of online credit information in various areas of society. Establish online credit black list systems, list enterprises and individuals engaging in online swindles, rumourmongering, infringement of other persons’ lawful rights and interests and other grave acts of breaking trust online onto black lists, adopt measures against subjects listed on black lists including limitation of online conduct and barring sectoral access, and report them to corresponding departments for publication and exposure.

    (4) Forcefully move forward the construction of judicial credibility.

    Judicial credibility is an important content of the construction of a social credit system, it is a precondition to establish the judiciary’s authority, and is a baseline for social public justice.

    Construction of judicial credibility. Increase the informatization levels of judicial trials, and realize interaction and interconnection of trail information between the four levels of the judiciary, covering the entire process of trial work. Move forward with information openness on the enforcement of cases, perfect joint enforcement mechanisms, and raise the enforcement rate of valid legal writs. Give rein to the functional role of trials to encourage sincere trading and advocate mutual trust and cooperation, punish commercial swindles, wilful violation or breach of contracts and other such trust-breaking acts, and lead a wind of sincerity and trust-keeping.

    Construction of prosecutorial credibility. Further deepen prosecutorial openness, innovate methods and channels for prosecutorial openness, broadly hear the opinions of the masses, safeguard the popular masses’ right to know, right to participate, right of expression and right to supervision with regard to prosecutorial work. Continue to push forward “sunshine case-handling”, straiten management systems, strengthen internal and external supervision, establish and complete special investigation, synchronized supervision and responsibility prosecution mechanisms. Fully give rein to the functional role of legal supervision to strengthen investigation and prevention of workplace crime, and stimulate the construction of sincerity. Perfect systems to inquire about bribery cases, standardize and strengthen inquiry work management, establish and complete joint social mechanisms to inquire into and use bribery files.

    Construction of credibility in the area of public security. Comprehensively carry out “sunshine law enforcement”, publish law enforcement case-handling rules, structures, procedures, time limits and other such information according to the law and in a timely manner, where there is information that should not be published to society because case-handling is still in progress, but relates to specific rights and obligations, or it is necessary that specific counterparts are aware of it, those specific counterparts shall be notified, or inquiry services shall be provided to those specific counterparts. Further strengthen exchange and sharing of population information with all localities, and all departments, perfect the construction of national population information resource databases. Enter citizens’ traffic safety and law-breaking situation into sincerity files, stimulate all members of society to raise their consciousness about traffic security. Regularly publish the evaluation results of fire safety in high-fire risk work units to society, and make them into an important reference basis to rank work units’ credit. Bring social work units’ respect for fire safety laws and regulations into sincerity management, and strengthen the subjective responsibility of social work units concerning fire safety.

    The construction of credibility in the judicial and administrative systems. Further raise the standardization and institutionalization levels of management of prisons, drug rehabilitation facilities, and community correction bodies, safeguard the lawful rights and interests of persons serving sentences, persons rehabilitating from drug use, and persons in community correction. Forcefully move forward judicial and administrative information openness, further standardize and innovate information management and disclosure methods concerning lawyers, notaries, grassroots legal services, legal aid, judicial examinations, judicial expert advice, etc., and guarantee the popular masses’ right to know.

    Credit construction among judicial law enforcement and employed personnel. Deepen the reform of the judicial system and work mechanisms, move forward the construction of law enforcement standardization, straiten law enforcement procedures, persist in the fact that laws must be obeyed, law-breaking must be punished and everyone is equal according to the law, raise the scientific, institutionalization and standardization levels of judicial work. Fully give rein to the supervisory role of People’s Congresses, Consultative Conferences and the social public over judicial work, perfect mutual supervision and restraint mechanisms between judicial bodies, strengthen internal supervision in judicial bodies, and realize that supervision stimulates fairness, justice and credibility.

    III, Strengthen the construction of sincerity education and a sincerity culture

    The construction of sincerity education and a sincerity culture are major channels to lead the sincerity and self-discipline members of society, and enhance the moral cultivation of the members of society, and is an important content of the construction of the Socialist core value system.

    (1) Popularize sincerity education.

    With constructing the Socialist core value system, fostering and practicing the Socialist core value view as the foundation, bring sincerity education into the entire process of civil virtue construction and spiritual civilization construction. Move forward the civil virtue construction project, strengthen education about social morals, professional ethics, household virtue and individual morality, inherit the fine traditional virtues of China, carry forward the new winds of the times, and shape a fine trend of “seeing sincerity and trust-keeping as glorious, and seeing the loss of integrity to temptation and gains as shameful” across the entire society.

    Further enhance the content of sincerity education in all levels and all kinds of education and training. Forcefully launch activities to let universal education and propaganda about credit enter enterprises, enter classrooms, enter communities, enter villages and enter households.

    Build and use morality classrooms well, and advocate value views and moral norms of patriotism, respecting labour, sincerity, amity, etc. Launch mass activities for moral judgment, conduct analysis and evaluation of instances where there was a lack of sincerity and credit was not stressed, and guide people towards sincerity and trust-keeping, morality and upholding courtesy.

    (2) Strengthen the construction of a sincerity culture.

    Carry forward a culture of sincerity With members of society as targets, with sincerity propaganda as method and with sincerity education as carrier, forcefully advocate sincerity and ethical norms, carry forward the positive and upward, sincere and trust-keeping traditional culture of the Chinese nation and the contract spirit of the modern market economy, and shape social morals of venerating sincerity and practicing sincerity.

    Establish models of sincerity. Fully give rein to the propaganda and guiding roles of television, radio, newspapers, the Internet and other such media, integrate the selection of models of virtues and all kinds of sectoral sincerity construction activities, establish social credit models, ensure that members of society have examples to learn from, goals to pursue and that sincerity and trust-keeping become conscious pursuits of the entire society.

    Deeply launch topical activities concerning sincerity. Organize pubic interest activities such as the “Sincerity Activity Week” “Quality Month”, “Safe Production Month”, “Sincere Trading Propaganda Week”, the “5 March” Lei Feng Activity Day, the “15 March” International Consumer Rights Protection Day, the “14 June” Credit Record Care Day, the “4 December” National Legal System Propaganda Day, etc., in a paced and planned manner, give prominence to the topic of sincerity, create a social atmosphere of sincerity and harmony.

    Forcefully launch special campaigns in focus sectors and areas on the question of sincerity. Deeply launch specialized education and campaign activities concerning prominent issues in the area of morality, launch special campaigns targeting sectors and areas where sincerity is prominently lacking and sincerity building is urgently necessary, persist in correcting unhealthy trends and evil practices of abusing power for personal gain, lying and cheating, forgetting integrity when tempted by gains, benefiting oneself at others’ expense, etc., and establish trends of sectoral sincerity and integrity.

    (3) Accelerate the training of specialized credit talents.

    Strengthen the construction of the scholarly specialization of credit management. List credit management as an emerging and focus discipline that is urgently needed for the reform of the national economic system and the development of social governance, support higher education institutes meeting conditions to establish credit management majors and to set up corresponding courses, and establish credit management research streams in graduate student programmes. Launch research in credit theory, credit management, credit technology, credit standards, credit policy and other such areas.

    Strengthen professional credit management training and specialized evaluation. Establish and complete professional credit management training and specialized evaluation structures. Expand professional qualification training for credit management, train specialized forces for credit management. Stimulate and strengthen the circulation and training of credit employees and credit management personnel, to provide human resource support for the construction of a social credit system.

    IV, Accelerate the construction and application of credit information systems

    Completing credit records of members of society is a basic requirement for the construction of a social credit system. Giving rein to the strengths and roles of sectors, localities and markets, accelerating the construction of the social credit system, and perfecting the recording, integration and application of credit information are the basis and the preconditions for shaping mechanisms to encourage trust-keeping and punish trust-breaking.

    (1) The construction of sectoral credit information systems.

    Strengthen credit record construction in focus areas. Focus on the areas of industry and commerce, tax payment, pricing, import and export, production safety, product quality, environmental protection, food and drugs, medicine and healthcare, intellectual property rights, logistical services, project construction, e-commerce, traffic and transportation, contract fulfilment, human resources, social security, education and research, and perfect sectoral credit record and employee credit files.

    Establish sectoral credit information databases. All departments must make date standardization and application standardization into principles, rely on the State’s various major informatization projects, integrate intra-sectoral credit information resources, ensure the electronic storage of credit records, accelerate the construction of credit information systems, and accelerate the interconnection and interactivity of credit information between sectors. All sectors must respectively take responsibility for the organization and publication of credit information within those sectors.

    (2) The construction of local information systems.

    Accelerate the integration of government affairs credit information. All localities must record, perfect and integrate the credit information generated in the process of carrying out public management duties by all departments and work units in that locality, shape uniform credit information sharing platforms, and provide convenient ways for enterprises, individuals and social credit investigation bodies to consult government affairs credit information.

    Strengthen the application of credit information within localities. All localities must formulate government affairs credit information openness catalogues, and shape information openness supervision systems. Forcefully move forward with government affairs credit information exchange and sharing of all departments and all localities within that locality, strengthen the application of credit information in public management, and raise operational efficiency.

    (3) The construction of credit investigation systems.

    Accelerate the construction of credit investigation systems. Credit investigation bodies launching credit investigation operation shall build credit investigation systems targeting enterprise and undertaking work units as well as other social organizations and individuals, collect, arrange, store and process credit information of enterprise and undertaking work units and other social organizations, as well as individuals, according to the law, and adopt reasonable measures to ensure the accuracy of credit information. All localities and all sectors must support the establishment of credit investigation systems by credit investigation bodies.

    Externally provide specialized credit investigation services. Credit investigation bodies must, on the basis of market demands, externally provide specialized credit investigation services, to move credit service product innovation forward in an orderly manner. Establish, complete and strictly implement rules and structures for internal risk prevention, avoidance of conflicts of interests and to ensure information security, provide convenient, rapid and efficient credit information services to users, and further broaden the application of credit reports in many areas, including the banking sector, the securities sector, the insurance sector, administrative law enforcement by government departments, etc.

    (4) The construction of uniform credit investigation platforms in the financial sector.

    Perfect basic databases for financial credit information. Continue to move forward with the construction of basic databases for financial credit information, enhance data quality, perfect systemic functions, strengthen management over the secure operations of systems, further expand the coverage scope of credit reports, and enhance external service levels of systems.

    Promote the construction of uniform credit investigation platforms in the financial sector. Continue to promote the linkage of credit information systems between financial management departments for banks, securities, insurance, foreign exchange, etc., promote the construction of uniform credit investigation platforms in the financial sector, and move forward credit information exchange and sharing between financial supervision and management departments.

    (5) Move forward credit information exchange and sharing.

    Progressively move forward government affairs credit information exchange and sharing. All localities and all sectors must establish credit information exchange and sharing mechanisms, comprehensively plan the use of existing credit information systems and infrastructure, move forward the interconnection and interactivity of various credit information systems and the exchange and sharing of credit information, and progressively create credit information networks that cover all information subjects, all credit information categories, and all regions nationwide, in a manner that is guided by needs, and under the preconditions of protecting privacy, clarifying responsibilities and ensuring the timeliness and accuracy of data. All sectors’ controlling departments must conduct categorized and hierarchical management of credit information and determine their powers of inquiry, in inquiry concerning special cases, a special application must be made.

    Move forward information exchange and sharing between the government affairs credit information system and credit investigation systems. Give rein to the role of market incentive mechanisms to encourage social finance bodies to strengthen integration with open government affairs credit information and non-government affairs credit information, to establish credit investigation service and product systems aimed at different counterparts, which satisfy the credit investigation needs of a multi-layered, diverse and specialized society.

  3. shinichi Post author

    V, Perfect operational mechanisms for the social credit system with rewards as the focus point.

    Operational mechanisms are the institutional basis to guarantee the coordinated operation of all parts of the social credit system. In particular, mechanisms encouraging trust-keeping and punishing breach of trust directly play a role in the credit activities of all social subjects, and are the core mechanisms for the operation of the social credit system.

    (1) Build mechanisms to incentivise trust-keeping and punish trust-breaking.

    Strengthen rewards and incentives for subjects to keep trust. Expand rewards and propaganda strength for trust-keeping acts. Grant rewards to enterprises and model individuals keeping trust according to regulations, broadly propagate them through news media, and forge a public opinion environment that trust-keeping is glorious. Development and reform, finance, banking, environmental protection, housing and urban construction, traffic and transportation, commercial, industrial, fiscal, quality inspection, security supervision, customs, intellectual property rights and other such departments must, in the process of market supervision and public service, deepen the application of credit information and credit products, and extent “green path” support and incentive mechanisms, such as preferential management, simplifying procedures, etc., to those keeping trust.

    Strengthen restraint and punishment of subjects breaking trust. Strengthen administrative supervision, restraint and punishment. On the basis of the current administrative punishment measures, complete punishment structures for breach of trust, establish blacklist systems and market withdrawal mechanisms in all sectors. Promote all levels’ People’s Governments to implement categorized credit management implement categorized credit supervision and management concerning market supervision and management, public service market access, qualification accreditation, administrative examination and approval, policy support and other such areas, integrate the categories and levels of supervision and management counterparts to ensure that those breaking trust are punished. Progressively establish systems for credit commitment by administrative approval applicants, and launch inspections of applicants’ credit, ensure that applicants have credit records in government-recommended credit investigation bodies, coordinate with credit investigation bodies in launching credit information collection work. Promote the creation of marketized constraint and punishment. Formulate normative credit evaluation standard systems and evaluation methods, perfect systems to record and expose information concerning trust-breaking, ensure that hose breaking trust are constrained in their market interactions. Promote the creation of sectoral constraints and punishments. Formulate sectoral self-discipline norms through sectoral associations and supervise members in obeying them. Implement warning, intra-sectoral reporting and criticism, open condemnation and other such punitive measures against those breaking trust in violation of regulations, according to the gravity of the circumstances, both for corporate members and individuals members. Promote the creation of socialized constraint and punishment. Perfect social public opinion supervision mechanisms, strengthen disclosure and exposure of trust-breaking acts, give rein to the role of the masses in appraisal, discussion, criticism and reports, shape social deterrence through social moral condemnation, and censure trust-breaking acts of members of society.

    Establish rewarded reporting systems for acts of breach of trust. Realistically implement rewards for reporting individuals, and protect the lawful rights and interests of reporting individuals.

    Establish joint credit reward and punishment mechanisms across multiple departments and regions. Through credit information exchange and sharing, realize credit reward alliances across multiple departments and regions, ensure that those keeping trust receive benefit in all respect, and those breaking trust meet with difficulty at every step.

    (2) establishing and completing legal, regulatory and standards systems for credit.

    Perfect legal and regulatory systems for credit. Move credit legislation work forward, ensure there are laws to rely on for credit information collection, consulting, use, exchange and interaction, credit information security, the protection of subjects’ rights and interests, etc. Publish supplementary rules and implementation regulations for the “Credit Investigation Management Regulations, establish systems to process objections, handle complaints and punish liability for infringement.

    Move forward the construction of sectoral, departmental and local credit structures. All localities and all departments must, according to the needs of sectoral credit system construction within their own localities and departments, formulate regulatory structures for regional or sectoral credit construction, clarify the responsibilities of credit information recording subjects, guarantee the objectivity, truthfulness, accuracy and timely updating of credit information, perfect credit information sharing and openness systems, promote the orderly development and use of credit information resources.

    Establish categorized credit information management systems. Formulate credit information catalogues, determine the categories of credit information, according to the attributes of credit information, and in integration with the protection of personal privacy and commercial secrets, move categorized management of credit information forward according to the law, in segments such as collection, sharing, use, openness, etc. Enhance investigation and prosecution of the sale of personal privacy and commercial secrets.

    Accelerate he construction of a credit information standard systems. Formulate nationwide uniform credit information collection and categorized management standards, and unify the credit indicator catalogue and construction standards.

    Establish uniform social credit coding systems. Establish uniform social credit coding systems for natural persons, legal persons and other organizations. Perfect corresponding structures and standards, and promote the broad use of uniform social credit codes in economic and social activities.

    (3) Foster and standardize credit service markets.

    Develop various kinds of credit service structures. Progressively establish credit service organization systems where public credit service bodies and social credit service bodies interact and mutually supplement each other, at multiple levels and in all directions in a manner where basic credit information services and value-added services complement each other.

    Move forward and standardize the development of a credit rating industry. Foster and develop local rating bodies, and strengthen the international competitiveness of our country’s rating bodies. Standardize and develop a credit rating market, raise the overall credibility of the credit rating industry. Explore and innovate double rating and re-rating systems. Encourage our country’s rating bodies to participate in international competition and the formulation of international standards, and strengthen coordination and cooperation with credit rating bodies in other countries.

    Promote the broad utilization of credit service products. Expand the scope of application of credit service products, and expand the application of credit service products in social governance and market exchange. Encourage credit service product research, development and innovation, and promote the development of credit insurance, credit guarantee, commercial factoring, performance guarantees, credit management consulting and training and other such credit service activities.

    Establish orderly and open government credit information systems. Determine the open categories and basic catalogues for governmental credit information, broaden government credit information openness to society in an orderly manner, and optimize the development environment for credit investigation, credit rating, credit management, and other such industries.

    Perfect credit service market supervision and management systems. On the basis of the different characteristics of the activities of credit service markets and bodies, implement categorized supervision and management according to the law, perfect supervision and management systems, clarify supervision and management duties and responsibilities, realistically safeguard market order. Promote the formulation of legal systems concerning credit service activities, establish credit service bodies access and withdrawal mechanisms, realize that employment qualification assessment is open and transparent, further perfect professional norms for credit services, and stimulate the healthy development of the credit service sector.

    Promote the perfection of legal person governance for credit service bodies. Strengthen internal control in credit service bodies, perfect constraining mechanisms, improve the quality of credit services.

    Strengthen the construction of credit for credit service bodies themselves. Credit service bodies must establish behavioural norms, strengthen standards and management, raise service quality, persist in fairness and independence, and raise their credibility. All kinds of credit service bodies are encouraged to set up chief credit supervision officers, and to strengthen their credit management.

    Strengthen self-discipline in credit service industries. Promote the establishment of self-disciplinary organizations for the credit service industry, set up behavioural norms and professional standards within organizations for credit service bodies and employees, strengthen self-restraint and comprehensively improve the sincerity levels of credit service bodies.

    (4) Protect the rights and interest of credit information subjects.

    Complete protection mechanisms for the rights and interests of information credit subjects. Fully give rein to the role of administrative supervision, sectoral self-discipline and social supervision in protecting the rights and individuals of credit information subjects, comprehensively use legal, economic, administrative and other such measures to realistically protect the rights and interests of credit information subjects. Strengthen guidance and education of credit information subjects, incessantly strengthen their consciousness about upholding their own lawful rights and interests.

    Establish self-correction and active self-renewal social incentive and care mechanisms. With establishing educational mechanisms aimed at trust-breaking acts by minors as a focus point, provide appropriate protection to members of society who regret and have corrected past light acts of trust-breaking, and shape incentive mechanisms for trust-keeping and advancement.

    Establish credit information infringement liability investigation mechanisms. Formulate management rules and operational regulations for processing objections, handling complaints and managing litigation concerning credit information. Further strengthen law enforcement, and strictly punish the leaking of State secrets or commercial secrets, or the infringement of personal privacy by credit service bodies and other such unlawful acts according to the law. Strengthen the role of social supervision through exposing various kinds of acts violating information subjects’ rights and interests through all kinds of media.

    (5) Strengthen credit information security management.

    Complete credit information security management systems. Perfect credit information protection and online trust systems, establish and complete credit information security supervision systems. Strengthen credit information security supervision and inspection, launch credit information security risk assessment, implement hierarchical credit information security protection. Launch credit information security authentication, strengthen credit information service system security management. Establish and perfect credit information security emergency response handling mechanisms. Strengthen credit information security infrastructure construction.

    Strengthen credit service bodies’ internal credit information security management. Strengthen the ability of credit service bodies to protect security, expand security guarantees, technological research and development and financial input, build credit information security guarantee systems with high starting points and high standards. Formulate and implement regulatory structures for credit information gathering, ordering, processing,, storage, usage, and other such areas.

    VI, Establishing implementation and support systems

    (1) Strengthening responsibility and implementation.

    All localities and all departments must unify thoughts, and according to the general requirements of this Planning Outline, establish Planning Outline Promotion Small Groups, to formulate concrete implementation plans on the basis of the division of work and responsibility, and the work reality.

    All localities and all departments must regularly conduct a summary and evaluation of the situation of the construction of a social credit system in their localities and corresponding sectors, timely discover problems and put forward solutions for improvement.

    Localities, departments and work units with prominent achievements in social credit system construction will be commended according to regulations. Responsible personnel within localities, departments and work units that do not move matters forward forcefully or where many acts of untruthfulness occur will be held to administrative accountability according to regulations.

    (2) Expanding policy support.

    All levels’ People’s Governments must, on the basis of the needs of social credit system construction, bring expenses that should be borne by governments into their financial budget, in order to guarantee them. Expand financial support for the construction of credit infrastructure, innovation and demonstration project in focus areas, etc.

    All localities and all departments are encouraged to integrate the deployment of the Planning Outline with their own work reality, take the lead and engage in pioneering trials in the area of social credit system construction innovation and demonstration, and provide support in government budgets, financial arrangements and other such areas.

    (3) Implementing specific projects.

    The Government Affairs Information Openness Project. Deeply implement the “Government Information Openness Regulations of the People’s Republic of China”, conduct categorized management according to the principles of active openness and openness on request, realistically expand the strength of government affairs openness, and establish an open and transparent government image.

    The Rural Credit System Construction Project. Establish credit files for peasant households, farms, peasant cooperatives, the fallow agricultural sector, agricultural production and processing enterprises and other such rural members of society, and ram down a basis for the construction of a rural credit system. Develop credit account, credit village and credit town (township) creation activities, deeply move youth credit demonstration household work forward, give rein to the role of model examples, ensure that peasants receive education and tangible benefits through participation, and raise their credit awareness through practice. Move forward with the construction of credit construction in agricultural product production, processing and distribution enterprises, the fallow agricultural sector and other such agriculture-related enterprises. Establish and complete mutual peasant credit guarantee systems, move forward and develop rural insurances, perfect village credit guarantee systems.

    The Small and Micro-Enterprise Credit System Construction Project. Establish and complete a credit recording and evaluation systems suited to the characteristics of small and micro-enterprises, perfect credit information consulting and sharing service networks for small and micro-enterprises, and regional small and micro enterprise credit records. Guide all kinds of credit service organs to provide information services to small and micro enterprises, innovate concentrated credit service methods for small and micro enterprises, encourage the creation of varied sincerity propaganda and training activities for small and micro enterprises, create a good credit environment for small and micro enterprises to raise funds, and for their healthy development.

    (4) Promoting examples of innovation.

    Comprehensive demonstrations of local credit construction. Demonstration regions are to take the lead in integrating credit information in all local departments and work units, creating uniform credit information sharing platforms, and open these up to society in an orderly manner and according to the law. All departments in demonstration regions are to strengthen the use of credit information and credit products in the process of carrying out economic and social management, and providing public services, and are to provide essential conditions for government management and service. Establish and complete social credit reward and punishment mechanisms, and ensure that those keeping trust are incentivized and rewarded, and those breaking trust are restrained and sanctioned. Publicize model acts of trust-breaking violating laws and regulations, and strengthen the attack against grave acts of trust-breaking. Explore the establishment of local government credit evaluation standards and methods, and try out local government comprehensive credit evaluation in issuing local government bonds and other such credit and finance activities conforming to the provisions of laws and regulations

    Cooperative demonstrations of regional credit construction. Explore the establishment of regional interlinked credit mechanisms, carry out regional credit system construction and innovation trials, move forward with credit information exchange and sharing, realize interregional credit rewards and punishments, and optimize the regional credit environment.

    Applied credit information demonstrations in focus areas and sectors. Try out the implementation of the credit reporting system in food security, environmental protection, production safety, product quality, project construction, e-commerce, negotiable securities and futures, funding guarantees, government procurement, tendering and budding and other such areas.

    (5) Complete organizational guarantees.

    Perfect organizational coordinating mechanisms. Perfect interministerial joint conference systems for the construction of the social credit system, fully give rein to its coordinating and planning role, strengthen guidance, supervision and inspection of the work of all localities and all departments in constructing a social credit system. Complete organizational bodies, all localities and departments must establish special bodies to take responsibility for promoting the construction of a social credit system. Establish nationwide credit associations, strengthen sectoral self-discipline, and fully give rein to the role of all kinds of social organizations in moving forwards the construction of a social credit system.

    Build local government promotion mechanisms. All levels’ local People’s Governments must put the construction of a social credit system on the important matters agenda, move forward the construction of government affairs sincerity, commercial sincerity, social sincerity and judicial credibility, strengthen supervision, strengthen assessment, and make the construction of a social credit system into an important element of assessing work objectives and tasks, and evaluating officials’ career achievements.

    Establish work reporting and coordination systems. The interministerial joint conference for the construction of a social credit system is to regularly convene work coordination meetings, report the situation of work progress, and timely research and resolve major problems in the construction of a social credit system.


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