2 thoughts on “Energy Conversion

  1. shinichi Post author

    Energy transformation



    Energy transformation, also known as energy conversion, is the process of changing energy from one form to another. In physics, energy is a quantity that provides the capacity to perform work or moving (e.g. lifting an object) or provides heat. In addition to being converted, according to the law of conservation of energy, energy is transferable to a different location or object, but it cannot be created or destroyed.

    The energy in many of its forms may be used in natural processes, or to provide some service to society such as heating, refrigeration, lighting or performing mechanical work to operate machines. For example, to heat a home, the furnace burns fuel, whose chemical potential energy is converted into thermal energy, which is then transferred to the home’s air to raise its temperature.


    Examples of sets of energy conversions in machines

    A coal-fired power plant involves these energy transformations:

    1. Chemical energy in the coal is converted into thermal energy in the exhaust gases of combustion
    2. Thermal energy of the exhaust gases converted into thermal energy of steam through heat exchange
    3. Kinetic energy of steam converted to mechanical energy in the turbine
    4. Mechanical energy of the turbine is converted to electrical energy by the generator, which is the ultimate output

    In such a system, the first and fourth steps are highly efficient, but the second and third steps are less efficient. The most efficient gas-fired electrical power stations can achieve 50% conversion efficiency. Oil- and coal-fired stations are less efficient.

    In a conventional automobile, the following energy transformations occur:

    1. Chemical energy in the fuel is converted into kinetic energy of expanding gas via combustion
    2. Kinetic energy of expanding gas converted to the linear piston movement
    3. Linear piston movement converted to rotary crankshaft movement
    4. Rotary crankshaft movement passed into transmission assembly
    5. Rotary movement passed out of transmission assembly
    6. Rotary movement passed through a differential
    7. Rotary movement passed out of differential to drive wheels
    8. Rotary movement of drive wheels converted to linear motion of the vehicle

    Other energy conversions

    There are many different machines and transducers that convert one energy form into another. A short list of examples follows:

  2. shinichi Post author

    (electrical energy)

     (mechanical energy)
      (kinetic energy)
      (potential energy)

     (chemical energy)

     (thermal energy)

     (magnetic energy)

     (light energy)

     (nuclear energy)

    電気エネルギー → 運動エネルギー : 電動機
    電気エネルギー ← 運動エネルギー : 発電機、風力発電、水力発電

    電気エネルギー → 化学エネルギー : 電気分解、電気精錬
    電気エネルギー ← 化学エネルギー : 電池

    電気エネルギー → 熱エネルギー  : 電熱器、電磁調理器
    電気エネルギー ← 熱エネルギー  : 火力発電、原子力発電、太陽熱発電、海洋温度差発電

    電気エネルギー → 磁気エネルギー : 電磁石、電磁ブレーキ
    電気エネルギー ← 磁気エネルギー : MHD発電

    電気エネルギー → 光エネルギー  : 照明、発光ダイオード、エレクトロルミネセンス
    電気エネルギー ← 光エネルギー  : 太陽光発電

    電気エネルギー ← 核エネルギー  : 原子力電池


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