IPBES Workshop Report on Biodiversity and Pandemics

Pandemics emerge from the microbial diversity found in nature

  • The majority (70%) of emerging diseases (e.g. Ebola, Zika, Nipah encephalitis), and almost all known pandemics (e.g. influenza, HIV/AIDS, COVID-19), are zoonoses – i.e. are caused by microbes of animal origin. These microbes ‘spill over’ due to contact among wildlife, livestock, and people.
  • An estimated 1.7 million currently undiscovered viruses are thought to exist in mammal and avian hosts. Of these, 631,000-827,000 could have the ability to infect humans.
  • The most important reservoirs of pathogens with pandemic potential are mammals (in particular bats, rodents, primates) and some birds (in particular water birds), as well as livestock (e.g. pigs, camels, poultry).

2 thoughts on “IPBES Workshop Report on Biodiversity and Pandemics

  1. shinichi Post author

    IPBES Workshop Report on Biodiversity and Pandemics



    IPBES Workshop Report on Biodiversity and Pandemics
    Executive Summary


    Pandemics represent an existential threat to the health and welfare of people across our planet. The scientific evidence reviewed in this report demonstrates that pandemics are becoming more frequent, driven by a continued rise in the underlying emerging disease events that spark them. Without preventative strategies, pandemics will emerge more often, spread more rapidly, kill more people, and affect the global economy with more devastating impact than ever before. Current pandemic strategies rely on responding to diseases after their emergence with public health measures and technological solutions, in particular the rapid design and distribution of new vaccines and therapeutics. However, COVID-19 demonstrates that this is a slow and uncertain path, and as the global population waits for vaccines to become available, the human costs are mounting, in lives lost, sickness endured, economic collapse, and lost livelihoods.

    Pandemics have their origins in diverse microbes carried by animal reservoirs, but their emergence is entirely driven by human activities. The underlying causes of pandemics are the same global environmental changes that drive biodiversity loss and climate change. These include land-use change, agricultural expansion and intensification, and wildlife trade and consumption. These drivers of change bring wildlife, livestock, and people into closer contact, allowing animal microbes to move into people and lead to infections, sometimes outbreaks, and more rarely into true pandemics that spread through road networks, urban centres and global travel and trade routes. The recent exponential rise in consumption and trade, driven by demand in developed countries and emerging economies, as well as by demographic pressure, has led to a series of emerging diseases that originate mainly in biodiverse developing countries, driven by global consumption patterns.

    Pandemics such as COVID-19 underscore both the interconnectedness of the world community and the rising threat posed by global inequality to the health, wellbeing and security of all people. Mortality and morbidity due to COVID-19 may ultimately be higher in developing countries, due to economic constraints affecting healthcare access. However, large-scale pandemics can also drastically affect developed countries that depend on globalized economies, as COVID-19’s impact on the United States of America and many European countries is currently demonstrating.

    Pandemics emerge from the microbial diversity found in nature

    • The majority (70%) of emerging diseases (e.g. Ebola, Zika, Nipah encephalitis), and almost all known pandemics (e.g. influenza, HIV/AIDS, COVID-19), are zoonoses – i.e. are caused by microbes of animal origin. These microbes ‘spill over’ due to contact among wildlife, livestock, and people.
    • An estimated 1.7 million currently undiscovered viruses are thought to exist in mammal and avian hosts. Of these, 631,000-827,000 could have the ability to infect humans.
    • The most important reservoirs of pathogens with pandemic potential are mammals (in particular bats, rodents, primates) and some birds (in particular water birds), as well as livestock (e.g. pigs, camels, poultry).

    Human ecological disruption, and unsustainable consumption drive pandemic risk

    • The risk of pandemics is increasing rapidly, with more than five new diseases emerging in people every year, any one of which has the potential to spread and become pandemic. The risk of a pandemic is driven by exponentially increasing anthropogenic changes. Blaming wildlife for the emergence of diseases is thus erroneous, because emergence is caused by human activities and the impacts of these activities on the environment.
    • Unsustainable exploitation of the environment due to land-use change, agricultural expansion and intensification, wildlife trade and consumption, and other drivers, disrupts natural interactions among wildlife and their microbes, increases contact among wildlife, livestock, people, and their pathogens and has led to almost all pandemics.
    • Climate change has been implicated in disease emergence (e.g. tick-borne encephalitis in Scandinavia) and will likely cause substantial future pandemic risk by driving movement of people, wildlife, reservoirs, and vectors, and spread of their pathogens, in ways that lead to new contact among species, increased contact among species, or otherwise disrupts natural host-pathogen dynamics.
    • Biodiversity loss associated with transformation of landscapes can lead to increased emerging disease risk in some cases, where species that adapt well to human-dominated landscapes are also able to harbour pathogens that pose a high risk of zoonotic transmission.
    • Pathogens of wildlife, livestock and people can also directly threaten biodiversity, and emerge via the same activities that drive disease risk in peopl (e.g. the emergence of chytridiomycosis in amphibians worldwide due to the wildlife trade).

    Reducing anthropogenic global environmental change may reduce pandemic risk

    • Pandemics and other emerging zoonoses cause widespread human suffering, and likely more than a trillion dollars in economic damages annually. This is in addition to the zoonotic diseases that have emerged historically and create a continued burden on human health. Global strategies to prevent pandemics based on reducing the wildlife trade and land-use change and increasing One Health1 surveillance are estimated to cost between US$22 and 31.2 billion, decreased even further (US$17.7-26.9 billion) if benefits of reduced deforestation on carbon sequestration are calculated – two orders of magnitude less than the damages pandemics produce.
    • The true impact of COVID-19 on the global economy can only be accurately assessed once vaccines are fully deployed and transmission among populations is contained. However, its cost has been estimated at US$8-16 trillion globally by July 2020 and may be US$16 trillion in the US alone by the 4th quarter of 2021 (assuming vaccines are effective at controlling it by then).
    • Pandemic risk could be significantly lowered by promoting responsible consumption and reducing unsustainable consumption of commodities from emerging disease hotspots, and of wildlife and wildlife-derived products, as well as by reducing excessive consumption of meat from livestock production.
    • Conservation of protected areas, and measures that reduce unsustainable exploitation of high biodiversity regions will reduce the wildlife-livestockhuman contact interface and help prevent the spillover of novel pathogens.

    Land-use change, agricultural expansion, and urbanization cause more than 30% of emerging disease events

    • Land-use change is a globally significant driver of pandemics and caused the emergence of more than 30% of new diseases reported since 1960.
    • Land-use change includes deforestation, human settlement in primarily wildlife habitat, the growth of crop and livestock production, and urbanization.
    • Land-use change creates synergistic effects with climate change (forest loss, heat island effects, burning of forest to clear land) and biodiversity loss that in turn has led to important emerging diseases.
    • Destruction of habitat and encroachment of humans and livestock into biodiverse habitats provide new pathways for pathogens to spill over and increase transmission rates.
    • Human health considerations are largely unaccounted for in land-use planning decisions.
    • Ecological restoration, which is critical for conservation, climate adaptation and provision of ecosystem services, should integrate health considerations to avoid potential increased disease risk resulting from increased human-livestockwildlife contact.

    The trade and consumption of wildlife is a globally important risk for future pandemics

    • Wildlife trade has occurred throughout human history and provides nutrition and welfare for peoples, especially the Indigenous Peoples and local communities in many countries.
    • About 24% of all wild terrestrial vertebrate species are traded globally. International, legal wildlife trade has increased more than five-fold in value in the last 14 years and was estimated to be worth US$107 billion in 2019. The illegal wildlife trade is estimated to be worth US$7-23 billion annually.
    • Wildlife consumption patterns vary markedly among countries, with North America, Europe and some parts of Asia being net importers, and the European Union and the United States of America being leading consumers of legally traded wildlife for pets.
    • Wildlife farming has expanded substantially in the last few decades, with international legal wildlife trade having increased 500% in value since 2015.
    • The farming, trade and consumption of wildlife and wildlife-derived products (for food, medicine, fur and other products) have led to biodiversity loss, and emerging diseases, including SARS and COVID-19.
    • Illegal and unregulated trade and unsustainable consumption of wildlife as well as the legal, regulated trade in wildlife have been linked to disease emergence.
    • The trade in mammals and birds is likely a higher risk for disease emergence than other taxa because they are important reservoirs of zoonotic pathogens.
    • Regulations that mandate disease surveillance in the wildlife trade are limited in scope, disaggregated among numerous authorities, and inconsistently enforced or applied.

    Current pandemic preparedness strategies aim to control diseases after they emerge. These strategies often rely on, and can affect, biodiversity.

    • Our business-as-usual approach to pandemics is based on containment and control after a disease has emerged and relies primarily on reductionist approaches to vaccine and therapeutic development rather than on reducing the drivers of pandemic risk to prevent them before they emerge.
    • Vaccine and therapeutic development rely on access to the diversity of organisms, molecules and genes found in nature.
    • Many important therapeutics are derived from indigenous knowledge and traditional medicine.
    • Fair and equitable access and benefit sharing derived from genetic resources, including pathogens, have led to more equitable access to vaccines and therapeutics, and broader engagement in research, but some access and benefit sharing procedures may impede rapid sharing of microbial samples.
    • Intellectual property is an incentive for innovation, but some have argued it may limit rapid access to vaccines, therapeutics and therapies, as well as to diagnostic and research tools.
    • Pandemic control programmes often act under emergency measures and can have significant negative implications for biodiversity, e.g. culling of wildlife reservoirs, release of insecticides.
    • Introduction of travel restrictions to reduce COVID-19 spread have severely reduced ecotourism and other income.
    • Reduced environmental impacts from economic slowdown during the ‘global COVID-19 pause’ (e.g. reduced oil consumption) are likely temporary and insignificant in the long term.
    • Diseases that emerge from wildlife and spread widely in people may then threaten biodiversity outside the pathogen’s original host range.
    • Pandemics often have unequal impacts on different countries and sectors of society (e.g. the elderly and minorities for COVID-19). The economic impacts (and disease outcomes) are often more severe on women, people in poverty and Indigenous Peoples. To be transformative, pandemic control policies and recovery programmes should be more gender responsive and inclusive.

    Escape from the Pandemic Era requires policy options that foster transformative change towards preventing pandemics:

    The current pandemic preparedness strategy involves responding to a pandemic after it has emerged. Yet, the research reviewed in this report identifies substantial knowledge that provides a pathway to predicting and preventing pandemics. This includes work that predicts geographic origins of future pandemics, identifies key reservoir hosts and the pathogens most likely to emerge, and demonstrates how environmental and socioeconomic changes correlate with disease emergence. Pilot projects, often at large scale, have demonstrated that this knowledge can be used to effectively target viral discovery, surveillance and outbreak investigation. The major impact on public health of COVID-19, of HIV/AIDS, Ebola, Zika, influenza, SARS and of many other emerging diseases underlines the critical need for policies that will promote pandemic prevention, based on this growing knowledge. To achieve this, the following policy options have been identified:

    Enabling mechanisms:

    • Launching a high-level intergovernmental council on pandemic prevention, that would provide for cooperation among governments and work at the crossroads of the three Rio conventions to:
      1) provide policy-relevant scientific information on the emergence of diseases, predict high-risk areas, evaluate economic impact of potential pandemics, highlight research gaps; and
      2) coordinate the design of a monitoring framework, and possibly lay the groundwork for an agreement on goals and targets to be met by all partners for implementing the One Health approach (i.e. one that links human health, animal health and environmental sectors).

      Ultimately the work of the high-level council may lead to countries setting mutually agreed goals or targets within the framework of an accord or agreement. A broad international governmental agreement on pandemic prevention would represent a landmark achievement with clear benefits for humans, animals and ecosystems.

    • Institutionalizing One Health in national governments to build pandemic preparedness, enhance pandemic prevention programmes, and to investigate and control outbreaks across sectors.
    • Integrating (“mainstreaming”) the economic cost of pandemics into consumption, production, and government policies and budgets.
    • Generating new green corporate or sovereign bonds to mobilize resources for biodiversity conservation and pandemic risk reduction.
    • Designing a green economic recovery from COVID-19 as an insurance against future outbreaks.

    Policies to reduce the role of land-use change in pandemic emergence:

    • Developing and incorporating pandemic and emerging disease risk health impact assessments in major development and land-use projects.
    • Reforming financial aid for land use so that benefits and risks to biodiversity and health are recognized and explicitly targeted
    • Assessing how effective habitat conservation measures including protected areas and habitat restoration programmes can reduce pandemics, and trade-offs where disease spillover risk may increase. Developing programmes based on these assessments.
    • Enabling transformative change to reduce the types of consumption, globalized agricultural expansion and trade that have led to pandemics (e.g. consumption of palm oil, exotic wood, products requiring mine extraction, transport infrastructures, meat and other products of globalized livestock production). This could include modifying previous calls for taxes, or levies on meat consumption, livestock production or other forms of high pandemic risk consumption.

    Policies to reduce pandemic emergence related to the wildlife trade:

    • Building a new intergovernmental health and trade partnership to reduce zoonotic disease risks in the international wildlife trade, building on collaborations among the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), the World Health Organization (WHO), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO); the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and others.
    • Educating communities from all sectors in emerging infectious diseases hotspots regarding the health risks associated with wildlife use and trade that are known to pose a pandemic risk.
    • Reducing or removing species in wildlife trade that are identified by expert review as high-risk of disease emergence, testing the efficacy of establishing market clean-out days, increased cold chain capacity, biosafety, biosecurity and sanitation in markets. Conducting disease surveillance of wildlife in the trade, and of wildlife hunters, farmers, and traders.
    • Enhancing law enforcement collaboration on all aspects of the illegal wildlife trade.

    Closing critical knowledge gaps on:

    • Supporting One Health scientific research to design and test better strategies to prevent pandemics.
    • Improving understanding of the relationship between ecosystem degradation and restoration and landscape structure, and the risk of emergence of disease.
    • Economic analyses of return-on-investment for programmes that reduce the environmental changes that lead to pandemics.
    • Key risk behaviours – in global consumption, in rural communities on the frontline of disease emergence, in the private sector, in national governments – that lead to pandemics.
    • Valuing Indigenous Peoples and local communities’ engagement and knowledge in pandemic prevention programmes.
    • Undiscovered microbial diversity in wildlife that has potential to emerge in future, or to be used to develop therapeutics or vaccines.
    • Analysing the evolutionary underpinnings of host shifts that are involved in zoonotic disease spillover and the adaptation of emerging pathogens to new host species.
    • Climate change impacts and related extreme weather events (e.g. flooding and droughts) on disease emergence, to anticipate future threats.
    • Obtaining data on the relative importance of illegal, unregulated, and the legal and regulated wildlife trade in disease risk.

    Foster a role for all sectors of society to engage in reducing risk of pandemics

    • Educating and communicating with all sectors of society, and especially the younger generations, about the origins of pandemics.
    • Identifying, ranking, and labelling high pandemic risk consumption patterns (e.g. use of fur from farmed wildlife) to provide incentives for alternatives.
    • Increasing sustainability in agriculture to meet food requirements from currently available land, and subsequently reduced land areas.
    • Promoting a transition to healthier and more sustainable and diverse diets, including responsible meat consumption.
    • Promoting sustainable mechanisms to achieve greater food security and reduce consumption of wildlife.
    • Where there is a clear link to high pandemic risk, consideration of taxes or levies on meat consumption, production, livestock production or other forms of consumption, as proposed previously by a range of scientific organizations and reports.
    • Sustainability incentives for companies to avoid high pandemic-risk land-use change, agriculture, and use of products derived from unsustainable trade or wildlife farming identified as a particular zoonotic disease risk.


    This report is published at a critical juncture in the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, at which its long-term societal and economic impacts are being recognized. People in all sectors of society are beginning to look for solutions that move beyond business-as-usual To do this will require transformative change, using the evidence from science to re-assess the relationship between people and nature, and to reduce global environmental changes that are caused by unsustainable consumption, and which drive biodiversity loss, climate change and pandemic emergence. The policy options laid out in this report represent such a change. They lay out a movement towards preventing pandemics that is transformative: our current approach is to try to detect new diseases early, contain them, and then develop vaccines and therapeutics to control them. Clearly, in the face of COVID-19, with more than one million human deaths, and huge economic impacts, this reactive approach is inadequate. This report embraces the need for transformative change and uses scientific evidence to identify policy options to prevent pandemics. Many of these may seem costly, difficult to execute, and their impact uncertain. However, economic analysis suggests their costs will be trivial in comparison to the trillions of dollars of impact due to COVID-19, let alone the rising tide of future diseases. The scientific evidence reviewed here, and the societal and economic impacts of COVID-19 provide a powerful incentive to adopt these policy options and create the transformative change needed to prevent future pandemics. This will provide benefits to health, biodiversity conservation, our economies, and sustainable development. Above all, it will provide a vision of our future in which we have escaped the current ‘Pandemic Era’.

  2. shinichi Post author

    生物多様性とパンデミックに関する IPBES ワークショップ・レポート — エグゼクティブ・サマリー

    パンデミックは、地球上の人々の健康と福祉に対する実存的な脅威を表しています。 この報告書で検討された科学的証拠は、パンデミックのきっかけとなる根本的な新興疾患事象の継続的な増加によって、パンデミックがより頻繁になっていることを示しています。 予防戦略がなければ、パンデミックはより頻繁に発生し、より急速に広がり、より多くの人々が死亡し、これまで以上に壊滅的な影響を世界経済に及ぼします。 現在のパンデミック戦略は、公衆衛生対策と技術的解決策、特に新しいワクチンと治療法の迅速な設計と配布による病気の出現後の対応に依存しています。 しかし、新型コロナウイルス感染症は、これが遅くて不確実な道であることを示しており、世界の人々がワクチンの普及を待っている中、命が失われ、病気に耐え、経済崩壊し、生計が失われるなど、人的コストは増大している。

    パンデミックの起源は動物の宿主によって運ばれる多様な微生物にありますが、その出現は完全に人間の活動によって引き起こされます。 パンデミックの根本的な原因は、生物多様性の損失と気候変動を引き起こす地球規模の環境変化と同じです。 これらには、土地利用の変化、農業の拡大と強化、野生動物の取引と消費が含まれます。 これらの変化の原動力は、野生動物、家畜、人間の接触を密にし、動物の微生物が人間に侵入して感染症、時には大流行を引き起こし、まれに道路網、都市中心部、世界的な旅行や貿易ルートを通じて広がる真のパンデミックにつながることもあります。 。 先進国と新興経済国の需要と人口動態の圧力によって、最近の消費と貿易の指数関数的な増加は、世界的な消費パターンによって主に生物多様性の発展途上国で発生する一連の新たな病気を引き起こしています。

    新型コロナウイルス感染症(COVID-19)のようなパンデミックは、世界社会の相互関連性と、世界的な不平等がすべての人々の健康、幸福、安全にもたらす脅威の増大の両方を浮き彫りにしています。 新型コロナウイルス感染症による死亡率と罹患率は、医療アクセスに影響を与える経済的制約により、発展途上国で最終的に高くなる可能性がある。 しかし、米国や多くのヨーロッパ諸国に対する新型コロナウイルス感染症の影響が現在実証しているように、大規模なパンデミックはグローバル化した経済に依存する先進国にも大きな影響を与える可能性があります。


    新興疾患(エボラ出血熱、ジカ熱、ニパ脳炎など)の大部分(70%)、および既知のパンデミック(インフルエンザ、HIV/エイズ、新型コロナウイルス感染症19など)のほとんどすべては人獣共通感染症、つまり動物由来の微生物によって引き起こされます。 これらの微生物は、野生動物、家畜、人間の間の接触によって「流出」します。

    哺乳類および鳥類の宿主には、現在未発見のウイルスが推定 170 万個存在すると考えられています。 このうち、63万1,000~82万7,000人は人に感染する能力を持っている可能性がある。



    パンデミックのリスクは急速に増加しており、毎年 5 つ以上の新しい病気が人々に発生しており、そのどれもが蔓延してパンデミックになる可能性があります。 パンデミックのリスクは、指数関数的に増加する人為的変化によって引き起こされます。 したがって、病気の出現を野生動物のせいにするのは誤りである。なぜなら、病気の出現は人間の活動と、その活動が環境に及ぼす影響によって引き起こされるからである。

    土地利用の変化、農業の拡大と強化、野生動物の取引と消費、その他の要因による持続不可能な環境の搾取は、野生動物とその微生物の間の自然な相互作用を破壊し、野生動物、家畜、人間、およびそれらの病原体間の接触を増加させ、 ほぼすべてのパンデミックに。

    気候変動は病気の出現(例:スカンジナビアのダニ媒介性脳炎)に関係しており、人、野生動物、貯水池、媒介動物の移動やそれらの病原体の蔓延を促進し、新たな感染症につながる形で将来パンデミックの大きなリスクを引き起こす可能性があります。 種間の接触、種間の接触の増加、または自然の宿主-病原体動態の破壊。




    パンデミックやその他の新たな人獣共通感染症は、広範な人類の苦しみを引き起こし、おそらく年間 1 兆ドルを超える経済的損害をもたらします。 これは、歴史的に出現し、人間の健康に継続的な負担を与えている人獣共通感染症に加えて発生するものです。 野生動物の取引と土地利用の変化を減らし、One Health1監視を強化することをベースとしたパンデミックを防ぐ世界的な戦略には、220億~312億米ドルの費用がかかると推定されているが、炭素隔離における森林伐採の削減による利点があれば、さらに費用はさらに削減される(177億~269億米ドル)。 計算されると、パンデミックが引き起こす被害よりも 2 桁少なくなります。

    新型コロナウイルス感染症が世界経済に与える真の影響は、ワクチンが完全に配備され、集団間の感染が抑制されて初めて正確に評価できるようになります。 しかし、その費用は2020年7月までに世界で8兆~16兆米ドルと推定されており、2021年の第4四半期までに米国だけで16兆米ドルになる可能性がある(それまでにワクチンが抑制に効果的であると仮定して)。



    土地利用の変化、農地の拡大、都市化が新興感染症の 30% 以上を引き起こしている

    土地利用の変化はパンデミックの世界的な重大な要因であり、1960 年以降に報告された新たな病気の 30% 以上の出現を引き起こしました。








    すべての野生陸生脊椎動物種の約 24% が世界中で取引されています。 国際的な合法的な野生生物の取引額は過去 14 年間で 5 倍以上に増加し、2019 年には 1,070 億米ドルの価値があると推定されています。違法な野生生物の取引は年間 70 ~ 230 億米ドルの価値があると推定されています。


    野生動物の養殖は過去数十年で大幅に拡大し、2015 年以降、合法的な野生動物の国際取引額は 500% 増加しました。





    現在のパンデミック対策戦略は、病気が発生した後に制御することを目的としています。 これらの戦略は多くの場合、生物多様性に依存しており、生物多様性に影響を与える可能性があります。





    パンデミック制御プログラムは緊急措置の下で実施されることが多く、生物多様性に重大な悪影響を与える可能性があります。 野生生物の生息地の殺処分、殺虫剤の放出。




    パンデミックは、さまざまな国や社会分野に不平等な影響を与えることがよくあります(例:新型コロナウイルス感染症の高齢者や少数派)。 経済的影響(および病気の結果)は、多くの場合、女性、貧困層、先住民にとってより深刻です。 変革的なものとなるためには、パンデミック対策政策と復興プログラムは、よりジェンダーに配慮した、包括的なものでなければなりません。


    現在のパンデミック準備戦略には、パンデミックが発生した後の対応が含まれます。 しかし、このレポートでレビューされた研究は、パンデミックを予測し予防するための道筋を提供する実質的な知識を特定しています。 これには、将来のパンデミックの地理的起源を予測し、主要な感染源宿主と出現する可能性が最も高い病原体を特定し、環境および社会経済的変化が疾患の出現とどのように相関するかを実証する研究が含まれます。 多くの場合大規模なパイロット プロジェクトでは、この知識を利用してウイルスの発見、監視、発生調査を効果的に行うことができることが実証されています。 新型コロナウイルス感染症、HIV/エイズ、エボラ出血熱、ジカ熱、インフルエンザ、SARS、その他多くの新興疾患が公衆衛生に大きな影響を与えていることは、この増え続ける知識に基づいてパンデミックの予防を促進する政策の重要な必要性を強調しています。 これを達成するために、次のポリシー オプションが特定されています。


    1) 病気の出現に関する政策関連の科学情報を提供し、高リスク地域を予測し、潜在的なパンデミックの経済的影響を評価し、研究のギャップを強調する。 そして
    2) モニタリングの枠組みの設計を調整し、One Health アプローチ (つまり、人間の健康、動物の健康、環境部門を結び付けるアプローチ) を実施するためにすべてのパートナーが達成すべき目標と目標に関する合意の基礎を築く可能性があります。

    最終的には、ハイレベル理事会の取り組みにより、各国が協定や合意の枠組み内で相互に合意した目標や目標を設定することになる可能性がある。 パンデミック予防に関する広範な国際政府合意は、人間、動物、生態系に明らかな利益をもたらす画期的な成果となるだろう。

    各国政府に One Health を制度化して、パンデミックへの備えを構築し、パンデミック予防プログラムを強化し、部門全体での流行を調査および制御します。






    保護地域や生息地回復プログラムを含む効果的な生息地保全対策がパンデミックと、病気の波及リスクが増大する可能性があるトレードオフをどのように軽減できるかを評価する。 これらの評価に基づいてプログラムを開発します。

    パンデミックを引き起こした消費の種類、グローバル化した農業の拡大と貿易(例:パーム油、外来木材、鉱山の採掘を必要とする製品、輸送インフラ、肉やその他のグローバル化した畜産製品の消費)を減らすための変革を可能にする。 これには、肉の消費、家畜の生産、またはその他のパンデミックリスクの高い消費に対する税または課徴金の以前の要求の修正が含まれる可能性があります。


    国際獣疫事務局(OIE)、絶滅の危機に瀕する野生動植物の種の国際取引に関する条約(CITES)、 生物多様性条約(CBD)、世界保健機関(WHO)、国連食糧農業機関(FAO)。 国際自然保護連合 (IUCN) など。


    専門家の審査により病気発生のリスクが高いと特定された野生生物取引における種の削減または除去、市場一掃日の設定、コールドチェーン能力の向上、市場のバイオセーフティー、バイオセキュリティーおよび衛生管理の有効性をテストする。 取引における野生動物、野生動物の狩猟者、農民、貿易業者の病気の監視を実施します。



    One Health の科学研究をサポートして、パンデミックを防ぐためのより良い戦略を設計およびテストします。


















    この報告書は、新型コロナウイルス感染症のパンデミックが長期的な社会的、経済的影響を与えることが認識されつつある重要な時期に発行された。 社会のあらゆる部門の人々が、通常の業務を超えた解決策を模索し始めています。これを実現するには、科学の証拠を利用して人間と自然の関係を再評価し、地球環境の変化を軽減する、変革的な変化が必要です。 これらは持続不可能な消費によって引き起こされ、生物多様性の損失、気候変動、パンデミックの発生を引き起こします。 この報告書に示された政策オプションは、そのような変化を表しています。 彼らは、革新的なパンデミックの予防に向けた動きを打ち出しています。私たちの現在のアプローチは、新たな病気を早期に発見し、封じ込めてから、それらを制御するためのワクチンと治療法を開発することです。 100万人以上の死者と多大な経済的影響を伴う新型コロナウイルス感染症に直面すると、この事後対応型のアプローチでは不十分であることは明らかです。 この報告書は変革の必要性を認識しており、科学的証拠を使用してパンデミックを防ぐための政策オプションを特定しています。 これらの多くは費用がかかり、実行が難しく、その影響が不確実であるように思われるかもしれません。 しかし、経済分析によると、そのコストは、新型コロナウイルス感染症による数兆ドル規模の影響に比べれば微々たるものであり、ましてや将来の病気の増加傾向などは言うまでもない。 ここで検討した科学的証拠と、新型コロナウイルス感染症の社会的、経済的影響は、これらの政策オプションを採用し、将来のパンデミックを防ぐために必要な変革を生み出す強力な動機となります。 これは、健康、生物多様性の保全、経済、持続可能な開発に利益をもたらします。 何よりも、それは私たちが現在の「パンデミック時代」から逃れた未来のビジョンを提供してくれるでしょう。


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