In modern physics the common relational approach should be extended to the concepts of element and set. The relationalization of the concepts of element and set means that in the final analysis the World exists as an indivisible whole, not as a set (of one or another kind of elements). Therefore, we have to describe quantum systems in terms of potentialities and probabilities: since quantum systems cannot be analyzed completely into sets of elements, we can speak only of the potentialities of isolating elements and sets within their structure. On the other hand this quantum property of the world as an indivisible whole accounts for the astonishing logical properties of the structure of the potentialities of quantum systems which it brings forth. This has been confirmed by quantum-correlation experiments (A.Aspect and oth.). These effects have a relational nature, not a physical-causal or material one, and they are brought forth by the changes (resulting from measurement or physical interaction) in the structure of the relations of the mutually complementary sides of reality. One of these sides expresses an actually existing structure of the system as a real (and physically verifiable) but only relatively separable set, and the other expresses the sets of potentialities in it which arise from the astonishing property of finite non-analyzability of the system into elements and sets (i.e. by the quantum property of the world as an indivisible unit).

shinichiPost author## Quantum Holism as Consequence of the Relativistic Approach to the Problem of Quantum Theory Interpretation

by

I.Z.TsekhmistroKharkov State University（ハルキウ大学）https://www.bu.edu/wcp/Papers/Scie/ScieTsek.htm

shinichiPost author## Quantum Holism

by Giacomo Mauro D’Ariano

https://arxiv.org/abs/2102.01438#:~:text=A%20composite%20quantum%20system%20has,distinctive%20holism%20of%20Quantum%20Theory.

A composite quantum system has properties that are incompatible with every property of its parts. The existence of such global properties incompatible with all local properties constitutes what I call “mereological holism”–the distinctive holism of Quantum Theory. Mereological holism has the dramatic conceptual consequence of making untenable the usual understanding of the “quantum system” as being a “physical object”, since composed objects have properties compatible with those of its parts. The notion of “property” can be extended in a unique way to the whole class of operational probabilistic theories (shortly OPTs), of which the most relevant cases are Quantum Theory and Classical Theory. Whereas Classical Theory is not mereologically holistic, we can now search for other OPTs that are so. Within the OPT framework the role of the “system” is that of an input-output connection between two objective events. In non holistic theories, such as Classical Theory, the system can still be regarded as an “object”. On the contrary, in holistic theories interpreting “system” as “object” constitutes an hypostatization of a theoretical notion.