Bertram R. Forer

  1. You have a great need for other people to like and admire you.
  2. You have a tendency to be critical of yourself.
  3. You have a great deal of unused capacity which you have not turned to your advantage.
  4. While you have some personality weaknesses, you are generally able to compensate for them.
  5. Disciplined and self-controlled outside, you tend to be worrisome and insecure inside.
  6. At times you have serious doubts as to whether you have made the right decision or done the right thing.
  7. You prefer a certain amount of change and variety and become dissatisfied when hemmed in by restrictions and limitations.
  8. You pride yourself as an independent thinker and do not accept others’ statements without satisfactory proof.
  9. You have found it unwise to be too frank in revealing yourself to others.
  10. At times you are extroverted, affable, sociable, while at other times you are introverted, wary, reserved.
  11. Some of your aspirations tend to be pretty unrealistic.
  12. Security is one of your major goals in life.
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2 Responses to Bertram R. Forer

  1. shinichi says:

    Barnum effect

    from Wikipedia

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barnum_effect

    The Barnum effect, also called the Forer effect, is a common psychological phenomenon whereby individuals give high accuracy ratings to descriptions of their personality that supposedly are tailored specifically to them, that are in fact vague and general enough to apply to a wide range of people. This effect can provide a partial explanation for the widespread acceptance of some paranormal beliefs and practices, such as astrology, fortune telling, aura reading, and some types of personality tests.

    These characterizations are often used by practitioners as a con-technique to convince victims that they are endowed with a paranormal gift. Because the assessment statements are so vague, people interpret their own meaning, thus the statement becomes “personal” to them. Also, individuals are more likely to accept negative assessments of themselves if they perceive the person presenting the assessment as a high-status professional.

    The term “Barnum effect” was coined in 1956 by psychologist Paul Meehl in his essay Wanted – A Good Cookbook.

    **

    In 1948, in what has been described as a “classic experiment”, psychologist Bertram R. Forer gave a psychology test—his so-called “Diagnostic Interest Blank”—to 39 of his psychology students who were told that they would each receive a brief personality vignette or sketch based on their test results. One week later Forer gave each student a purportedly individualized sketch and asked each of them to rate it on how well it applied. In reality, each student received the same sketch, consisting of the following items:

    1. You have a great need for other people to like and admire you.
    2. You have a tendency to be critical of yourself.
    3. You have a great deal of unused capacity which you have not turned to your advantage.
    4. While you have some personality weaknesses, you are generally able to compensate for them.
    5. Disciplined and self-controlled outside, you tend to be worrisome and insecure inside.
    6. At times you have serious doubts as to whether you have made the right decision or done the right thing.
    7. You prefer a certain amount of change and variety and become dissatisfied when hemmed in by restrictions and limitations.
    8. You pride yourself as an independent thinker and do not accept others’ statements without satisfactory proof.
    9. You have found it unwise to be too frank in revealing yourself to others.
    10. At times you are extroverted, affable, sociable, while at other times you are introverted, wary, reserved.
    11. Some of your aspirations tend to be pretty unrealistic.
    12. Security is one of your major goals in life.

    On average, the students rated its accuracy as 4.30 on a scale of 0 (very poor) to 5 (excellent). Only after the ratings were turned in was it revealed that each student had received an identical sketch assembled by Forer from a newsstand astrology book. The sketch contains statements that are vague and general enough to apply to most people.

    The Forer effect is also known as the “Barnum effect”, a term coined in 1956 by American psychologist Paul Meehl in his essay “Wanted—A Good Cookbook”, because he relates the vague personality descriptions used in certain “pseudo-successful” psychological tests to those given by showman P. T. Barnum.

    Forer attributed the effect to gullibility. The effect has been said to confirm the so-called “Pollyanna principle”, which states that individuals tend “to use or accept positive words of feedback more frequently than negative words of feedback”.

  2. shinichi says:

    バーナム効果

    ウィキペディア

    https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/バーナム効果

    バーナム効果(バーナムこうか、英: Barnum effect)とは、誰にでも該当するような曖昧で一般的な性格をあらわす記述を、自分だけに当てはまる性格だと捉えてしまう心理学の現象。

    1956年にアメリカ合衆国の心理学者、ポール・ミール(P.E.Meehl)が、興行師 P・T・バーナムの “we’ve got something for everyone”(誰にでも当てはまる要点というものがある)という言葉に因んで名付けた。アメリカの心理学者バートラム・フォア(en:Bertram Forer)の名をとってフォアラー効果(Forer effect)ともいう。被験者に何らかの心理検査を実施し、その検査結果を無視して事前に被験者とは無関係に用意した「あなたはロマンチストな面を持っています」「あなたは快活に振舞っていても心の中で不安を抱えている事があります」といった診断を被験者に与えた場合、被験者の多くが自分の診断は適切なものだと感じてしまうが、この現象を「バーナム効果」と呼んでいる。

    **

    フォアの実験

    1948年、フォアは学生たちに性格について心理検査を実施し、その検査の結果に基づく分析と称して下記の文を与えた。

    • あなたは他人から好かれたい、賞賛してほしいと思っており、それにかかわらず自己を批判する傾向にあります。
    • また、あなたは弱みを持っているときでも、それを普段は克服することができます。
    • あなたは使われず生かしきれていない才能をかなり持っています。
    • 外見的には規律正しく自制的ですが、内心ではくよくよしたり不安になる傾向があります。
    • 正しい判断や正しい行動をしたのかどうか真剣な疑問を持つときがあります。
    • あなたはある程度の変化や多様性を好み、制約や限界に直面したときには不満を抱きます。
    • そのうえ、あなたは独自の考えを持っていることを誇りに思い、十分な根拠もない他人の意見を聞き入れることはありません。
    • しかし、あなたは他人に自分のことをさらけ出しすぎるのも賢明でないことにも気付いています。
    • あなたは外向的・社交的で愛想がよいときもありますが、その一方で内向的で用心深く遠慮がちなときもあります。
    • あなたの願望にはやや非現実的な傾向のものもあります。

    フォアはこの文章を星座占いの文章を組み合わせて作文したのであった。フォアは学生たちに分析がどれだけ自分にあてはまっているかを0(まったく異なる)から5(非常に正確)の段階でそれぞれに評価させた。このときの平均点は4.26であった。その後、フォアはどの学生にも上記のようなまったく同じ分析を与えていたと種明かしをした。

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