加藤恭子

バブル経済が崩壊した1991年以降、能力に関する様々な概念が巷に溢れている。人間力、EQ、察知力など人間の内面に注目したもの、社会人基礎力、就職基礎能力など社会人になるために学生に必要とされる能力の明確化を目指したもの、そして日本のビジネス界で使用されるようになった新たな能力の概念がコンピテンシーである。
しかしながら、コンピテンシーに対する共通の定義はコンピテンシーの本家といわれるアメリカにおいても得られていない状況であり、日本においても概念が輸入されてから10年以上経つが、未だ共通の定義を見ない。
その原因は、コンピテンシーという概念がビジネスの領域だけでなく教育・司法・臨床心理学などの広い領域使用され、その中で異なった定義がされている点、また実務が先行してしまい、研究が後追いになっている点などがあげられる。そのため、実務の世界ではコンピテンシーを有効に活用することこそが重要であり、その用語自体はさほど重要ではないとする声もある。このような状況が、コンピテンシー概念の混乱に拍車をかけ、次第に言葉そのものが軽んじられているようになってきた。

日米におけるコンピテンシー概念の生成と混乱(PDFファイル)

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3 Responses to 加藤恭子

  1. shinichi says:

    日米におけるコンピテンシー概念の生成と混乱

    by 加藤恭子

    http://www.eco.nihon-u.ac.jp/center/industry/publication/report/pdf/34/34-2-1.pdf

  2. shinichi says:

    Types of Competencies

      Competence (human resources)
      Wikipedia
      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Competence_(human_resources)

    Organizational competencies: The mission, vision, values, culture and core competencies of the organization that sets the tone and/or context in which the work of the organization is carried out (e.g. customer-driven, risk taking and cutting edge). How we treat the patient is part of the patient’s treatment.

    Core competencies: Capabilities and/or technical expertise unique to an organization, i.e. core competencies differentiate an organization from its competition (e.g. the technologies, methodologies, strategies or processes of the organization that create competitive advantage in the marketplace). An organizational core competency is an organization’s strategic strength.

    Technical competencies: Depending on the position, both technical and performance capabilities should be weighed carefully as employment decisions are made. For example, organizations that tend to hire or promote solely on the basis of technical skills, i.e. to the exclusion of other competencies, may experience an increase in performance-related issues (e.g. systems software designs versus relationship management skills)

    Behavioral competencies: Individual performance competencies are more specific than organizational competencies and capabilities. As such, it is important that they be defined in a measurable behavioral context in order to validate applicability and the degree of expertise (e.g. development of talent)

    Functional competencies: Functional competencies are job-specific competencies that drive proven high-performance, quality results for a given position. They are often technical or operational in nature (e.g., “backing up a database” is a functional competency).[6]

    Management competencies: Management competencies identify the specific attributes and capabilities that illustrate an individual’s management potential. Unlike leadership characteristics, management characteristics can be learned and developed with the proper training and resources. Competencies in this category should demonstrate pertinent behaviors for effective management to be effective.

    Examples:

    Initiative and Creativity

    Plans work and carries out tasks without detailed instructions; makes constructive suggestions; prepares for problems or opportunities in advance; undertakes additional responsibilities; responds to situations as they arise with minimal supervision; creates novel solutions to problems; evaluates new technology as potential solutions to existing problems.

    Judgement

    Makes sound decisions; bases decisions on fact rather than emotion; analyzes problems skillfully; uses logic to reach solutions.

    Cooperation/Teamwork

    Works harmoniously with others to get a job done; responds positively to instructions and procedures; able to work well with staff, co-workers, peers and managers; shares critical information with everyone involved in a project; works effectively on projects that cross functional lines; helps to set a tone of cooperation within the work group and across groups; coordinates own work with others; seeks opinions; values working relationships; when appropriate facilitates discussion before decision-making process is complete.

    Quality of Work

    Maintains high standards despite pressing deadlines; does work right the first time; corrects own errors; regularly produces accurate, thorough, professional work.

    Reliability

    Personally responsible; completes work in a timely, consistent manner; works hours necessary to complete assigned work; is regularly present and punctual; arrives prepared for work; is committed to doing the best job possible; keeps commitments.

    Commitment to Safety

    Understands, encourages and carries out the principles of integrated safety management; complies with or oversees the compliance with Laboratory safety policies and procedures; completes all required ES&H training; takes personal responsibility for safety.[7]

    Support of Diversity

    Treats all people with respect; values diverse perspectives; participates in diversity training opportunities; provides a supportive work environment for the multicultural workforce; applies the Lab’s philosophy of equal employment opportunity; shows sensitivity to individual differences; treats others fairly without regard to race, sex, color, religion, or sexual orientation; recognizes differences as opportunities to learn and gain by working together; values and encourages unique skills and talents; seeks and considers diverse perspectives and ideas.

    Job Knowledge/Technical Knowledge

    Demonstrates knowledge of techniques, skills, equipment, procedures and materials. Applies knowledge to identify issues and internal problems; works to develop additional technical knowledge and skills.

    Quantity of Work

    Produces an appropriate quantity of work; does not get bogged down in unnecessary detail; able to manage multiple projects; able to determine project urgency in a meaningful and practical way; organizes and schedules people and tasks.

    Communication

    Writes and speaks effectively, using conventions proper to the situation; states own opinions clearly and concisely; demonstrates openness and honesty; listens well during meetings and feedback sessions; explains reasoning behind own opinions; asks others for their opinions and feedback; asks questions to ensure understanding; exercises a professional approach with others using all appropriate tools of communication; uses consideration and tact when offering opinions.

    Customer Service

    Listens and responds effectively to customer questions; resolves customer problems to the customer’s satisfaction; respects all internal and external customers; uses a team approach when dealing with customers; follows up to evaluate customer satisfaction; measures customer satisfaction effectively; commits to exceeding customer expectations.

    Problem Solving

    Anticipates problems; sees how a problem and its solution will affect other units; gathers information before making decisions; weighs alternatives against objectives and arrives at reasonable decisions; adapts well to changing priorities, deadlines and directions; works to eliminate all processes which do not add value; is willing to take action, even under pressure, criticism or tight deadlines; takes informed risks; recognizes and accurately evaluates the signs of a problem; analyzes current procedures for possible improvements; notifies supervisor of problems in a timely manner.

    Attention to Detail

    Is alert in a high-risk environment; follows detailed procedures and ensures accuracy in documentation and data; carefully monitors gauges, instruments or processes; concentrates on routine work details; organizes and maintains a system of records.

    Flexibility

    Remains open-minded and changes opinions on the basis of new information; performs a wide variety of tasks and changes focus quickly as demands change; manages transitions from task to task effectively; adapts to varying customer needs.

    Organization

    Able to manage multiple projects; able to determine project urgency in a practical way; uses goals to guide actions; creates detailed action plans; organizes and schedules people and tasks effectively.

    Staff development

    Works to improve the performance of oneself and others by pursuing opportunities for continuous learning/feedback; constructively helps and coaches others in their professional development; exhibits a “can-do” approach and inspires associates to excel; develops a team spirit.

    Quality Control

    Establishes high standards and measures; is able to maintain high standards despite pressing deadlines; does work right the first time and inspects work for flaws; tests new methods thoroughly; considers excellence a fundamental priority.

    Responsiveness to requests for service

    Responds to requests for service in a timely and thorough manner; does what is necessary to ensure customer satisfaction; prioritizes customer needs; follows up to evaluate customer satisfaction.

    Innovation

    Able to challenge conventional practices; adapts established methods for new uses; pursues ongoing system improvement; creates novel solutions to problems; evaluates new technology as potential solutions to existing problems.

  3. shinichi says:

    コンピテンシー

    ウィキペディア

    https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/コンピテンシー

    コンピテンシー(competency)とは、企業などで人材の活用に用いられる手法で、高業績者の行動特性などと訳されている。

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