Category Archives: records

Herodotus

The Babylonians have one most shameful custom. Every woman born in the country must once in her life go and sit down in the precinct of Venus, and there have sexual relations with a stranger… Here there is always a great crowd, some coming and others going; lines of cord mark out paths in all directions among the women, and the strangers pass along them to make their choice. A woman who has once taken her seat is not allowed to return home till one of the strangers throws a silver coin into her lap, and takes her with him beyond the holy ground. When he throws the coin he says these words—‘The goddess Mylitta prosper thee.’
The silver coin may be of any size; it cannot be refused, for that is forbidden by the law, since once thrown, it is sacred. The woman goes with the first man who throws her money, and rejects no one. When she has gone with him, and so satisfied the goddess, she returns home, and from that time forth no gift however great will prevail with her…A custom very much like this is found also in certain parts of the island of Cyprus.

Gerda Lerner

The Sumerian word for female prostitute, kar.kid, occurs in the earliest lists of professions dating back to ca. 2400 B.C. Since it appears right after nam.lukur… one can assume its connection with temple service. It is of interest that the term kur-garru, a male prostitute or transvestite entertainer, appears on the same list but together with entertainers. This linkage results from a practice connected with the cult of Ishtar, in which transvestites performed acts using knives. On the same list we find the following female occupations: lady doctor, scribe, barber, cook. Obviously, prostitution, while it is a very old profession, is not the oldest.

Al Jazeera

usIsraelIn 1967, at the height of the Arab-Israeli Six-Day War, the Israeli Air Force launched an unprovoked attack on the USS Liberty, a US Navy spy ship that was monitoring the conflict from the safety of international waters in the Mediterranean.
Israeli jet fighters hit the vessel with rockets, cannon fire and napalm, before three Israeli torpedo boats moved in to launch a second more devastating attack. Though she did not sink, the Liberty was badly damaged. Thirty-four US servicemen and civilian analysts were killed, another 171 were wounded.
Later Israel apologised for what it claimed to be a tragic case of mistaken identity. It said that it had believed the ship to be hostile Egyptian naval vessel. US President Lyndon Johnson was privately furious but publicly the White House chose not to challenge the word of its closest Middle East ally and accepted that the attack had been a catastrophic accident.
However, as this exclusive Al Jazeera investigation reveals, fresh evidence throws new light on exactly what happened that fateful day …


Harry S. Truman, Winston Churchill, 蔣中正

Proclamation Defining Terms for Japanese Surrender
Issued, at Potsdam, July 26, 1945

  1. We do not intend that the Japanese shall be enslaved as a race or destroyed as a nation, but stern justice shall be meted out to all war criminals, including those who have visited cruelties upon our prisoners. The Japanese Government shall remove all obstacles to the revival and strengthening of democratic tendencies among the Japanese people. Freedom of speech, of religion, and of thought, as well as respect for the fundamental human rights shall be established.
  2. Japan shall be permitted to maintain such industries as will sustain her economy and permit the exaction of just reparations in kind, but not those which would enable her to re-arm for war. To this end, access to, as distinguished from control of, raw materials shall be permitted. Eventual Japanese participation in world trade relations shall be permitted.
  3. The occupying forces of the Allies shall be withdrawn from Japan as soon as these objectives have been accomplished and there has been established in accordance with the freely expressed will of the Japanese people a peacefully inclined and responsible government.

Henry Ford

Mr. Schiff’s firm helped finance the Japanese war against Russia, and in return desired Japan as a Jewish ally. The wily Japs, however, saw the game and kept their relations with Mr. Schiff to purely business matters. Which fact is well worth bearing in mind when reading the widespread propaganda for war with Japan. If you will give particular attention, you will observe the same interests which are just now engaged in most loudly “defending” the Jew, are most active in spreading anti-Japanese sentiments in this country.
The Japanese war with Russia, however, enabled Mr. Schiff to advance his plan to undermine the Russian Empire, as it has now been accomplished by Jewish Bolshevism. With funds provided by him, the basic principles of what is now known as Bolshevism, were sown among the Russian prisoners of war in Japan, who were sent back as apostles of destruction. Then followed the horrible murder of Nicholas Romanoff, Czar of Russia, with his wife, his crippled son, and his young daughters, the full tale of which has now been told by the Jew who managed the crime.

南京町商店街振興組合

Minsei朝鮮動乱による特需は物資が豊富になり、それを求めて人が溢れていた。南京町に行けばハイカラ品から中華食材、肉、魚貝などなんでも揃った。中華料理店も7~8軒と店を構え、戦前の面影をとりもどしていっていた。
「ハロー!シューシャイン!」 アメリカ兵をみると寄ってゆく靴磨きの子ども達。軍服のポケットからキャンディを撒いてその場をしのぐ米兵。ワッと地べたに群がる子ども達。戦争孤児にとっても生きる糧がある町だった。
一方、通りのあちこちに、米兵相手の外人バーが出来始めた。磯上の米兵キャンプ地、通称かまぼこ兵舎からくる兵隊達と、神戸港に着くアメリカ軍艦から、しばしの休憩をとって下船する兵隊の歓楽街になっていったのである。夜、酔った米兵達が大きいプラスチックのゴミバケツの蓋を、フリスビーにして悪ふざけをはじめても、体格のよいアメリカの大男たちを誰も止めることは出来なかった。
外人バーの壁には、安っぽいペンキ絵に、どぎつい英語の看板。路地裏では、とばくに売春。連夜の喧嘩や暴力沙汰。堅気の人が寄りつけない町になっていった。店をたたむ処が出てきた。
昭和40年代に入って、とうとう 「民生」 だけになった。それから8年間、南京町の中華料理店は 「民生」 一軒だけの状態が続いた。中華食材の店もわずかになって南京町の名前とはかけ離れた様だった。

PRo

SaleveSuite aux intempéries d’hier soir au Salève, le téléphérique ne fonctionnera pas ce mercredi 11 juin, a annoncé Patrick Roxo, de la Société du Téléphérique du Salève (STS). Événement rare, malgré les protections et sécurités déployées sur l’installation, une pièce du système électrique à été endommagée par la foudre de la veille provoquant l’arrêt de sécurité du téléphérique.

ルイ・ゴンザレス・デ・クラヴィーホ, リュシュアン・ケーレン, 杉山正樹

サマルカンドから明国のほうへ十一日歩いたところに、女人族アマゾンの住む土地がある。アマゾンは男なしで生活する風習を今日まで保っている。ただ、一年のうち、ある時期が来ると、族長は女たちに、娘を連れて近隣の地方へ行くことを許可する。男たちがアマゾンを見かけて食事に招待すると、女たちは気にいった男について行き、ともに飲み食いする。しばらくのあいだいっしょに暮らし、女たちは故郷に戻る。そして、女の子が生まれれば手元に置き、男の子が生まれると父親のもとへ送り返すのである。この女たちは、以前、明国の封臣だったが、現在はティムール・ベッグの封臣になっている。しかし、ギリシャ教会の典礼に従うキリスト教徒である。この女たちは、ギリシャがトロイを滅ぼしたとき、そこに突然現れて戦ったアマゾン女族の末裔で、トロイのアマゾンの女たちの後裔のなかでいまだに生き永らえている氏族が二つあり、その一つはトルコ領にいて、もう一つがこの地にいる。

金子静枝, 小川一真

hinodeshinbun1四方の壁を見れば、是ぞ之れ、近世絵画家の尤も尊び模範となすべしといへる曇徴の筆痕なり。
蓋し、曇徴は推古天皇の朝百済国より帰化せしものにて、最勝王経の四方浄土を移し・・・着色にて描きしなり。
惜むらくは、堂内暗くして配色の妙・衣紋の精瞭らかに之を観る事能はず。
然るに希世の物品を撮影せん為め、図書頭に随行の小川一真氏は、ホッケットより一錫線を出し、之に点火すれば、堂内乍まち太陽を現じ光輝赫々、壁画の仏像は衣紋の皺襞、花蓋の小紋、隅から隅まで残る隈なく一見せり。
須臾にして錫線燃焼すれば、小川氏更に一粉薬を出し、板上に置きて之に点火すれば電光一閃、霹靂の声あるが如く、其火光は先の光力に十倍し、視神経の直射して外物を見る事なく、瞬時にして光り消たり。
這両薬は倶に夜間写真を採るの光線にして、麻倶涅臾母の原質に火綿を調和したる粉薬にて、其光力劇しく、秒時間に写真する事を得、鮮明なる事太陽の光線に劣る事なしと。
・・・銅仏の大なるもの、壁画を動かし難さもの等をも、意の儘に移し得たり。

Natasha Marrian

MandelaCaptureSiteFormer president Nelson Mandela was a member of the South African Communist Party’s (SACP’s) central executive committee at the time of his arrest in 1962, the SACP and the African National Congress (ANC) confirmed on Friday.
Even though it had always been denied, the ANC and the SACP confirmed that Mr Mandela had served on the party’s central executive committee in their statements paying tribute to the antiapartheid icon. There had been much debate about the issue among historians and academics.
SACP deputy general secretary Solly Mapaila on Thursday said he was a member of the party, but it was denied at the time for “political reasons”.
“There was a huge offensive by the oppressive apartheid regime at the time against communists. They portrayed the ANC as a communist organisation, but it was not,” he said.
Mr Mapaila said all the Rivonia Trialists were members of the party.

外務省

JapaneseOversea本統計は、わが国在外公館が各年10月1日現在に在留する邦人数を調査したもの。調査に際しては、在外公館に提出されている在留届を基礎資料として利用したが、在留届を提出・更新していない邦人も多数いるため、日系進出企業、日本人会、邦人研究者・留学生が在籍する大学、研究機関、各種学校等に調査票を配布し、協力を求めた。
調査の対象は、海外に在留する日本国民。
1) 在留期間が3か月に満たない旅行者等短期滞在者は、移動が激しく特定地点による実数は把握困難であることから、これら短期滞在者は除外している。
2) 3か月以上海外に在留している邦人は、生活の本拠をわが国から海外へ移した永住者と、海外での生活は一時的なもので、いずれわが国に戻るつもりの長期滞在者とに分けて集計している。

Philip Shenon

Kennedy2A groundbreaking, explosive account of the Kennedy assassination that will rewrite the history of the 20th century’s most controversial murder investigation

The questions have haunted our nation for half a century: Was the President killed by a single gunman? Was Lee Harvey Oswald part of a conspiracy? Did the Warren Commission discover the whole truth of what happened on November 22, 1963?

In a miracle of modern publishing, “A Cruel and Shocking Act” is getting published across the world — in nine different languages — at almost the same moment.

International Rugby Board

YamaguchiFormer Japan international Yoshiharu Yamaguchi is the recipient of the Spirit of Rugby Award, having been another who changed many a life for the better through his role as rugby coach, teacher and mentor at Fushimi Technical High School.
On his arrival in the early 1970s, the under-performing school was plagued by delinquent behaviour and had little in the way of a sporting culture. Yamaguchi tackled the problems head-on, using Rugby’s core values as the driving force for change.
Within seven years, the school had won the Japan National High Schools Championship and continued to be a dominant force in rugby throughout the next two decades.

Louis Aragon, 大島博光

Enseigner c’est dire espérance
教えるとは 希望を語ること
étudier fidélité
学ぶとは 誠実を胸にきざむこと
Ils avaient dans l’adversité
彼らはなおも苦難のなかで
Rouvert leur Université
その大学を再び開いた
À Clermont en plein cœur de France
フランスのまんなかクレルモンに

GlobalPost

SpanishTowerThe builders of the InTempo skyscraper in Benidorm, Spain, what was supposed to be a striking symbol of prosperity amid the country’s financial crisis, forgot to include a working elevator.

Ivor Armstrong Richards

These metaphysical entities, variously named Ideas, Notions, Concepts or Universals, may be divided into two kinds, sensuous arid supersensuous. The sensuous are those which may be apprehended by the senses, such as ‘red’, ‘cold’, ’round’, ‘swift’, ‘painful’, and the supersensuous, those apprehended not in sensuous perception but otherwise. Logical relations, ‘necessity’ or ‘impossibility’, and such ideas as ‘willing’, ‘end’, ‘ cause’, and ‘being three in number’, have in this way been supposed to be directly apprehensible by the mind. Amongst these supersensuous Ideas good is to be found.
Nothing could be simpler than such a view, and to many people the subsistence of such a property of goodness appears not surprising. But to others the suggestion seems merely a curious survival of abstractionism, if such a term may be defended by its close parallel with obstructionism. A blind man in a dark room chasing a black cat which is not there would seem to them well employed in comparison with a philosopher apprehending such ‘Concepts’.

ZНЯТА

pioneer_b_3Жесткость и нормативность пионерской системы воспитания почти не ощущается в визуальных артефактах, представленных в проекте «Пионерская выдержка». Анализируя действия, которые монументально воплощены в скульптурные композиции, а также предметы, взаимодействующие с ними, можно увидеть, пусть и зашифрованную в безадресное, обобщенное, типологическое, романтическую поэтику идеологии…

命数法

一(いち)
100
十(じゅう)
101
百(ひゃく)
102
千(せん)
103
万(まん)
104
十万
105
百万
106
千万
107
億(おく)
108
十億
109
百億
1010
千億
1011
兆(ちょう)
1012
十兆
1013
百兆
1014
千兆
1015
京(けい、きょう)
1016
十京
1017
百京
1018
千京
1019
垓(がい)
1020
十垓
1021
百垓
1022
千垓
1023
秭(し)
1024
十秭
1025
百秭
1026
千秭
1027
穣(じょう)
1028
十穣
1029
百穣
1030
千穣
1031
溝(こう)
1032
十溝
1033
百溝
1034
千溝
1035
澗(かん)
1036
十澗
1037
百澗
1038
千澗
1039
正(せい)
1040
十正
1041
百正
1042
千正
1043
載(さい)
1044
十載
1045
百載
1046
千載
1047
極(ごく)
1048
十極
1049
百極
1050
千極
1051
恒河沙(ごうがしゃ)
1052
十恒河沙
1053
百恒河沙
1054
千恒河沙
1055
阿僧祇(あそうぎ)
1056
十阿僧祇
1057
百阿僧祇
1058
千阿僧祇
1059
那由他(なゆた)
1060
十那由他
1061
百那由他
1062
千那由他
1063
不可思議(ふかしぎ)
1064
十不可思議
1065
百不可思議
1066
千不可思議
1067
無量大数(むりょうたいすう)
1068

Best Friends Cocoa

cocoa2Brek26.jpgAlthough many people use the term “hot cocoa” interchangeably with “hot chocolate,” there’s a big difference between the two. Hot chocolate, or “drinking chocolate,” is made from ground chocolate (which contains cocoa butter), which is mixed with hot milk to make the beverage. Our hot cocoa, however, is made with cocoa powder only (which contains no cocoa butter, and is thus very low in fat), along with nonfat dried milk, sugar and natural flavorings. Because of this, you can mix our hot cocoa mix with nothing but hot water and get a rich cocoa flavor with much less fat and calories than the typical hot chocolate.

神田学会

日本画材の老舗得應軒は、神田淡路町、志の田寿司の向かいにある。大阪で筆師をしていた初代が上京し、創業したのが明治17年。今のご主人、宮内隆弘さんは四代目だ。創業当時から、絵の具、筆、紙、墨、すずりなど日本画の材料一式を扱っている。
二代目の市松氏は腕の良い筆師で、橋本雅邦、横山大観など、そうそうたる日本画家の筆をつくっていた。
「なかでも横山大観先生とは親交が深く、いつも『いっちゃんいる?』と店に入ってきたそうです。関東大震災でうちが全部焼けてしまったときも、大観先生のお見舞金で店を再建したと聞いています」と宮内さん。びっくりするような話が飛び出してくる。
また、日本画専用の筆を開発したのも二代目。それまでは中国の書筆が主に使われていたが、筆の弾力や水の含みなどを研究しながら、日本画に最適な筆を完成させたのだという。店内にはさまざまな形の筆が並んでいる。
そしてもうひとつ目をひくのは、顔料の数々だ。天然・新岩などの種類があり、それぞれ原料が異なる。天然顔料の材料は孔雀石や珊瑚など。新岩は、珪酸鉛と金属酸化物を高温で溶かして発色させたものだ。中でも天然顔料の鮮やかさ、深さには目を奪われてしまう。

Julie Kummer

Alors qu’il traversait un passage de sécurité, mardi vers 07h10 à Peyres-Possens, un adolescent de 13 ans a été renversé par une voiture. La conductrice, vraisemblablement éblouie par le soleil, a heurté violemment le jeune homme.

Robert Sherrod

War is a horribly fascinating thing.

To the marines on Saipan, the suicide of Japanese soldiers in the last days of the battle for the island, was an old story. But there were 20,000 civilians on the island, too, and many of them elected to die for the Emperor, or perhaps to escape a conqueror represented by Jap propaganda as hideously brutal. In this dispatch, TIME Correspondent Robert Sherrod describes the gruesome deeds, incomprehensible to the occidental mind, which followed the U.S. victory:
We thought we had seen everything in the line of Jap military suicides by the time the last charge of the Japs had been beaten…

azure

(Why is “bra” singular and “panties” plural?)
As pointed out above, bra is short for brassiere which is a word for a single object, whereas any item of clothing that covers both legs separately is referred to in plural as it comprises two leg coverings put together. Eg. trousers, pants, pantaloons, the full grammar being “a pair of pants”. Underwear is a shortened version of these, therefore is plural, eg. panties, knickers, undies.
Strangely enough you cannot refer to a single trouser or a single pant, it is “trouser-leg” or “pant-leg”!

Francis Marcouin, Keiko Omoto

Ilz se mouchent dans des mouchoirs de papier de soye de Chine, de la grandeur de la main a peu prez, et ne se servent jamais deux fois d’un mouchoir, de sorte que toutes les fois qu’ilz ne mouchoyent, ils jestoyent leurs papiers par terre, et avoyent le plaisir de les voir ramasser a ceux de deca qui les alloyent voir, ou il y avoit grande presse du peuple qui s’entre batoit pour un ramasser principallement de ceux de l’Ambassadeur …
Le ses epees et dagues sont faictes en fasson de simmetterre tres peu courbe, et de moyenne longueur et sont sy fort tranchantz que y mettant un feuillet de papier et soufflant ilz couppent le papier, et encore de leur papier quy est beaucoup plus deslie que le notre et est faict de soye sur lesquels ils escrivent avec un pinceau. …
Quand ilz mangeoient ils ne touchent jamais leur chair sinon avec deux petits batons qu’ils tiennent avec trois doigts.

>World Bank, USAID

>The sixth debate of the Emerging Issues in Today’s HIV Response Debate Series titled, “Treatment as Prevention” featured expert panelists arguing for and against the proposition:
“Countries should spend a majority of what is likely to be a flat or even declining HIV prevention budget on ‘treatment as prevention’.”
Recent studies have shown that persons living with HIV who are on antiretroviral treatment, are much less infectious and therefore much less likely to transmit HIV to others. The HPTN-052 randomised study found a 96% reduction in HIV transmission from an HIV-infected person to his/her sexual partner, for the 76% of cases where intra-couple transmission took place. Results suggesting similar levels of acquisition risk reduction were reported in the 2010 Partners in Prevention study. What do these latest results mean for HIV prevention programming? Should “treatment as prevention” become HIV prevention policy in countries? For all persons or only for adults in long-term sexual partnerships? Does the type of epidemic (i.e. concentrated, mixed, generalized) matter? How feasible are these interventions? Is it ethical not to implement them, given that their efficacy between long-term sexual partners is known? Should prevention resources be diverted away from other interventions, such as behavior change efforts, to fund increased ART? Who will pay for costs of the increased volumes of drugs? Do we know enough about the side-effects or about drug resistance? These questions and others related to treatment as prevention were discussed.

>日吉健吾

>「ザリッシャ村、ザピッリャ村……」

チェルノブイリ市の中心にある広場には、原発事故で消えた村の名前が書かれた立て札が並ぶ。事故から25年となった2011年に作られた。

>Мир24.tv

>Гомельская область, 26 апреля. После чернобыльской аварии радиацией были заражены не только земли Украины, пострадали несколько районов России и почти треть всей территории Беларуси. Многие населенные пункты навсегда исчезли с карты республики.
Роза ветров это была или злой рок, но спустя несколько месяцев после взрыва на Чернобыльской АЭС баба Дуня похоронила сына. Потом один за другим умерли ещё четверо её детей.
Баба Дуня просит прощения за некрашеный пол и за то, что угостить нечем. Гости-то нежданные. А для себя она давно уже не готовит. Целыми днями одна сидит на лавочке, проклинает Чернобыль.
Сегодня на загрязнённой территории живёт больше миллиона белорусов, то есть каждый девятый. Свои болезни большинство из них связывают с катастрофой 1986.
В Японии, чтобы остановить радиацию, реакторы накрыли специальной тканью и залили смолой. 25 лет назад таких технологий не было. Люди защищали себя, как могли. Детей не выпускали на улицу, а в эту деревню приезжали военные и заливали крыши домов специальным раствором.
Деревня Залесье относится к зоне периодического радиационного контроля. Собирать грибы и ягоды здесь можно только в определённых местах. А вот земли в Залесье давно уже возделывают. Люди научились выживать в новых условиях.
Каждый год на ликвидацию последствий выделяются миллиарды белорусских рублей. Это львиная доля бюджета. Совместными усилиями белорусы вернули к жизни тысячи гектаров земли. Но 270 населенных пунктов по-прежнему остаются заражёнными. Соседняя с Залесьем и некогда процветающая деревня так после Чернобыля и не ожила. Вот уже четверть века её, как и ещё 429 деревень, нет на карте Беларуси.

>Central Intelligence Agency

>Japan’s huge government debt, which exceeds 200% of GDP, persistent deflation, reliance on exports to drive growth, and an aging and shrinking population are major long-term challenges for the economy.

Public Debt Top 20, 2010 estimate
Country Public Debt (billion USD) % of GDP per capita (USD)
USA $9,133 62% $29,158
Japan $8,512 198% $67,303
Germany $2,446 83% $30,024
Italy $2,113 119% $34,627
India $2,107 52% $1,772
China $1,907 19% $1,427
France $1,767 82% $27,062
UK $1,654 76% $26,375
Brazil $1,281 59% $6,299
Canada $1,117 84% $32,829
Spain $823 60% $17,598
Mexico $577 37% $5,071
Greece $454 143% $42,216
Netherlands $424 63% $25,152
Turkey $411 43% $5,218
Belgium $398 101% $38,139
Egypt $398 80% $4,846
Poland $381 53% $9,907
South Korea $331 23% $6,793
Singapore $309 106% $65,144
Taiwan $279 34% $12,075
Public Debt is total of all government borrowings less repayments that are denominated in a country’s home currency.

>RAND Corporation

>

Nearly 20 percent of military service members who have returned from Iraq and Afghanistan — 300,000 in all — report symptoms of post traumatic stress disorder or major depression, yet only slightly more than half have sought treatment.
In addition, about 19 percent of returning service members report that they experienced a possible traumatic brain injury while deployed, with 7 percent reporting both a probable brain injury and current PTSD or major depression.
Many service members said they do not seek treatment for psychological illnesses because they fear it will harm their careers. But even among those who do seek help for PTSD or major depression, only about half receive treatment that researchers consider “minimally adequate” for their illnesses.

Roy E. Appleman, James M. Burns, Russell A. Gugeler, John Stevens

Neuropsychiatric or “combat fatigue” cases, were probably greater in number and severity in the Okinawa campaign than in any other Pacific operation. Such cases resulted primarily from the length and bitterness of the fighting, together with heavy hostile artillery and mortar fire. The influx of from three to four thousand cases crowded the field hospitals and resulted in needless evacuations from the island. Treatment was instituted as far forward as possible in the hope of making it more effective as well as of retarding the flow to hospitals. Rest camps for neuropsychiatric cases were established by divisions in addition to the corps installations. On 25 April Tenth Army opened one field hospital to handle only such cases. Early treatment produced good results. About half of the cases were finally treated in divisional installations; the other half, comprising the more serious cases, were treated in the field hospitals. About 80 percent of the latter were returned to duty in ten days, but half of these had to be reassigned to noncombat duties.

>寒川旭

>

 日本の歴史は地震の歴史と言っても過言ではない。時代の大きな変わり目は地震が後押しした側面がある。100年余りの間隔で繰り返す南海トラフの地震でいえば、宝永地震(1707年)は江戸幕府の衰退、安政東海、安政南海地震(1854年)は幕府の崩壊、昭和の東南海地震(1944年)は敗戦直前の日本を消沈させた。このほか、関東大震災(1923年)で日本経済は大打撃を受け、「大陸進出やむなし」との風潮をつくったといえる。
 古代まで振り返ると、東日本大震災をもたらした巨大地震と最も似ているのが869年の貞観地震だ。菅原道真らが編さんした歴史書「日本三代実録」には、仙台平野北部の多賀城下に津波が押し寄せたことが記されていた。
古い史料はあてにならないと思っていないだろうか。「日本三代実録」を含む奈良・平安時代に編さんされた六つの官撰(かんせん)の歴史書(六国史)は、当時の最高の頭脳が集まってつくられた。地震の記録は非常に正確だ。貞観地震以外にも9世紀の日本では各地で地震が続いた。現在の日本列島の地震活動と共通点が多く、この時期をよく知ることは次に起きる地震で多くの命を救うことにつながるだろう。
 たまたま地震が少ない時代に高度成長期を迎え、自然を征服してしまうような発想で国づくりが進められた。埋め立て地が増え、丘陵を改変して、地盤の悪い場所に移り住んだ。
 もう一度謙虚に自然を理解し、共存する方法を考えるべきではないだろうか。日本はいつの時代も地震に悩まされ、その度に残された教訓がある。歴史からそれらを学び、今後の備えを充実させなければいけない。

天野昭

まるで盲腸のようにあってもなくてもいいのがマンハッタンの四番街だ。短くて、そしてさしたる有名な場所もない。そもそもマンハッタンに四番街があることさえ知らないニューヨーカーがいるほどだ。

>何首烏

>

ツルドクダミ(Polygonum multiflorum)は中国原産のタデ科のつる性多年草。葉は心臓形でドクダミに似る。花は単性、白く円錐花序をなして秋に咲く。地下に塊根があり、漢方薬で何首烏(カシュウ)と称される。
もともと漢方薬として栽培されたものが一部で野生化している。東京都心部でも見られるが、これも大名屋敷などで栽培されたのが逸出したものといわれている。

The Washington Post

Aamer, Shaker Abdur-Raheem (Saudi Arabia)
Abasin, Said (Afghanistan)
Abbas, Muhammad (Pakistan)
Abbasi, Feroz (UK)
Abd, Allah Ab Aljalil Abdal Rahman (Yemen)
Abderrahmane, Slimane Hadj (Denmark)
Abdoh AKA Al Hag, Atag Ali (Yemen)
Abdul Rahman, Wesam (Jordan)
Abdullah, Abu (Algeria)
Abdullah, Ahmad (Morocco)
Abdullah, Jamal (Uganda)
Abdullah, Noorudeen (Morocco)
Abdulraheem, Othman (Yemen)
Abdulsalam, Reswan (Morocco)
Agha, Ismail (Afghanistan)
Ahmad, Ali (Pakistan)
Ahmad, Ejaz (Pakistan)
Ahmad, Rashid Hasan (Sudan)
Ahmed, Hamed Abderrahman (Spain)
Ahmed, Faluvi Abdullah (Yemen)
Ahmed, Faruq Ali (Yemen)
Ahmed, Ruhal (UK)
Ahmed, Sarfaraz (Pakistan)
Ait Idir, Mustapha 6 (Algeria)
Akhmyarov, Rustam (Russia)
Al Adahi, Mohamed (Yemen)
Al Ajmi, Abdullah Saleh Ali (Kuwait)
Al Anazi, Abdullah (Saudi Arabia)
Al Areeni, Khalid (Saudi Arabia)
Al Asadi, Mohamed Ahmed (Yemen)
Al Aseemi, Fahd Sultan Ubaid (Saudi Arabia)
Al Askari, Mohsin Ali (Yemen)
Al Asmar, Khalid (Jordan)
Al Assani, Fahmi Salem (Yemen)
Al Azmi, Saad Madai Saad (Kuwait)
Al Azraq, Majid Hamoud (Yemen)
Al Baasi, Mohsin Abdullah (Yemen)
Al Badaah, Abdul Aziz bin Abdur Rahman (Saudi Arabia)
Al Bahlul, Ali Hamza Ahmed Sulayman (Yemen)
Al Bahooth, Ziyad bin Salih bin Muhammad (Saudi Arabia)
Al Baidhani, Abdulkhaliq (Yemen)
Al Banna, Jamil (Jordan)
Al Barakati, Khalid (Saudi Arabia)
Al Blooshi, Salah Abdul Rasool (Bahrain)
Al Busayss, Adil Said Al Haj Obeid (Yemen)
Al Darbi, Ahmed (Yemen)
Al Dhabbi, Khalid Mohamed Saleh (Yemen)
Al Dhabi, Salah Mohamed Saleh (Yemen)
Al Dihani, Mohammed Funaitel (Kuwait)
Al Dini, Omar Saeed (Yemen)
Al Dossary, Juma Mohammed (Bahrain)
Al Fawzan, Fahd Fawzan (Saudi Arabia)
Al Fifi, Jaber (Saudi Arabia)
Al Fouzan, Fahd (Saudi Arabia)
Al Ghaith, Abdurahman ba (Yemen)
Al Ghamdi, Abdur Rahman Uthman (Saudi Arabia)
Al Ghamdi, Khalaf Awad (Saudi Arabia)
Al Ghamdi, Saeed Farhah (Saudi Arabia)
Al Ghamdi, Zaid (Saudi Arabia)
Al Ghanimi, Abdullah Muhammad Salih (Saudi Arabia)
Al Habardi, Mane Shaman (Saudi Arabia)
Al Habashi, Raafat (Yemen)
Al Haj, Sarqawi (Yemen)
Al Hamd, Adel Saleh (Yemen)
Al Harbi, Ibrahim Daifullah (Saudi Arabia)
Al Harbi, Tariq (Saudi Arabia)
Al Hassan, Sameer Naji (Yemen)
Al Ilmi, Muhammad (Morocco)
Al Jowfi, Rashid (Saudi Arabia)
Al Juaid, Rami Sad (Saudi Arabia)
Al Judaan, Hamood (Saudi Arabia)
Al Juhani, Badr (Saudi Arabia)
Al Juhdali, Ziyad (Saudi Arabia)
Al Jutaili, Fahd bin Salih bin Sulaiman (Saudi Arabia)
Al Kaabi, Jamil Ali (Saudi Arabia)
Al Kandari, Abdullah kamel bin Abdullah Kamal (Kuwait)
Al Kandari, Fayiz Mohammed Ahmed (Kuwait)
Al Kazimi, Ali Nasser (Yemen)
Al Khalafi or Khalaqi, Asim (Saudi Arabia)
Al Khalidi, Sulaiman (Saudi Arabia)
Al Khalifa, Shaikh Salman bin Ebrahim (Bahrain)
Al Khowlani, Idrees (Saudi Arabia)
Al Kouri, Farouq Ahmed (Yemen)
Al Maaliki, Sad (Saudi Arabia)
Al Mahdi, Ali Yahya Mahdi (Yemen)
Al Madhoni, Musaab (Yemen)
Al Marrah, Khalid (Saudi Arabia)
Al Marri, Jarallah (Qatar)
Al Marwallah, Bishir Naser Ali (Yemen)
Al Matari, Fahd Al Haimi (Yemen)
Al Matrafi, Abdullah (Saudi Arabia)
Al Merbati, Isa (Bahrain)
Al Mosleh, Abdullah Hamid (Saudi Arabia)
Al Muhajiri, Abdulmajeed (Yemen)
Al Muhammad, Mahmood (Syria)
Al Mujahid, Mahmoud Abdulaziz (Yemen)
Al Muraqi, Khalid bin Abdullah (Saudi Arabia)
Al Musa, Abdul Wahab (Saudi Arabia)
Al Mutairi, Khalid Abdullah Mishal (Kuwait)
Al Mutairi, Nasser Nijer Naser (Kuwait)
Al Naimi, Abdulla Majid (Bahrain)
Al Nasir, Ibrahim Muhammad (Saudi Arabia)
Al Nukhailan, Naif (Saudi Arabia)
Al Nur, Anwar Hamdan (Saudi Arabia )
Al Nusairi, Adil Uqla Hasan (Saudi Arabia)
Al Odah, Fawzi Khalid Abdullah Fahad (Kuwait)
Al Omar, Wasm Awad Al Wasm (Saudi Arabia)
Al Omari, Musa bin Ali bin Saeed (Saudi Arabia)
Al Otaiba, Bandar (Saudi Arabia)
Al Owshan, Abdul Aziz Sad (Saudi Arabia)
Al Owshan, Saleh bin Abdullah (Saudi Arabia)
Al Owshan, Sulieman (Saudi Arabia)
Al Qaaid, Rashid (Saudi Arabia)
Al Qadasi, Khalid Massah (Yemen)
Al Qadasi, Walid (Yemen)
Al Qahtani, Abdullah Hamid al Muslih (Saudi Arabia)
Al Qahtani, Jaber Hasan (Saudi Arabia)
Al Qahtani, Mohamed (Saudi Arabia)
Al Qahtani, Sad (Saudi Arabia)
Al Qosi, Ibrahim Ahmed Mahmoud (Sudan)
Al Qurashi, Muhammad Abdur-Rahman Abid (Saudi Arabia)
Al Rabahi, Abdullah Ameen (Yemen)
Al Rabeesh, Yusuf (Saudi Arabia)
Al Rabiah, Fwad Mahmoud (Kuwait)
Al Rahabi, Abdulmalik Abdulwahhab (Yemen)
Al Raimi, Ali Yahya Mahdi (Yemen)
Al Raimi, Ismail Ali (Yemen)
Al Rawi, Bisher (Iraq)
Al Razehi, Ali Ahmed Muhammad (Yemen)
Al Salami, Ali Abdullah (Yemen)
Al Salami, Saleh Abdullah (Yemen)
Al Samh, Adil Abu (Yemen)
Al Sarim, Saeed Ahmed (Yemen)
Al Sayegh, Adnan Muhammad Ali (Saudi Arabia)
Al Shabani, Fahd Abdullah (Saudi Arabia)
Al Shahrani, Muhammad bin Abdur Rahman (Saudi Arabia)
Al Shaibani, Bandar (Saudi Arabia)
Al Shamiri, Mustafa (Yemen)
Al Shammari, Abdulaziz SayerOwain (Kuwait)
Al Shammari, Majid Afas Radi Al Tumi (Saudi Arabia)
Al Shammari, Zain (Saudi Arabia)
Al Shamri, Anwar Hamdan al Noor (Saudi Arabia)
Al Shaqoori, Usamah (Morocco)
Al Shaqoori, Yunus (Morocco)
Al Shareef, Fahd Umar (Saudi Arabia)
Al Shareef, Sultan (Saudi Arabia)
Al Sharikh, Abdul Hadi (Saudi Arabia)
Al Sharikh, Abdur Razaq (Saudi Arabia)
Al Shehri, Abdus Salam Ghaithan (Saudi Arabia)
Al Shehri, Saeed Ali Jabir ale Khuthaim (Saudi Arabia)
Al Shehri, Salim (Saudi Arabia)
Al Shehri, Yusuf Muhammad (Saudi Arabia)
Al Siblie, Abdullah Yahya Yousuf (Yemen)
Al Suwaidi, Abdulaziz (Yemen)
Al Towlaqi, Fahmi (Yemen)
Al Umar, Ibrahim bin Umar (Saudi Arabia)
Al Unzi, Abdullah Thani Faris Al Sulami (Saudi Arabia)
Al Unzi, Khalid (Saudi Arabia)
Al Unzi, Rakan (Saudi Arabia)
Al Unzi, Sultan Sari Saail (Saudi Arabia)
Al Utaibi, Bajad bin Daifillah (Saudi Arabia)
Al Utaibi, Bandar (Saudi Arabia)
Al Utaibi, Muhammad Suroor (Saudi Arabia)
Al Utaibi, Naif Fahd Al Aseemi (Saudi Arabia)
Al Warifi, Mukhtaar (Yemen)
Al Yafii, Al Khadir Abdullah (Yemen)
Al Zahrani, Khalid (Saudi Arabia)
Al Zahrani, Sad Ibrahim Ramzi al-Jundubi (Saudi Arabia)
Al Zahrani, Yasser Talal (Saudi Arabia)
Al Zamil, Adil Zamil Abdull Mohssin (Kuwait)
Al Zuhairi, Ahmed Zaid (Yemen)
Al-Harith, Jamal Udeen (United Kingdom)
Ali, Abu Sana (Morocco)
Ali, Sahibzada Usman (Afghanistan)
Ali, Sarfraz (Pakistan)
Ali, Syed Saim (Pakistan)
Amin, Aminullah (Pakistan)
Amin, Omar Rajab (Kuwait)
Amro, Jalal Salem bin (Yemen)
Anaam, Suhail Abdo (Yemen)
Ansar, Muhammad (Pakistan)
Anwar, Muhammad (Pakistan)
Aouzar, Mohamed (Morocco)
Aqeel, Sulaiman bin (Yemen)
Arbaish, Khalid bin Suleiman (UNKNOWN)
Aseeri, Turki Mashawi Zayid Ale Jabali (Saudi Arabia)
Ashraf, Muhammad (Pakistan)
Aslam, Noor (Afghanistan)
Asnar, Khalid (Jordan)
Ayub, Haseeb (Pakistan)
Azzam, Hussein (Jordan)
Babikir, Muhammad al Ghazali (Sudan)
Badr, Badrzaman (Afghan)
Bajadiyah, Saeed (Morocco)
Bameri, Bahktiar (Iran)
Barak (Afghanistan)
Batarfi, Ayman Saeed (Yemen)
Bayifkan, Lutfi (Turkey)
Begg, Moazzam (United Kingdom)
Belkacem, Bensayah (Algeria)
Belmar, Richard (United Kingdom)
Benchakaroun, Brahim (Morocco)
Benchellali, Mourad (France)
Binmoojan, Muhammad (Morocco)
Boumediene, Lakhdar (Algeria)
Bukhari, Abdul Hakeem (Saudi Arabia)
Celik, Abdullah (Turkey)
Celikgogus, Yuksel (Turkey)
Chekkouri, Redouan (Morocco)
Chekkouri, Younes (Morocco)
Dad, Fazal (Pakistan)
Deghayes, Omar (UNKNOWN)
Dergoul, Tarek (United Kingdom)
Dukhan, Mamar (Syria)
Ehsannullah (Afghanistan)
Eksi, Mustafa (Turkey)
El Hadj, Boudella (Algeria)
Elgazzar, Adel Fattouh Aly (Egypt)
El-Weldi, Reda Fadel (Egypt)
Farooq, Muhammad Naim (Afghanistan)
Fauzee, Ibrahim (Maldives)
Fazil or Fadhil, Mullah (Afghanistan)
Feroze, Muhammad (Morocco)
Fouzan, Fahed (Saudi Arabia)
Ghaffar, Maulvi Abdul (Afghan)
Ghanem, Mohamed Ragab Abu (Yemen)
Ghazi, Fahd Abdullah Ahmad (Saudi Arabia)
Gherebi, Falen (Libya)
Ghezali, Mehdi Muhammed (Sweden)
Ghulab, Sher (Afghanistan)
Gul, Lall (Afghanistan)
Gul, Nate (Afghanistan)
Gumarov, Ravil (Russia)
Habib, Mamdouh (Australia)
Hajii , Adil Kamel Abdullah (Bahrain)
Hamada, Mohamed (Yemen)
Hamdan, Salim Ahmed (Yemen)
Hamdi, Yasir Esam (United States)
Hamdoon, Zahir Omar bin (Yemen)
Hamza, Abu (Saudi Arabia)
Hanif, Muhammad (Pakistan)
Hassan, Imad Abdullah (Yemen)
Hassan, Mohammad Mohammad (Yemen)
Hatem, Saeed (Yemen)
Hicks, David (Australia)
Hkimi, Adel (Tunisia)
Iilyas, Muhammad (Pakistan)
Ikassrien, Lahcen (Morocco)
Iqbal, Asif (United Kingdom)
Iqbal, Faid or Faiq (Pakistan)
Iqbal, Zafar (Pakistan)
Irfan, Muhammad (Pakistan)
Ishaq, Muhammad (Pakistan)
Ishmuradov, Timur (Russia)
Ismail, Yasin Qasem Mohammad (Yemen)
Jamaluddin, Muhammad (Pakistan)
Jan, Aziaullah (Pakistan)
Joaid, Abdul Rahman (Saudi Arabia )
Kanouni, Imad (France)
Khadr, Abdur Rahman (Canada)
Khadr, Omar (Canada)
Khairkhwa, Khairullah (Afghanistan)
Khan, Alef (Pakistan)
Khan, Alif (Afghanistan)
Khan, Aziz (Afghanistan)
Khan, Aziz (Pakistan)
Khan, Badshah (Pakistan)
Khan, Ejaz Ahmad (Pakistan)
Khan, Haji Mohammed (Afghanistan)
Khan, Hamood ullah (Pakistan)
Khan, Issa (Pakistan)
Khan, Juma (Afghanistan)
Khan, Merza (Afghanistan)
Khan, Muhammad Ejaz (Pakistan)
Khan, Muhammad Kashif (Pakistan)
Khan, Tariq Aziz (Pakistan)
Khasraf, Mohamed Nasser Yahya Abdullah (Yemen)
Khazhiyev, Shamil (Russia)
Kifayatullah (Pakistan)
Koochi, Naeem (Afghanistan)
Kudayev, Rasul (Russia)
Kurnaz, Murat (Turkey)
Lagah, Lofti Ben Suihi (Tunisia)
Lahmar, Saber (Algeria)
Maimoundi, Hassan (UNKNOWN)
Mamrouk, Adel Ben Hamida (Tunisia)
Manzoor, Hafiz Liaqat (Pakistan)
Marouz, Muhammad (Morocco)
Maula, Abdul (Pakistan)
Mazloom, Fazel (Afghanistan)
Mazrou, Alaa Abdel Maqsoud (Egypt)
Mehmood, Majid (Pakistan)
Mehmood, Talli (Pakistan)
Mert, Nuri (Turkey)
Meshad, Sherif (Egyptian)
Mingazov, Ravil (Russia)
Mohammed (Afghanistan)
Mohammed, Hajii Faiz (Afghanistan)
Mohammed, Jan (Afghanistan)
Mohammed, Wazir (Afghanistan)
Mubanga, Martin (United Kingdom)
Muhammad, Ali (Pakistan)
Muhammad, Mirza (Afghanistan)
Muhammad, Shah (Pakistan)
Mujarrad, Talal Ahmed Mohamed (Yemen)
Muqaddam, Murtada (Saudi Arabia)
Murshid, Ayoub (Yemen)
Mustafa, Khaled ben (France)
Nabaytah, Hassan (Jordan)
Nabiyev, Yusuf (Tajikistan)
Naqibullah (Afghanistan)
Naseer, Muneer bin (Pakistan)
Nasri, Riadh Mohammad (Tunisia)
Nauman, Muhammad (Pakistan)
Nechla, Mohamed (Algeria)
Noor, Yusuf Khaleel (Saudi Arabia)
Odigov, Ruslan (Russia)
Omar, Muhammad (Pakistan)
Omar, Othman Ali (Yemen)
Osman, Haji (Afghanistan)
Osman, Mohammad (Afghanistan)
Ould Slahi, Mouhamedou (Mauritania)
Paracha, Saifullah (Pakistan)
Patel, Mustaq Ali (France/India?)
Qaid, Yaseen (Yemen)
Qassim, Khalid Ahmed (Yemen)
Quraish, Nasr Abdullah (Yemen)
Rafiq, Muhammad (Pakistan)
Rahim, Abdul (Pakistan)
Rahim, Abdur (Afghanistan)
Rahman, Ahmed Abdel (Egyptian)
Rahman, Asadullah (Afghanistan)
Rahmatoulah (Afghanistan)
Raouf, Mullah Abdel (Afghanistan)
Rashid, Hani Saleh (Yemen)
Rasul, Shafiq (UK)
Raza, Abid (Pakistan)
Raza, Muhammad Arshad (Pakistan)
Razaq, Abdul/Abdur (Pakistan)
Razeq, Abdul (Afghanistan)
Rehman, Abdul (Afghanistan)
Rehman, Abdul (Pakistan)
Rehman, Hafiz Khalil ur (Pakistan)
Rehman, Sajid-ur (Pakistan)
Ridha, Yazidi (Tunisia)
Ridouane, Khalid (France)
Rustam (Afghanistan)
Saeed, Hafiz Ehsan (Pakistan)
Saeed, Muhammad (Pakistan)
Safeesi, Abdul Sattar (Pakistan)
Sagheer, Muhammad (Pakistan)
Salahuddin, Ghazi (Pakistan)
Salman, Mohamed bin (Yemen)
Sarajudim (Afghanistan)
Sassi, Mohammed Ben Sala (Tunisia)
Sassi, Nizar (France)
Sattar, Abdul (Pakistan)
Saud, Abu (Saudi Arabia)
Sen, Ibrahim (Turkey)
Sen, Mesut (Turkey)
Shaalan, Hani Abdo Muslih (Yemen)
Shah, Rostum (Afghanistan)
Shah, Sliman (Afghanistan)
Shah, Sulaiman (Afghanistan)
Shah, Syed Zia Hussain (Pakistan)
Shaqroon, Ibrahim bin (Morocco)
Sharofov, Rukmiddin (Tajikistan)
Shehzada, Mullah (Afghanistan)
Sidiq, Mohammed (Afghanistan)
Sidiq, Muhammad (Afghanistan)
Sultan, Zahid (Pakistan)
Tabarak, Abdallah (Morocco)
Tahir, Mohammad (Afghanistan)
Tariq, Muhammad (Pakistan)
Tariq, Muhammad (Pakistan)
Ullah, Asad (Afghanistan)
Utain, Riyad (Yemen)
Uthman, Abdul Rahim Mohammad Uthman (Yemen)
Uyar, Salih (Turkey)
Uzel, Turgut (Turkey)
Vakhitov, Aryat (Russia)
Vohidov, Muqim (Tajikistan)
Wali, Badshah (Afghanistan)
Wali, Jehan/Jan (Pakistan)
Wazeer, Abdullah ba (Yemen)
Wazir, Mohammed (Afghanistan)
Yadel, Brahim (France)
Zaeef, Mohammed (Afghanistan)
Zaman, Badar uz (Pakistan)
Zaman, Qaisir (Pakistan)
Zemiri, Ahcene (Algeria)
Zemmouri, Moussa (Belgium)

>Inga-Britt Ahlenius

>

I am concerned that we are in a process of decline and reduced relevance of the Organization. In short – we seem to be seen less and less as a relevant partner in the resolution of world problems. This inevitably risks weakening the United Nations’ possibilities to fulfil its mandate. Ultimately that is to the detriment of peace and stability in the world. This is as sad as it is serious.

Charter of the United Nations Articles 53, 77 and 107

The term enemy state as used in paragraph 1 of this Article applies to any state which during the Second World War has been an enemy of any signatory of the present Charter.

The trusteeship system shall apply to such territories in the following categories as may be placed thereunder by means of trusteeship agreements:
b. territories which may be detached from enemy states as a result of the Second World War;

Nothing in the present Charter shall invalidate or preclude action, in relation to any state which during the Second World War has been an enemy of any signatory to the present Charter, taken or authorized as a result of that war by the Governments having responsibility for such action.

Leo Szilard

Suppose Germany had developed two bombs before we had any bombs. And suppose Germany had dropped one bomb, say, on Rochester and the other on Buffalo, and then having run out of bombs she would have lost the war. Can anyone doubt that we would then have defined the dropping of atomic bombs on cities as a war crime, and that we would have sentenced the Germans who were guilty of this crime to death at Nuremberg and hanged them?

Dwight Eisenhower

…in [July] 1945… Secretary of War Stimson, visiting my headquarters in Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to drop an atomic bomb on Japan. I was one of those who felt that there were a number of cogent reasons to question the wisdom of such an act. …the Secretary, upon giving me the news of the successful bomb test in New Mexico, and of the plan for using it, asked for my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent.
During his recitation of the relevant facts, I had been conscious of a feeling of depression and so I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on the basis of my belief that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary, and secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to save American lives. It was my belief that Japan was, at that very moment, seeking some way to surrender with a minimum loss of ‘face’. The Secretary was deeply perturbed by my attitude…

Harry Truman

I knew what I was doing when I stopped the war that would have killed a half million youngsters on both sides if those bombs had not been dropped. I have no regrets and, under the same circumstances, I would do it again — and this letter is not confidential.
_________________
We have spent 2 billion dollars on the greatest scientific gamble in history – and won.