Category Archives: globalization

William Godwin

The ideas of the author became more perspicuous and digested as his enquiries advanced. The longer he considered the subject, the more clearly he seemed to understand it. This circumstance has led him into some inaccuracies of language and reasoning, particularly in the earlier part of the work, respecting the properties and utility of government. He did not enter upon the subject without being aware that government by its very nature counteracts the improvement of individual intellect; but, as the views he entertains in this particular are out of the common road, it is scarcely to be wondered at that he understood the proposition more completely as he proceeded, and saw more distinctly into the nature of the remedy.

Kenneth Rogoff

Is the global economy flying into a perfect storm, with Europe, China and the United States all entering downturns at the same time later this year? The risks of a global recession trifecta are rising by the day.
Clearly, emerging markets and poorer developing economies will suffer mightily in the event of a global recession. Even energy and food-exporting countries, which until now have benefited economically from the war because of high prices, would likely have problems.
With luck, the risk of a synchronised global downturn will recede by late 2022. But for the moment, the odds of recession in Europe, the US and China are significant and increasing, and a collapse in one region will raise the odds of collapse in the others. Record-high inflation does not make things any easier. I am not sure politicians and policymakers are up to the task they may soon confront.





そう グローバル・ノースの発展のモデルは

天然資源の体系的な開発は 資源のただの乱用だと
産業の発展の代償は 大気と水の汚染だと
グローバルノースの繁栄は グローバルサウスの犠牲の上にあるのだと


グローバルノースの外部化社会が 良い状態でいられるわけがない
グローバルノースの大多数の人々は 自分たちが裕福だとは思えない
そもそも 自分たちがなにをしているかを 知りはしない
誰の犠牲でいい暮らしが成り立っているのか 気付くことはない

いや それは違う
外部化社会は 今の現実だ




80億の人たちのなかで孤立している 1億2千万の日本人は



孤立している集団のなかで 孤立している個人というのは


Now is the time to create a new kind of digital currency built on the foundation of blockchain technology. The mission for Libra is a simple global currency and financial infrastructure that empowers billions of people. Libra is made up of three parts that will work together to create a more inclusive financial system:

  1. It is built on a secure, scalable, and reliable blockchain;
  2. It is backed by a reserve of assets designed to give it intrinsic value;
  3. It is governed by the independent Libra Association tasked with evolving the ecosystem.

The Libra currency is built on the “Libra Blockchain.” Because it is intended to address a global audience, the software that implements the Libra Blockchain is open source — designed so that anyone can build on it, and billions of people can depend on it for their financial needs. Imagine an open, interoperable ecosystem of financial services that developers and organizations will build to help people and businesses hold and transfer Libra for everyday use. With the proliferation of smartphones and wireless data, increasingly more people will be online and able to access Libra through these new services. To enable the Libra ecosystem to achieve this vision over time, the blockchain has been built from the ground up to prioritize scalability, security, efficiency in storage and throughput, and future adaptability.





  • 本社のメッセンジャー
  • 外交官役、連絡役、調整役、指南役
  • 人事ローテーションの一環としての赴任
  • 海外赴任の専門家(キャリア的に本流を外れた) 又は 本社のトレイニー (教育としての赴任)
  • 海外の「日本村」内でビジネスをする人材
  • ナショナルスタッフから、Seagull(かめも)と呼ばれる人材 (Seagull=勝手に飛んできて、勝手にフンをして、汚したまま帰っていく輩)


Li Yong

The WTO statement of “made in the world” reflects the reality of the globalized production chain, like it or not, and trade war based on politically-driven positions will not change the situation. The biggest categories of US exports are commercial aircraft, automobiles, and food, for example, and no one can imagine that those products are, or can be, made completely in America. Take Boeing as an example. A lot of major components are made in factories located in Tianjin, Chengdu, Xi’an and Shenyang, and exported to Boeing, who assembles them into airliners that Boeing will sell to the rest of the world, including China. A trade war will change the economics of the supply chain and hurt everyone in the chain.
As the Chinese saying goes, a war that kills 1,000 enemies by losing 800 of your own soldiers is not a winning war. A trade war that reduces the size of the cake and kills jobs amid the effort to increase them is not a smart move. So, why bother having a trade war?

World Trade Organization (WTO)

Today, companies divide their operations across the world, from the design of the product and manufacturing of components to assembly and marketing, creating international production chains. More and more products are “Made in the World” rather than “Made in the UK” or “Made in France”. The statistical bias created by attributing the full commercial value to the last country of origin can pervert the political debate on the origin of the imbalances and lead to misguided, and hence counter-productive, decisions. The challenge is to find the right statistical bridges between the different statistical frameworks and national accounting systems to ensure that international interactions resulting from globalization are properly reflected and to facilitate cross border dialogue between national decision makers.


南スーダンや中東はどうしようもない泥沼です。一体、どういう期間、何を目指して、どう関わっていくのか? 何のビジョンもない。愚かとしか思えません。北朝鮮や中国に対しても、強気に出れば、いつか相手が参りましたと言うと思っているのでしょうか? 拉致問題しかり、どういうプロセスで問題の解決をイメージしているのか、まったくわかりません。中国に対しても日米同盟の軍事力を強化して、抑止力が高まったのか? 尖閣問題で中国と軍事的に衝突したとして、どんな収拾のつけ方があるのか? 中国だって国内のナショナリズムが沸騰して、引くに引けなくなる。恐れ入りましたとおとなしくなるはずがない。

Mark Malloch-Brown

The nation state is under threat as the fundamental unit of international affairs. On one side a globalized world has confronted states with problems like climate change, borderless terrorism and international migration against which the traditional instruments of the sovereign state are inadequate. Together with the prize of greater trade these forces necessitate the upward transfer of power to regional security organizations, like NATO, or to trade organizations like the EU.
But as power is being devolved up to regional blocs, citizenship is being pulled the other way. New types of loyalty and association are challenging the state’s traditional role.
In the West there is evidence that the State has thrown in the towel. By contrast in China and Russia the state has, at least for now, answered back and asserted its power to give their citizens the answers they are looking for.
What does this strange state of the State mean for international affairs? Today’s challenged global order is both a cause and a consequence of the state’s current frailty. We are suddenly living again in a world of disorder where there is no clear, settled, balance of power.
To fix it, we need a new framework of institutions and rules in a world of competing organizational structures and state models. Naked state and bloc power could replace the international rule of law.

Ulrich Beck

Scientists, whose findings often contradict each other, who change their minds so fundamentally, that what was judged ‘safe’ to swallow today, may be a ‘cancer risk’ in two years time? Can we believe the politicians and the mass media, when the former declare there are no risks, while the latter dramatize the risks in order to maintain circulation and viewing figures? Let me end with an ironic confession of non-knowledge. I know that I, too, simply do not know.

Abu Musab al-Suri

The jihad of individual or cell terrorism, using the methods of urban or rural guerilla warfare, is fundamental for exhausting the enemy and causing him to collapse and withdraw, Allah willing. The Open Front Jihad is fundamental for seizing control over land in order to liberate it, and establish Islamic law, with the help of Allah. The Individual Terrorism Jihad and guerilla warfare conducted by small cells, paves the way for the other kind (Open Front Jihad), aids and supports it. Without confrontation in the field and seizure of land, however, a state will not emerge for us. And this is the strategic goal for the Resistance project.



Associated Press

Fifty-one countries have signed an agreement to share financial data and boost efforts to crack down on tax evasion.
The standard agreed upon in Berlin on Wednesday was developed by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development in consultation with the world’s top 20 economies.
The countries that signed include most European Union nations, as well as traditional tax havens like Liechtenstein, the British Virgin Islands and the Cayman Islands. They will begin automatically exchanging data collected by financial institutions as early as 2017, the OECD said. Other countries have indicated they will join the accord later.
The United States hasn’t signed but says it will share information as part of bilateral deals.
Britain’s treasury chief, George Osborne, says the new treaty “strikes a blow on behalf of hard-working taxpayers.”

Signatories of the multilateral competent authority agreement (PDF)

Martin Wolf

What does globalization mean for states?
First, policy ultimately determines the pace and depth of international economic integration. For each country, globalization is at least as much a choice as a destiny.
Second, in important respects — notably a country’s monetary regime, capital account, and above all, labor mobility — the policy underpinnings of integration are less complete than they were a century ago.
Third, countries choose integration because they see its benefits. Once chosen, any specific degree of international integration imposes constraints on the ability of governments to tax, redistribute income, and influence macroeconomic conditions. But those constraints must not be exaggerated, and their effects are often beneficial.
Fourth, international economic integration magnifies the impact of the difference between good and bad states — between states that provide public goods and those that serve predatory private interests, including those of the rulers.

Cy Goddard

  • CyGoddardCy Goddard bravely turned down England and represented Japan’s Under-16s after being called up in 2013 – despite not knowing the language
  • The Tottenham Hotspur attacking midfielder grew up in south London and now takes Japanese lessons twice a week after training sessions
  • The 17-year-old has been on Bundesliga giants Borussia Dortmund’s radar and hopes to represent Japan at a major tournament in the near future
  • Goddard reveals it’s not uncommon for youth players eligible to look elsewhere to snub England as the Three Lions aren’t particularly admired
  • Belgium’s Adnan Januzaj, Nigeria’s Victor Moses and Germany’s Lewis Holtby are among others that could have represented England

Matthias Schemmel

At the beginning of the twenty-first century, modern science is clearly global. It originated in early modern Europe and spread from there all over the world, either through the migration of people who brought it with their culture, as is the case for America and Australia, or through its adoption by non-European cultures, as is the case for China and Japan. It is true that even today not all countries have the same means to produce scientific knowledge or to participate in global scientific communication. It is also true that national science politics and the decisions of local communities have an impact on the subject-matter of scientific research. But on a global scale there are shared bodies of scientific knowledge, shared scientific practices and shared criteria for the evaluation of scientific results, so that one may speak of a global culture of science. In particular, science is not expected to depend on the characteristics of one particular modern culture, such as the native language or the religious beliefs of those doing science.
It is this aspect of the universality of modern science, its compatibility with a wide variety of cultural backgrounds, together with the idea that science produces true statements about the world and the obvious usefulness of science for developing advanced technology, that may lead to the belief that the spread of modern science to non-European cultures was a matter of course, a simple process of adoption, possibly evolving at epidemic speed: cultures once infected by modern science and its merits could not but adopt it.


有働由美子: 鈴木さんはどうしたいんですか? 日本のアニメーション界とか これからの自分とか
鈴木敏夫:  うーん 変わっていきますよ 変わりつつある たぶん日本のアニメーションって これから東南アジアへ行く  始まってるんですよ  タイ マレーシア 台湾 一部ベトナムでもスタートなんですよ  だから おそらく アジア全体で 誰かが企画を考える 例えば日本人がね 実際作るのはタイで作るとかね おそらく そうなっていくだろうなって
井ノ原快彦: 日本では生産されていかないとか
鈴木敏夫:  実際にね 手を染めて描きたい人はね それこそタイに行けばいいんですよ
井ノ原快彦: そうなんすか そうなりますか
鈴木敏夫:  そういうことが起こるかなあと
有働由美子: 制作費の問題ですか?
鈴木敏夫:  いや っていうのかね 意欲 やっぱりね このあいだ 日本もね アニメーションに皆 夢を求めて頑張ってやって来たじゃないですか それが一段落したんじゃないですかね それが 今 アジアのそういう色々な国で 色々そういう火が上りつつあるんですよ
有働由美子: ちょっと寂しい気もするような気もするんですが
鈴木敏夫: 僕はそうは思わないんですよ
井ノ原快彦: 新しいアニメの形になっていくってことですか?
鈴木敏夫: そうそうそう だからね 日本製だとかタイ製だとかマレーシア製だとか そんな事を言うんじゃなくて アジア全域で一本の物を作るっていう そういう時代がくるんじゃないかと



Banks around the World

Rank Bank Country Total assets (US$b)
1 Industrial & Commercial Bank of China China 3,181.884
2 HSBC Holdings UK 2,758.447
3 China Construction Bank Corporation China 2,602.536
4 BNP Paribas France 2,589.191
5 Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group Japan 2,508.839
6 JPMorgan Chase & Co US 2,476.986
7 Agricultural Bank of China China 2,470.432
8 Bank of China China 2,435.485
9 Credit Agricole Group France 2,346.562
10 Barclays PLC UK 2,266.815
11 Deutsche Bank Germany 2,250.638
12 Bank of America US 2,149.851
13 Japan Post Bank Japan 1,968.266
14 Citigroup Inc US 1,894.736
15 Societe Generale France 1,740.745
16 Mizuho Financial Group Japan 1,708.860
17 Royal Bank of Scotland Group UK 1,703.955
18 Banco Santander Spain 1,607.236
19 Sumitomo Mitsui Financial Group Japan 1,569.987
20 Groupe BPCE France 1,567.882






。。。 そのように旧態依然とした考えにとりつかれている原因の一つは、やはり旧来の考えを変えないほうが、新しい考えを取り入れるより楽だ、という態度であろう。 。。。 知的怠慢とも名付けうるこうした現象が、まだ各国で見られるのは嘆かわしいかぎりである。


グローバリズムというと、それはアメリカニズムと同じではないか、と考える読者がいるかもしれない。 ・・・ グローバリズムなるものも、実際には米国の支配を広めていこうということではないのか、と。しかし、そのような見方は時代遅れのものである。
グローバリズム、つまりグローブ(地球)全体の繁栄を目標とする概念は、国益の追求を目指すナショナリズムの対極にある。 ・・・ グローバリズムは国単位ではなく、全人類の平和や繁栄を求めるという意味合いを持っている。

Tomohiro Osaki

KinkiIt has great teaching and research, and student intake numbers to be proud of. But there is one thing nobody envies about Kinki University: its name.
Perhaps fed up with being the butt of jokes by English speakers, Kinki in Osaka will rename itself Kindai University from April 2016, when it launches a new department offering courses taught in foreign languages — and tries to broaden its international profile.
Kindai is a contraction of “Kinki Daigaku,” the university’s official Japanese name. And while “Kinki” refers to the region of Honshu in which the school is located, the English term “kinky” can denote a preference for peculiar sexual behavior.
The university is frank about its discomfort. Foreigners attending conferences often have a good old chuckle, President Hitoshi Shiozaki told a news conference Tuesday, adding that in a global age the university needs to appear businesslike in any language.

Helen Bicknell

Now that I have become ‘German’ and can vote where I pay taxes, am I happy? Not really. I still regard this very much as a ‘second-best’ solution to my problem. What happens if I decide to retire in France? Will I then have to add French citizenship to my ‘collection’? In an ideal world, what can European citizens do if they do not feel any particular affinity to one particular nation? What is the political equivalent to being agnostic or a non-believer? If I feel ‘European’ why can’t I just classify myself as such? Having to adopt, in my case, German and UK citizenship, rather than just becoming a European citizen, is rather like making an agnostic decide one and for all which God she believes in, when in fact her identity relies on the inability to answer the question.
Notions of ‘national citizenship’ do not fit easily with ‘European identity’. As a polyglot, European citizen, I do not appreciate having to be tagged or bound to cultures which I either obtained by pure chance, because I happened to be born there, or by choice, because of personal relationships, but not necessarily because of an intrinsic desire to become a citizen of that country. As a taxpayer, though, I do feel it is important to be able to have a democratic say in choosing which politicians are able to spend half my wages!
Do I think political franchise should depend on national citizenship? Do you think black people should be allowed to sit anywhere on the bus?

Alexandra Schwartzbrod

Alexandra_SchwartzbrodDans cette économie mondialisée, que doit alors être le rôle de l’Etat ? Sûrement pas se priver d’intervenir si nécessaire. … Le drame, c’est que l’Etat intervient la plupart du temps en réaction, c’est-à-dire trop tard.




Empowering Global Commerce
Innovative payment solutions for a borderless world

Transfer funds across the globe with simple, low cost payout solutions
・ Transfer funds to Prepaid Debit MasterCard cards
・ Send bank transfers to more than 200 countries
・ Get started with a quick, simple and secure integration

Global solution to receive funds, local options to spend and withdraw
・ Receive funds from U.S. based companies
・ Withdraw funds to your local bank account
・ Spend funds with a Prepaid Debit MasterCard card

Gilles Guiheux


En 1949, la victoire du communisme chinois s’accompagnait d’une critique radicale du cosmopolitisme et du matérialisme. Les valeurs promues sont désormais collectives et ceux qui, désintéressés, se dévouent à la construction d’une Chine nouvelle sont portés aux nues. C’est le triomphe de l’égalitarisme et d’une pauvreté également partagée. Trente ans plus tard, Deng Xiaoping tourne le dos à l’égalitarisme maoïste et abandonne le projet révolutionnaire pour donner la priorité à l’amélioration des conditions matérielles de vie de la population. Il est désormais glorieux de s’enrichir. La consommation devient un nouvel espace de liberté. Des millions de personnes accèdent à l’abondance ; le commerce envahit l’espace urbain et rural ; de nouveaux discours émergent. L’exposé reviendra sur les formes et les enjeux de cette seconde révolution chinoise.

Noah Smith


I have been thinking about alternative theories to explain rich-world income stagnation. And I have come up with something. I call it the “Great Relocation”. The idea, in a nutshell, is that economic activity is relocating from rich Europe, America, and Asia to developing Asia faster than technological progress can replenish it.

Investigative Reporting Denmark

EKH6620Monsanto will halt production of genetically modified corn in all of Europe, except Spain, Portugal and Czech republic. The agribusiness multinational states not to spend any more money on trials, development, marketing, court cases or anything else to get GM corn accepted in Europe.

Joshua Kucera

SCOTurkey has formally become a “dialogue partner” of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), a step with unclear practical consequences but substantial symbolic import. Turkey is the first NATO member with any sort of formal relationship with the SCO, which is often represented as an Eastern “anti-NATO.” All the cliches about Turkey being “caught between East and West” — here they are, codified in agreements with political-military blocs.

Luzius Wasescha

The negotiations of the WTO can be inspired by the director-general, but the decisions have to be taken by members. The change of director-general won’t immediately change the situation. Maybe Azevedo is more convincing in certain capitals than (his predecessor) Pascal Lamy was, but he of course has a very broad perspective of the needs of emerging countries.
This will be his biggest challenge: to do his job objectively and convince those emerging markets and industrialised countries to be more flexible on certain issues.
As soon as you look into the technicalities, it’s no longer a North-South issue, but a trans-Atlantic issue. The EU has their system for standards, the US has theirs, and it’s almost impossible to bridge unless the two sides show flexibility.

Wall Street Journal

A depressing rule of international institutions is that whatever their founding intentions they inevitably evolve to serve themselves or their worst members more than their original cause. The latest example is the WTO, which began as a rule-making body to promote free trade and has drifted toward protectionism when it isn’t useless.
That drift was illustrated last week with the election of Brazilian Roberto Azevedo as new WTO director-general. The 55-year-old career diplomat beat out Mexican economist Herminio Blanco, who had U.S. support.
Mr. Azevedo was Brazil’s chief Doha negotiator, and opposition to freer trade in manufacturing by Brazil, India, South Africa and other emerging economic powers made a worthwhile Doha deal impossible. It’s now moribund.
The result has been that the WTO is increasingly a bystander as the world’s economic powers ignore the global talks and pursue their own bilateral and regional trade pacts.



Damian Mac Con Uladh

rtr37gn8-thumb-mediumGreeks may have to abandon their unique alphabet and embrace Latin characters under new plans that the troika promises will save the country millions every year. Exasperated at still not being able to read simple street signs or hostile newspaper headlines since starting their austerity mission in Greece three years ago, troika inspectors decided to bring up the issue with senior government officials in recent weeks.



国境なき医師団 (MSF)

国境なき医師団 (MSF) は、この流れに強い懸念を抱いている。医薬品特許の保護規定の強化は、患者の方々から命をつなぐ薬を奪うことにつながるからだ。
TPP交渉は非公開のため、各国の要望を直接知ることはできない。しかし、Knowledge Ecology International (KEI) が入手して2011年2月に公開したアメリカ政府の内部文書(TPP IP Chapter (PDF))で、以下のようなアメリカの考え方が浮かび上がってきた。

  • 既存薬の形を変えただけでも特許
  • 特許付与について事前の異議申し立てを制限
  • 知的財産権の保有者を厚遇
  • 独占権で臨床データを囲い込み
  • 特許期間の延長、特許リンケージ、などなど

参考資料: 環太平洋パートナーシップ協定(TPP)が薬の流通を脅かす (PDF)

Simon Koch

Tout ce qu’un Suisse écrit ou fait sur le net pourra être retenu contre lui s’il se rend un jour aux Etats-Unis. En vertu du «Foreign Intelligence and Surveillance Act» (FISA), Washington se réserve depuis 2008 le droit de scanner toutes les données stockées dans le pays, y compris celles émanant de citoyens étrangers. Sont concernés les services de messagerie, mais aussi les réseaux sociaux et les services de cloud.



第1の嘘 市場は自由でないといけない
第2の嘘 株主の利益を第一に考えて企業経営をせよ
第3の嘘 市場経済では誰もが能力に見合う賃金をもらえる
第4の嘘 インターネットは世界を根本的に変えた
第5の嘘 市場がうまく動くのは人間が最悪(利己的)だからだ
第6の嘘 インフレを抑えれば経済は安定し、成長する
第7の嘘 途上国は自由市場・自由貿易によってのみ富み栄える
第8の嘘 資本にはもはや国籍はない
第9の嘘 世界は脱工業化時代に突入した
第10の嘘 アメリカの生活水準は世界一である
第11の嘘 アフリカは発展できない運命にある
第12の嘘 政府が勝たせようとする企業や産業は敗北する
第13の嘘 富者をさらに富ませれば他の者たちも潤う
第14の嘘 経営者への高額報酬は必要であり正当である
第15の嘘 貧しい国が発展できないのは起業家精神の欠如のせいだ
第16の嘘 すべて市場に任せるべきだ
第17の嘘 教育こそ繁栄の鍵だ
第18の嘘 企業に自由にやらせるのが国全体の経済にも良い
第19の嘘 共産主義の崩壊とともに計画経済も消滅した
第20の嘘 今や努力をすれば誰でも成功できる
第21の嘘 経済を発展させるには小さな政府のほうがよい
第22の嘘 金融市場の効率化こそが国に繁栄をもたらす
第23の嘘 良い経済の導入には経済に関する深い知識が必要

Ha-Joon Chang

As if being a businessman, novelist, tax collector, political commentator and spy wasn’t providing sufficient stimulus, Defoe was also an economist. This aspect of his life is even less well known than his spying. Unlike his novels, which include Robinson Crusoe, Defoe’s main economic work in 1728, A Plan of the English Commerce (henceforth A Plan), is almost forgotten now.
RCDaniel Defoe’s fictional hero, Robinson Crusoe, is often used by economics teachers as the pure example of ‘rational economic man’, the hero of neo-liberal free-market economics.
The kind of economics that underpins Defoe’s Plan is exactly the opposite of Robinson Crusoe economics. In A Plan, Defoe clearly shows that it was not the free market but government protection and subsidies that developed British woollen manufacturing. APlanDefying signals from the market that his country was an efficient raw wool producer and should remain so, Henry VII introduced policies that deliberately distorted such unwelcome notions. By doing so, he started the process that eventually transformed Britain into a leading manufacturing nation. Economic development requires people like Henry VII, who build a new future, rather than people like Robinson Crusoe, who live for today. Thus, in addition to his double life as a spy, Defoe also led a double life as an economist—without realizing it, he created the central character in free market economics in his fictional work, yet his own economic analysis clearly illustrated the limits of free market and free trade.

Niall Ferguson

The Japanese move triggered a flurry of warnings of an imminent “currency war”. Alexei Ulyukayev, first deputy chairman of Russia’s central bank, led the charge, closely followed by Jens Weidmann, Bundesbank president, and Bahk Jae-wan, South Korea’s finance minister.
Today, we live in a world of fiat money and mostly floating rates. The last vestige of the gold standard was swept away in August 1971, when Richard Nixon suspended the convertibility of the dollar into gold. For one country to accuse another of waging a currency war in 2013 is therefore absurd. The war has been going on for more than 40 years and it is a war of all against all.
On the basis of the Bis data, the most aggressive currency warriors of the past 5½ years have been South Korea (a 19 per cent real effective depreciation since August 2007) and the UK (minus 17 per cent). So the Koreans win this week’s prize for hypocrisy.

Economist Intelligence Unit

The Worldwide Cost of Living survey enables human resources line managers and expatriate executives to compare the cost of living in 140 cities in 93 countries and calculate fair compensation policies for relocating employees.
The survey gathers detailed information on the cost of more than 160 items–from food, toiletries and clothing to domestic help, transport and utility bills–in every city. More than 50,000 individual prices are collected in each survey round, which take place in March and September, and surveys are updated each June and December. A cost-of-living index is calculated from the price data to express the difference in the cost of living between any two cities.
Companies can then apply this index to an executive’s spendable income to reach a fair cost of living allowance. The purpose of a cost of living allowance is to reimburse employees for excess living costs resulting from a foreign assignment. Payment is based on the assumption that an expatriate has a right to live at the assignment site in the same manner and with the same kind of goods and services he would find at home. A salary calculator on the site enables you to make these calculations within seconds.
The survey also contains price information for other cost categories, helping you create separate allowances to cover housing costs, school fees and business trips. In addition, background information is provided on each city’s housing market and on local disposable income levels.
(sk) 円安になれば、Cost of Living は下がる(つまりランキングが下がる)。グローバルな会社や組織の日本駐在の人たちのドル・ベースでの(名目上の)給料は下がるけれど、円ベースでの(実際に円でもらう)給料は変わらない。だから、うまみはなくなるが、生活は苦しくならない。

Stephen Gandel

Overregulation has been a persistent economic bogeyman. Presidential candidate and Texas Governor Rick Perry says government regulations are “strangling the American entrepreneurship out there.” House Speaker John Boehner says cutting regulation is the best way to boost jobs. Even President Barack Obama has talked about eliminating some government rules. In mid-October the World Bank released its annual ranking of countries on the basis of ease of doing business; it took into account the number of regulations, tax rates, the time it takes to start a business and other factors. Out of 183 countries, the U.S. was deemed the fourth easiest place in the world to do business, unchanged from the year before. What’s more, a number of lower-ranked nations–including South Africa, China and Brazil–have had much faster-growing economies than the U.S. in the past five years. Neil Gregory, a deputy director for indicators at the World Bank, says regulations kill some jobs but create others. He says rules that promote small-business lending are essential. The search for the true job killer continues.

World Bank

Rankings on the ease of doing business

  China Japan Korea, R.
Ease of doing business
Starting a business
Dealing with construction permits
Getting electricity
Registering property
Getting credit
Protecting investors
Paying taxes
Trading across borders
Enforcing contracts
Resolving insolvency

World Bank

Rankings on the ease of doing business

1. Singapore
2. Hong Kong SAR, China
3. New Zealand
4. United States
5. Denmark
6. Norway
7. United Kingdom
8. Korea, Rep.
9. Georgia
10. Australia
11. Finland
12. Malaysia
13. Sweden
14. Iceland
15. Ireland
16. Taiwan, China
17. Canada
18. Thailand
19. Mauritius
20. Germany
21. Estonia
22. Saudi Arabia
23. Macedonia, FYR
24. Japan
25. Latvia
26. United Arab Emirates
27. Lithuania
28. Switzerland
29. Austria
30. Portugal
31. Netherlands
32. Armenia
33. Belgium
34. France
35. Slovenia
36. Cyprus
37. Chile
38. Israel

39. South Africa
40. Qatar
41. Puerto Rico (U.S.)
42. Bahrain
43. Peru
44. Spain
45. Colombia
46. Slovak Republic
47. Oman
48. Mexico
49. Kazakhstan
50. Tunisia
51. Montenegro
52. Rwanda
53. St. Lucia
54. Hungary
55. Poland
56. Luxembourg

91. China
112. Russian Federation
130. Brazil
132. India

Suemedha Sood

DutchPassportBetween 1995 and 2010, the number of people in the Netherlands with dual citizenship nearly tripled. That isn’t surprising, considering that globalization has made countries all over the world more receptive to the idea of people having more than one nationality.
What is surprising is that the Netherlands is one of the few countries in the world now trying to scale this back, having introduced a law last year that makes it harder for both immigrants to the Netherlands and emigrants from the Netherlands to hold onto their first nationality, as the far-right Freedom Party sees dual citizenship as a threat to national loyalty and as an impediment to assimilation in the Netherlands.
For individuals considering taking a second citizenship, the advantages include expanded job opportunities, unrestricted residency, the ability to own property in two countries, access to social programs in two countries and the increased travel options that come with having two passports. Dual citizens may have double the responsibilities though too. Some dual citizens may have to pay taxes and/or register for military service in their new countries. In addition, immigrants who gain local citizenship may be subject to laws that would not apply to them as tourists. Citizenship regulations vary quite a bit from country to country, so prospective dual citizens should review their countries’ laws before making a final decision on the matter.

Bill Readings

081019561536… since the nation-state is no longer the primary instance of the reproduction of global capitals, “culture”—as the symbolic and political counterpart to the project of integration pursued by the nation-state—has lost its purchase. The nation-state and the modern notion of culture arose together, and they are, I argue, ceasing to be essential to an increasingly transnational global economy. This shift has major implications for the University, which has historically been the primary institution of national culture in the modern nation-state. …
The significance of making a distinction between the modern University as ideological arm of the nation-state and the contemporary University as bureaucratic corporation is that it allows one to observe an important phenomenon. “Excellence” is rapidly becoming the watch-word of the University, and to understand the University as a contemporary institution requires some reflection on what the appeal to excellence may, or may not, mean.

Kevin Robins

KevinRobinsBy global economy, we mean an economy that works as a unit in real time on a planetary basis. The forces of globalization thereby tend to erode the integrity and autonomy of national economies.
We may see globalization in terms of the new possibilities opened up by global communications, global travel and global products. Or, alternatively, we may consider it from the perspective of those for whom it represents unwelcome destabilization and disorientation. To some extent, this difference may be a matter of who will gain from global change and who will lose or be marginalized. Globalization occurs as a contradictory and uneven process, involving new kinds of polarization (economic, social and cultural) at a range of geographical scales. The encounter and possible confrontation of social and cultural values is an inevitable consequence. We have a global economy and a global culture: we do not, however, have global political institutions that could mediate this encounter and confrontation.


nakamura(2002年1月15日) 我が国において最初に産業の空洞化問題が論じられたのは1980年代後半である。1985年のプラザ合意以降の急速な円高の進展等を背景に、我が国の製造業の生産拠点が急速に海外に移転した。このため、国内の雇用が減少し、技術水準が低下するのではないかといった恐れから、産業の空洞化問題が取り上げられた。その後、一時は沈静化したものの、1993年初頭以降の円高に伴い産業の空洞化の議論が再燃した。
産業の空洞化の処方箋を考える際の重要な視点は、どこまでをガバメント・リーチとするかという点にある。従来、この種の経済問題が発生した場合、できるできないにかかわらず、ある程度、政府が処方箋を考える傾向にあった。現在は、未成熟の経済体制の時代と違い、我が国は成熟した自由主義経済の中にある。加えて、以前は官民の間に情報の非対称性が存在したが、現在はそれもなくなり、官はイニシアチブを取って政策を遂行するほどの知見を持ち得なくなった。さらに、財政の限界も顕在化してきており、政府が実施できる政策の範囲も限られている。すなわち、政府の役割は時代とともに変化してきており、限定的なものになりつつある。以上を考慮に入れ、政府は分相応の処方箋を考えるべきである。その際、政府は企業に対し、その企業行動やグローバル化を阻害するような対応は厳に慎むべきである。 。。。 日本企業が海外で活躍していることを誇りに思うのはいけないことだろうか。産業の空洞化現象を我が国企業のグローバル化現象の一環として捉え、我が国企業が自己責任のもとで自由に経済活動を行うこと自体問題なのだろうか。



Nouveau Parti Anticapitaliste

20402_image.previewLa direction de PSA a en effet annoncé aux représentants syndicaux qu’en plus des 8 000 suppressions d’emplois révélées en juillet dernier, elle comptait supprimer 3 214 emplois d’ici la mi-2014, pour passer à 55 900 salariés en France. Une suppression d’un emploi sur six !
Ce n’est pas le gouvernement Hollande-Ayrault qui va gêner la mise en œuvre du plan des groupes de l’automobile. Ce qui est en cours est une véritable réorganisation de l’appareil de production en Europe, dont le marché est jugé de moins en moins rentable. Après l’annonce de la fermeture de Ford à Genk et des suppressions d’emplois au Royaume-Uni, Opel (filiale de General Motors qui a également des participations dans PSA) a annoncé la fermeture de fait de l’usine de Bochum en Allemagne (3 000 salariés, 10 000 emplois indirects).
Par contre cette semaine, à l’agenda de la visite de François Hollande en Algérie, il était prévu de discuter de la possibilité de faciliter les conditions de construction d’une usine Renault à Oran, et pourquoi pas de l’investissement de l’Algérie dans le capital de PSA. Ce que la Tribune avait évoqué la semaine dernière, provoquant au passage un bond de la valeur de l’action PSA en plein recul des valeurs ! On voit donc que pour ce gouvernement, l’enjeu n’est pas de sauver les emplois mais les profits des actionnaires.

Jean-Francois Rischard

000013There is little doubt that the international community is living through some truly momentous times. Our capacity to tackle a variety of complicated social and economic problems is greater at the turn of the new century than has been the case at anytime during the last few centuries. Technological development, economic prosperity and cultural evolution, all characteristics of globalization, have sharpened our ability to resolve many of the social evils that still exist.
How the world deals with these global challenges over the coming two decades, not the next half-century will determine the planet’s fate for generations. However, though we have the capacity and potential to tackle the most serious international problems, our ability to do so is hampered by the tools we use to tackle the dilemmas facing the global community. In their current form, our traditional institutions are not capable of addressing the many serious issues facing the global community today. A more intelligent alliance between public institutions, private bodies and civil society is needed.

20 Global Issues

  1. The Global Commons: global warming; biodiversity and ecosystem loss; fisheries depletion; deforestation; water deficits; maritime safety and pollution
  2. Sharing our humanity: renewing the attack on poverty; peacekeeping; conflict prevention and preventing terrorism; education for all; global infectious disease; digital divide; natural disaster prevention and mitigation
  3. Sharing our rulebook: reinventing taxation for this century; biotechnology rules; global financial architecture; fighting illegal drugs trade; investment and competition rules; intellectual property rights; e-commerce regulations; international labour and migration rules

Mattia Romani, James Rydge, Nicholas Stern

The world is heading in a difficult and dangerous direction. A range of estimates based on current plans and intentions arrive at similar conclusions: at best, global emissions will plateau at around 50 billion tonnes of carbon-dioxide-equivalent per year over the coming decades, with a strong possibility they will go much higher. The scale of the risks from these levels of emissions is immense, with likely changes in climate way beyond the experience of modern civilisation.
The overall pace of change is recklessly slow. We are acting as if change is too difficult and costly and delay is not a problem. The rigidity of the processes under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the behaviour of participants also hinder progress. And the vested interests remain powerful.
Despite the slow overall pace of change, there are strong signs of activity and creativity across the world. And we have learned much over the past decade about the scale of the risks, the technologies required and the economics. Accelerating the pace of change towards a low-carbon, resource-efficient economy is both feasible and crucial; with the right incentives rapid transformative change is possible, even in capital-intensive sectors such as energy.

Pascal Lamy

shamseddin20120412125627500The impulse to “go local” in answer to the financial crisis must be resisted. In fact, I would argue that we should continue “going global”, if I may say so, for the simple reason that many consumers have seen their purchasing power decline, and are in need of cheaper, more competitive goods and services, and not more expensive ones produced behind a national tariff wall.
International trade helps lower the cost of goods and services to the final consumer.

Manmohan Singh

manmohan_singh1If nations look only inwards and imagine that they can solve their problems on their own, they will fail and fall. The world has become more integrated and inter-dependent. In both good and bad, in prosperity and peril, in opportunity and crisis we must recognise the new inter-dependencies of nations and no nation is an island into itself.
We need a global safety net so that the poor of the world do not pay a price for the profligacy of the rich, and the delinquency of a few. Global problems require global solutions. This is the most important lesson of the past century for the present century. But global institutions of governance must be made more inclusive and more representative. The voice of the developing world must be heard in the high councils of global decision-making.

Jennifer Morgan

After two weeks of climate negotiations, bleary-eyed ministers, negotiators, and advocates are headed back home to the various regions around the world. Few, if any, are leaving entirely satisfied.
The pace of progress on climate change is still too slow and the political will for greater ambition remains elusive. This year’s talks took place against the backdrop of two disturbing trends. On the one hand, there are multiple signs that climate change is here and its impacts are already being felt around the world. On the other hand, the world remains tied to the consumption of fossil fuels that drive more and more greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. With each passing day that we don’t shift directions, we are increasingly locking ourselves into more unstable climate future.
The real question is: Can the international talks have a real impact on climate change?

Niall Ferguson

corner-image_158_267_c1Paradigm shifts don’t happen every other year. They are slow, because even when a new insight is right — dazzlingly right in hindsight — vested interests and other forms of inertia resist its adoption. The same is true for big political discontinuities. They just don’t happen that often.
There are six slow-acting drivers of historical change in our time, as in most of recorded history. A common error is to focus on only one. They are:
1. Technological innovation;
2. The spread of ideas and institutions;
3. The tendency of even good political systems to degenerate;
4. Demographics;
5. Supplies of essential commodities;
6. Climate change.
The hardest question to answer is whether the two dominant powers of the age, America and China, will be able to maintain “co-evolution”. Will it be Chimerica — or “Cool War”? Or blazing hot war?

Gordon Brown

Global problems need global solutions.gordon-brown

  • The pre-eminent international issue is whether we can develop a level of global cooperation that matches the global dimension of our problems.
  • Our world is more interdependent than ever.
  • The five great economic and social challenges of our time — all global in nature, all requiring coordinated action, all matters on which the world community has been called upon to act but has failed to do so effectively:
    1. The failure to coordinate global finance
    2. The failure to coordinate global action on climate change
    3. The failure to coordinate growth strategy
    4. The failure to secure a world trade agreement
    5. The failure to deliver the millennium development goals

    In five central areas where policy coordination is essential, the world has not moved forward with sufficient force.

  • Where are the powerful, globally minded voices that can do something about this?
  • Problems may be increasingly global but politics remains local – some problems are beyond the control of one country’s leadership.
  • International institutions built in 1945 are now wholly inadequate for the challenges of a global economy.
  • Without diminishing the vitality of our national identities, we are on the way to creating the first global system of governance.



Greg Scott

PoorJapanThe Japanese government encouraged its people, especially those from poor rural areas, to move abroad in the early years of the 20th century to work. There were few jobs in Japan for those workers, and opportunities in the farms and coffee plantations of South America were plenty.
After they left Japan’s shores, they were pretty much forgotten. They came to call themselves kimin (i.e., abandoned people). However, Japan remembered them when there was a domestic labor shortage in the late 1980′s. She welcomed them back with open arms, allowing anyone from these designated countries with a certain amount of Japanese blood to obtain Japanese citizenship.
A majority of the returning dekasegi took up work in factory towns, especially in Hamamatsu and Nagoya. They worked unskilled, low-paying jobs Japanese people didn’t want. Although invited to Japan to work, they found themselves very unwelcome in many of the local communities in which they settled. They faced intense discrimination and found it difficult to become integrated into Japanese society.

Belfast Telegraph

PoorIrelandMore than 200,000 children in Ireland are living below the poverty line while 500 vulnerable youngsters were recorded as homeless on Census night.
Charities have demanded Government action after official figures revealed almost a fifth of households with children were struggling to survive below the breadline – and warned the rate would soar to 38% without family allowances.
The income of households with children also fell four times more than childless households between 2009 and 2010, found the latest survey on income and living conditions by the Central Statistics Office (CSO).




Localization is the process of adapting the text and applications of a product or service to enable its acceptability for a particular cultural or linguistic market. Translation is the central activity of localization. Localization goes beyond literal translation, in addition to idiomatic language translation, numerous locale details such as currency, national regulations and holidays, cultural sensitivities, product or service names, gender roles, and geographic examples among many other details must all be considered. A successfully localized service or product is one that seems to have been developed within the local culture.
Internationalization is planning and implementing products and services so that they can easily be localized for specific languages and cultures. This process requires a combination of both international and technical expertise, and generally involves both deploying new systems and reengineering existing ones. Once the internationalized platform is in place, rollouts in new countries or cultures should be significantly more cost efficient, timely and market effective.
Globalization is an approach to business strategy that aims to address all of the logistical and organizational challenges an enterprise faces as it expands its supporting content, assets and message across cultures and markets to new clients.

Union pour un Mouvement Populaire

Un nouveau monde est en train de naître, avec ses menaces et ses opportunités. Il s’agit d’ouvrir un nouveau chemin pour la France, en ayant à cœur l’exigence de vérité. Pas de faire « rêver » les Français avec des promesses coûteuses qui conduiraient à la ruine.
La France peut relever les défis du 21ème siècle ; les Français peuvent gagner dans la mondialisation. Pour cela, il faut produire plus et dépenser moins ; mettre la priorité sur l’éducation et l’innovation.
Le modèle français peut être sauvegardé ; la liberté, l’égalité, la fraternité, mais aussi la sécurité et la laïcité peuvent être défendues face aux remises en cause. Pour cela, il faut réaffirmer avec autorité l’équilibre des droits et des devoirs, en toutes circonstances.


五〇〇年におよぶ近代資本主義を駆動させてきた諸条件は、現在、急速に失効しつつある。交易条件しかり、海外市場の開拓しかり、人口増加しかり。そしてこれらのことは、決して一過性の問題ではなく、中世封建社会の崩壊と匹敵するような局面にわれわれは立たされているというのが、… 共通した認識だと思う。

Ronald Dore

Discussions of globalisation centre on one of the following aspects:

  1. How integrated global markets really are.
  2. Globalisation as a process eroding the sovereignty of nation-states, reducing their autonomy in making economic policy.
  3. The consequences of globalisation for the distribution of income among the world’ s population, both within and among nations.
  4. The problematic growth of a transnational “world society” and international governance.
  5. The interaction of national economic, political, military and cultural power, and the possibility and desirability of retaining distinctive national institutions, embodying distinctive national value preferences and cultures.



Michael Roberts

The ‘democratisation of finance’ is yet another illusion from the apologists of capital, just like the ‘shareholding democracy’ (where the top 10% of US households own over 80% of share wealth), or a ‘country of home owners’ (look where that got America!)

Marc Bloch

Quelque riche en enseignement que soit l’étude des dernières invasions, il ne faudrait pas cependant laisser ses leçons nous masquer un fait plus considérable encore : l’arrêt des invasions elles-mêmes. Jusque-là ces ravages par des hordes venues du dehors et ces grands remuements de peuples avaient véritablement donné sa trame à l’histoire de l’Occident, comme à celle du reste du monde. Dorénavant, l’occident en sera exempt. A la différence, ou peu s’en fait, du reste du monde. Ni les Mongols, ni les Turcs ne devaient faire plus tard qu’effleurer ses frontières. Il aura certes ses discordes ; mais en vase clos. D’où la possibilité d’une évolution culturelle et sociale beaucoup plus régulière, sans la brisure d’aucune attaque extérieure ni d’aucun afflux humain étranger. Voyez, par contraste, le destin de l’Indo-Chine où au XIV° siècle, la splendeur des Chams et des Khmers s’effondra sous les coups des envahisseurs annamites ou siamois. Voyez surtout, plus près de nous, l’Europe orientale, foulée, jusqu’aux temps modernes, par les peuples de la steppe et les Turcs. Qu’on se demande, une minute, ce qu’eût été le sort de la Russie sans les Polovtsi et les Mongols. Il n’est pas interdit de penser que cette extraordinaire immunité dont nous n’avons guère partagé le privilège qu’avec le Japon, fut un des facteurs fondamentaux de la civilisation européenne, au sens profond, au sens juste du mot.





Peter Schiff

The U.S. economy is heading for an economic crash that will make 2008 look like a walk in the park. Stimulus programs can delay this day of reckoning, but only for so long and only at the expense of making the eventual meltdown much, much worse.
We’ve got a much bigger collapse coming, and not just of the markets but of the economy. It’s like what you’re seeing in Europe right now, only worse.


グローバリゼーションが起こると、仕事やお金が新興国に行ってしまいます。 財務、人事、ITサポート等の、パソコン、ネット、ある程度の知識があればできる仕事が移ってしまうのです。スキルを比較的短期間に身につけやすい仕事は、需要もあり、コストが安いところに流れます。理由として、IT化によりコミュニケーションコストが低くなったこと、物流コストが下がったこと、英語が共通言語となったためにコミュニケーションが容易になったことなどが挙げられます。








しかし、その前提が間違っているとしたらどうでしょう。これから来るのは、グローバル経済がますます不安定化して、各国による市場の取り合いが本格化する時代なのだとしたら? 急激な経済停滞から、途上国を中心に政情不安が各地で発生する時代なのだとしたら? 取るべき選択はおのずと違ったものにならざるを得ないでしょう。



Barry Grey

This type of gaming of the Libor and Euribor rates (as well as the Tokyo-based Tibor) was being carried out by virtually all of the major international banks. A dozen regulators around the world are investigating somewhere between 12 and 20 other banks, including HSBC, Royal Bank of Scotland, Deutsche Bank, Credit Suisse, UBS, JPMorgan Chase, Citigroup, Bank of America, Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi and Sumitomo Mitsui.

This, like so many other market mechanisms, is intrinsically corrupt and riddled with conflicts of interest.
Any claim that this cesspool of avarice and corruption can be “reformed” is the product of ignorance, self-delusion or deliberate deceit. The bankers who have committed fraud must be brought to justice and their illegally obtained fortunes seized and used to provide relief for the unemployed, the homeless and all those victimized by the financial mafia.
The fate of humanity, the rational and progressive allocation of resources to benefit the world’s inhabitants and prevent a further descent into social devastation, requires the expropriation of the banks by the working class and their transformation into public utilities democratically controlled and run in the interests of social need, not private profit.

Joe Nocera

Here in the early stages of the Libor scandal — and, yes, this thing is far from over — there are two big surprises.
The first is that the bankers, traders, executives and others involved would so openly and, in some cases, gleefully collude to manipulate this key interest rate for their own benefit. With all the seedy bank behavior that has been exposed since the financial crisis, it’s stunning that there’s still dirty laundry left to be aired. We’ve had predatory subprime lending, fraudulent ratings, excessive risk-taking and even clients being taken advantage of in order to unload toxic mortgages.
Yet even with these precedents, the Libor scandal still manages to shock. Libor — that’s the London interbank offered rate — represents a series of interest rates at which banks make unsecured loans to each other. More important, it is a benchmark that many financial instruments are pegged to. The Commodity Futures Trading Commission, which doggedly pursued the wrongdoing and brought the scandal to light, estimates that some $350 trillion worth of derivatives and $10 trillion worth of loans are based on Libor.

Nick Thompson

Generations of Britons have grown up pledging to “Remember remember the fifth of November: Gunpowder, treason and plot” — the figure of Guy Fawkes linked forever with fireworks, bonfires and childhood fun. … Now — more than four hundred years after the gruesome death of the man who plotted to blow up the Houses of Parliament with barrels of gunpowder — members of the Occupy and Anonymous movements are hoping to provide their own reason to remember Guy Fawkes Night.

Raghuram Rajan

In the past thirty years, financial systems around the world have undergone revolutionary change. People can borrow greater amounts at cheaper rates, invest in a multitude of instruments catering to every possible profile of risk and return, and share risks with strangers across the globe. Financial markets have expanded and deepened, and the typical transaction involves more players and is carried out at greater arm’s length.
At least three forces are behind these changes. Technical change has reduced the cost of communication and computation, as well as the cost of acquiring, processing, and storing information. Deregulation has removed artificial barriers preventing entry of new firms, and has encouraged competition between products, institutions, markets, and jurisdictions. And institutional change has created new entities within the financial sector—such as private equity firms and hedge funds—as well as new political, legal, and regulatory arrangements.

Thomas L. Friedman

Indeed, I heard a new word in London last week: “Popularism.”
It’s the über-ideology of our day. Read the polls, track the blogs, tally the Twitter feeds and Facebook postings and go precisely where the people are, not where you think they need to go. If everyone is “following”, who is leading?
And then there is the exposure factor. Anyone with a cellphone today is paparazzi; anyone with a Twitter account is a reporter; anyone with YouTube access is a filmmaker. When everyone is a paparazzi, reporter and filmmaker, everyone else is a public figure. And, if you’re truly a public figure — a politician — the scrutiny can become so unpleasant that public life becomes something to be avoided at all costs.

Xenia Dormandy

Vice President Joseph Biden has accused Republican presidential candidate Mitt Romney of being rooted in a “cold war mentality”, yet the current US government and its military, as well as those of its Asian-Pacific partners, are guilty of focusing far too much on the past and not looking at future threats. With these more likely to manifest as cyber-attacks, natural resource hoarding, and economic strangulation as opposed to traditional combat on the ground, the American response seems at best incomplete and at worst anachronistic.