We are in a time of eroding trust, as people realize that their contributions to a public space may be taken, monetized and potentially used to compete with them. When that erosion is complete, I worry that our digital public spaces might become even more polluted with untrustworthy content.
Already, artists are deleting their work from X, formerly known as Twitter, after the company said it would be using data from its platform to train its A.I. Hollywood writers and actors are on strike partly because they want to ensure their work is not fed into A.I. systems that companies could try to replace them with. News outlets including The New York Times and CNN have added files to their website to help prevent A.I. chatbots from scraping their content.
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The Department for Agriculture has said a report outlining a 200,000 reduction in dairy cows was a “modelling document”.
It was reported yesterday the cows would have to be “culled” at a cost of €600,000 to taxpayers over the next three years to meet climate emissions targets.
The Farming Independent said it got the figures in its report from an internal document through a freedom of information request.
A spokesperson for the Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine said: “The Paper referred to was part of a deliberative process – it is one of a number of modelling documents considered by the Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine and is not a final policy decision.
“As part of the normal work of Government Departments, various options for policy implementation are regularly considered.”
Ireland’s Agriculture sector was directly responsible for 38% of national Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) emissions in 2021 according to the Environmental Protection Agency.
The real psychological truth is this: If you’ve got nothing to hide, you are nothing.
Work is meaningful and fun when it’s an expression of your true core.
Every century or so, fundamental changes in the nature of consumption create new demand patterns that existing enterprises can’t meet.
Earlier generations of machines decreased the complexity of tasks. In contrast, information technologies can increase the intellectual content of work at all levels. Work comes to depend on an ability to understand, respond to, manage, and create value from information.
A filter bubble is the intellectual isolation that can occur when websites make use of algorithms to selectively assume the information a user would want to see, and then give information to the user according to this assumption. Websites make these assumptions based on the information related to the user, such as former click behavior, browsing history, search history and location. For that reason, the websites are more likely to present only information that will abide by the user’s past activity. A filter bubble, therefore, can cause users to get significantly less contact with contradicting viewpoints, causing the user to become intellectually isolated.
Personalized search results from Google and personalized news stream from Facebook are two perfect examples of this phenomenon.
Humans are not wired to react dispassionately to information. Numbers and statistics are necessary and wonderful for uncovering the truth, but they’re not enough to change beliefs, and they are practically useless for motivating action. This is true whether you are trying to change one mind or many—a whole room of potential investors or just your spouse. Consider climate change: there are mountains of data indicating that humans play a role in warming the globe, yet 50 percent of the population does not believe it. Consider politics: no number will convince a hardcore Republican that a Democratic president has advanced the nation, and vice versa. What about health? Hundreds of studies demonstrate that exercise is good for you and people believe this to be so, yet this knowledge fails miserably at getting many to step on a treadmill.
In fact, the tsunami of information we are receiving today can make us even less sensitive to data because we’ve become accustomed to finding support for absolutely anything we want to believe with a simple click of the mouse. Instead, our desires are what shape our beliefs; our need for agency, our craving to be right, a longing to feel part of a group. It is those motivations we need to tap into to make a change, whether within ourselves or in others.
Information manipulation and false content has been perceived and defined differently over time. In the Arab media context, fake news is not a new dilemma, and is more likely to be used as an instrument of content control, influence and public opinion manipulation. This is related to the issue of news dis/misinformation. Audience trust and credibility in Arab media outlets – especially government-owned – is at an all-time low (under 20 percent in various countries). Controlling fake news is becoming a primary concern for the Arab media industry. Source verification and managing organisational resources is an acute dilemma. Using Artificial Intelligence (AI), machine learning and NLP to automate the process of identifying fake news is looked upon as the cornerstone to separate the ’truth’ from ‘fake’ in the news field. This study aims at assessing the efforts of the Al Jazeera network in controlling fake news in its newsrooms. The study is based on qualitative structured and semi-structured interviews with Al Jazeera newsroom teams and artificial intelligence technology developers. The results showed a variety of efforts being conducted by various Al Jazeera teams to control fake content and prevent Al Jazeera content from being misused. They also showed the importance of the role of artificial intelligence, especially anticipation technologies, in detecting fake sources and managing newsroom operation.
What are the potential negative effects of social media on health?
Anxiety and depression
The unrealistic expectations set by social media may leave young people with feelings of self-consciousness, low self-esteem and the pursuit of perfectionism which can manifest as anxiety disorders. Use of social media, particularly operating more than one social media account simultaneously, has also been shown to be linked with symptoms of social anxiety.
Drawing on research findings it identifies the potential negative impacts of social media on health as: anxiety and depression, sleep, body image, cyber bullying and fear of missing out. Sleep
Sleep and mental health are tightly linked. Poor mental health can lead to poor sleep and poor sleep can lead to states of poor mental health. Sleep is particularly important for teens and young adults due to this being a key time for development.
Numerous studies have shown that increased social media use has a significant association with poor sleep quality in young people. Body image
Body image is an issue for many young people, both male and female, but particularly females in their teens and early twenties. As many as nine in 10 teenage girls say they are unhappy with their body.
There are 10 million new photographs uploaded to Facebook alone every hour, providing an almost endless potential for young women to be drawn into appearance-based comparisons whilst online. Studies have shown that when young girls and women in their teens and early twenties view Facebook for only a short period of time, body image concerns are higher compared to non-users. Cyberbullying
Bullying during childhood is a major risk factor for a number of issues including mental health, education and social relationships, with long-lasting effects often carried right through to adulthood. The rise of social media has meant that children and young people are in almost constant contact with each other. The school day is filled with face-to-face interaction, and time at home is filled with contact through social media platforms. There is very little time spent uncontactable for today’s young people. While much of this interaction is positive, it also presents opportunities for bullies to continue their abuse even when not physically near an individual. The rise in popularity of instant messaging apps such as Snapchat and WhatsApp can also become a problem as they act as rapid vehicles for circulating bullying messages and spreading images. Fear of Missing Out (FoMO)
The concept of the ‘Fear of Missing Out’ (FoMO) is a relatively new one and has grown rapidly in popular culture since the advent and rise in popularity of social media.
In June 2019, the New York Times reported that the US launched cyberattacks into the Russian power grid.
According to the newspaper, US military hackers used American computer code to target the grid as a response to the Kremlin’s disinformation campaign, hacking attempts during the 2018 midterm elections and suspicions of Russia hacking the energy sector.
The story was condemned by President Trump, who said it was fake news, and experts, while the Kremlin said it was a possibility.
According to the 2018 National Defence Authorisation Act, government hackers are permitted to carry out “clandestine military activities” to protect the country and its interests.
The Internet Society supports and promotes the development of the Internet as a global technical infrastructure, a resource to enrich people’s lives, and a force for good in society.
Our work aligns with our goals for the Internet to be open, globally connected, secure, and trustworthy. We seek collaboration with all who share these goals.
Together, we focus on:
Building and supporting the communities that make the Internet work;
Advancing the development and application of Internet infrastructure, technologies, and open standards; and
Advocating for policy that is consistent with our view of the Internet
An estimated 37 per cent of the world’s population – or 2.9 billion people – have still never used the Internet.
New data from the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), the United Nations specialized agency for information and communication technologies (ICTs), also reveal strong global growth in Internet use, with the estimated number of people who have used the Internet surging to 4.9 billion in 2021, from an estimated 4.1 billion in 2019.
This comes as good news for global development. However, ITU data confirm that the ability to connect remains profoundly unequal.
Of the 2.9 billion still offline, an estimated 96 per cent live in developing countries. And even among the 4.9 billion counted as ‘Internet users’, many hundreds of millions may only get the chance to go online infrequently, via shared devices, or using connectivity speeds that markedly limit the usefulness of their connection.
Transparent language is a formal, indeed, a purely machinic, operational language that harbors no ambivalence. Wilhelm von Humboldt already pointed to the fundamental intransparency that inhabits human language:
Nobody means by a word precisely and exactly what his neighbour does, and the difference, be it ever so small, vibrates, like a ripple in water, throughout the entire language. Thus all understanding is always at the same time a not-understanding, all concurrence in thought and feeling at the same time a divergence.
A world consisting only of information, where communication meant circulation without interference, would amount to a machine. The society of positivity is dominated by the “transparency and obscenity of information in a universe emptied of event.” Compulsion for transparency flattens out the human being itself, making it a functional element within a system. Therein lies the violence of transparency.
A deepfake is a type of ‘synthetic media,’ meaning media (including images, audio and video) that is either manipulated or wholly generated by AI. Technology has consistently made the manipulation of media easier and more accessible (ie through tools like Photoshop and Instagram filters). But recent advances in AI are going to take it further still, by giving machines the power to generate wholly synthetic media. This will have huge implications on how we produce content, and how we communicate and interpret the world. This technology is still nascent, but in a few years’ time anyone with a smartphone will be able to produce Hollywood-level special effects at next to no cost, with minimum skill or effort.
While this will have many positive applications – movies and computer games are going to become ever more spectacular – it will also be used as a weapon. When used maliciously as disinformation, or when used as misinformation, a piece of synthetic media is called a ‘deepfake’. This is my definition for the word. Because this field is still so new, there is still no consensus on the taxonomy. However, because there are positive as well as negative uses-cases for synthetic media, I single distinguish a ‘deepfake’ specifically as any synthetic media that is used for mis- and disinformation purposes.
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The COVID-19 pandemic has simultaneously proved the life-and-death importance of local journalism in our democracy and accelerated the destruction of the free press at a scale that only Congress can reverse.
During the novel coronavirus outbreak, readership of The Seattle Times and newspapers nationwide is at an all-time high, but with plummeting advertising revenue. So many papers have laid off staff that journalism enterprises are in danger of not being able to provide the necessary local coverage vital to community connection just when it is most needed: in the midst of a national health and economic crisis.
While the newspaper industry has been struggling with a changing business model precipitated by digital news and advertising platforms, it still has a crucial role to play. When stay-home orders hit, advertisers closed their shops and canceled advertising that supported local newsroom jobs.
Employees at the Swedish unit of the German travel conglomerate TUI are volunteering to have a microchip implanted in their hands. The technology literally opens doors, but also raises numerous ethical questions.
One of the most significant technologies being targeted by the intelligence services is encryption.
Online, encryption surrounds us, binds us, identifies us. It protects things like our credit card transactions and medical records, encoding them so that — unless you have the key — the data appears to be meaningless nonsense.
Encryption is one of the elemental forces of the web, even though it goes unnoticed and unremarked by the billions of people that use it every day.
But that doesn’t mean that the growth in the use of encryption isn’t controversial.
For some, strong encryption is the cornerstone of security and privacy in any digital communications, whether that’s for your selfies or for campaigners against an autocratic regime.
Others, mostly police and intelligence agencies, have become increasingly worried that the absolute secrecy that encryption provides could make it easier for criminals and terrorists to use the internet to plot without fear of discovery.
As such, the outcome of this war over privacy will have huge implications for the future of the web itself.
The U.S. National Security Agency sought the Japanese government’s cooperation in 2011 over wiretapping fiber-optic cables carrying phone and Internet data across the Asia-Pacific region, but the request was rejected.
The agency’s overture was apparently aimed at gathering information on China given that Japan is at the heart of optical cables that connect various parts of the region. But Tokyo turned down the proposal, citing legal restrictions and a shortage of personnel.
The NSA asked Tokyo if it could intercept personal information from communication data passing through Japan via cables connecting it, China and other regional areas, including Internet activity and phone calls.
Faced with China’s growing presence in the cyberworld and the need to bolster information about international terrorists, the United States may have been looking into whether Japan, its top regional ally, could offer help similar to that provided by Britain.
Today, this global surveillance system continues to grow. It now collects so much digital detritus — e-mails, calls, text messages, cellphone location data and a catalog of computer viruses — that the N.S.A. is building a 1-million-square-foot facility in the Utah desert to store and process it.
Global mass surveillance refers to the mass surveillance of entire populations across national borders. Its roots can be traced back to the middle of the 20th century when the UKUSA Agreement was jointly enacted by the United Kingdom and the United States, which later expanded to Canada, Australia, and New Zealand to create the present Five Eyes alliance. The alliance developed cooperation arrangements with several “third-party” nations. Eventually, this resulted in the establishment of a global surveillance network, code-named “ECHELON” (1971).
Its existence, however, was not widely acknowledged by governments and the mainstream media until the global surveillance disclosures by Edward Snowden triggered a debate about the right to privacy in the Digital Age.
Please remember, the information that we are providing is extremely fluid, it is changing on a daily basis, and often getting superseded.What we present here today may very likely be irrelevant or incorrect tomorrow. As such, please know that it is only accurate as of today (certainly not going forward) and that even as of today the information is only our best understanding based on how we have reviewed/interpreted the information.
The company is one of the biggest mistakes in modern history, a digital cesspool that, while calamitous when it fails, is at its most dangerous when it works as intended. Facebook is an ant farm of humanity.
(“Lurking” doesn’t just highlight the internet’s problems, it also voices her hope for an alternative future. In her final chapter, titled “Accountability,” McNeil compares a healthy internet to a “public park: a space for all, a benefit to everyone; a space one can enter or leave, and leave without a trace.” Or maybe the internet should be more like a library, “a civic and independent body … guided by principles of justice, rights and human dignity,” where “everyone is welcome … just for being.”)
There is a tradition in China (and likely much of the world) for local authorities not to report bad news to their superiors. During the Great Leap Forward, local officials reported exaggerated harvest yields even as millions were starving. More recently, officials in Henan Province denied there was an epidemic of AIDS spread through unsanitary blood collection practices.
Indeed, even when Beijing urges greater attention to scientific reality, compliance is mixed.
Clearly this doesn’t affect me as much because people assume it’s not actually me in a porno, however demeaning it is. I think it’s a useless pursuit, legally, mostly because the internet is a vast wormhole of darkness that eats itself. There are far more disturbing things on the dark web than this, sadly. I think it’s up to an individual to fight for their own right to the their image, claim damages, etc. …
The Internet is just another place where sex sells and vulnerable people are preyed upon. And any low level hacker can steal a password and steal an identity. It’s just a matter of time before any one person is targeted. …
People think that they are protected by their internet passwords and that only public figures or people of interest are hacked. But the truth is, there is no difference between someone hacking my account or someone hacking the person standing behind me on line at the grocery store’s account. It just depends on whether or not someone has the desire to target you. …
Obviously, if a person has more resources, they may employ various forces to build a bigger wall around their digital identity. But nothing can stop someone from cutting and pasting my image or anyone else’s onto a different body and making it look as eerily realistic as desired. There are basically no rules on the internet because it is an abyss that remains virtually lawless, withstanding US policies which, again, only apply here.
These data flows empty into surveillance capitalists’ computational factories, called “artificial intelligence,” where they are manufactured into behavioral predictions that are about us, but they are not for us. Instead, they are sold to business customers in a new kind of market that trades exclusively in human futures. Certainty in human affairs is the lifeblood of these markets, where surveillance capitalists compete on the quality of their predictions. This is a new form of trade that birthed some of the richest and most powerful companies in history.
In order to achieve their objectives, the leading surveillance capitalists sought to establish unrivaled dominance over the 99.9 percent of the world’s information now rendered in digital formats that they helped to create. Surveillance capital has built most of the world’s largest computer networks, data centers, populations of servers, undersea transmission cables, advanced microchips, and frontier machine intelligence, igniting an arms race for the 10,000 or so specialists on the planet who know how to coax knowledge from these vast new data continents.
Greta Thunberg has rapidly risen to international fame as a 16-year-old activist rallying global youth against the menace of climate change.
But before she had the attention of the world’s leaders and news editors, Thunberg relied on a public relations expert to help popularize her narrative.
Ingmar Rentzhog, the Swedish founder and CEO of We Don’t Have Time, a startup social network for climate activism, has said he is the one who “discovered” Thunberg. He first promoted her brand last August in a Facebook and Instagram post that went viral, racking up 14,000 likes and nearly 6,000 shares.
These days, the very word “data” elicits fear and suspicion in many of us — and with good reason. DNA-testing companies are sharing genetic information with the government. A firm hired by the Trump campaign gained access to the private information of 50 million Facebook users. Hotels, hospitals, and a consumer credit reporting agency have admitted to major breaches. But while many of us are rightfully concerned about the misuse of our personal data by private entities, we should be just as worried about the important national stories that aren’t told when our fellow citizens don’t feel secure enough to share theirs with researchers.
Part of the reason so many of us are nervous about our data and who has access to it is that pieces of our data can be combined to paint a detailed picture of our lives: how much money we make, what we’re interested in, what car we drive. But in a similar way, individual experiences become data points in sets that shape our understanding of what’s happening in this country.
While rich medical, behavioral, and socio-demographic data are key to modern data-driven research, their collection and use raise legitimate privacy concerns. Anonymizing datasets through de-identification and sampling before sharing them has been the main tool used to address those concerns. We here propose a generative copula-based method that can accurately estimate the likelihood of a specific person to be correctly re-identified, even in a heavily incomplete dataset. On 210 populations, our method obtains AUC scores for predicting individual uniqueness ranging from 0.84 to 0.97, with low false-discovery rate. Using our model, we find that 99.98% of Americans would be correctly re-identified in any dataset using 15 demographic attributes. Our results suggest that even heavily sampled anonymized datasets are unlikely to satisfy the modern standards for anonymization set forth by GDPR and seriously challenge the technical and legal adequacy of the de-identification release-and-forget model.
Big Data is defined by the following six features:
1. Highly scalable analytics processes – Big Data platforms have become popular due in large part to their ability to scale. The amount of data that they can analyze without a degradation in performance is virtually unlimited. This is what sets these tools apart from traditional methods of investigating data, such as basic SQL queries.
2. Flexibility – Big Data is flexible data. Whereas in the past all of your data might have been stored in a specific type of database using consistent data structures, today’s datasets come in many forms. Effective analytics strategies are designed to be highly flexible and to handle any type of data that is thrown at them. Fast data transformation is an essential part of Big Data, as is the ability to work with unstructured data.
3. Real-time results – Traditionally, organizations could afford to wait for data analytics results. In the world of Big Data, however, maximizing value means gaining insights in real time. After all, when you are using Big Data for tasks like fraud detection, results received after the fact are of little value.
4. Machine learning applications – Machine learning is not the only way to leverage Big Data. It is, however, an increasingly important application in the Big Data world. Machine learning use cases set Big Data apart from traditional data, which was very rarely used to power machine learning.
5. Scale-out storage systems – Traditionally, data was stored on conventional tape and disk drives. Today, Big Data often relies on software-defined scale-out storage systems that abstract data away from the underlying storage hardware. Of course, not all Big Data is stored on modern storage platforms, which is why the ability to move data quickly between traditional storage and next-generation storage remains important for Big Data applications.
6. Data quality – Data quality is important in any context. With the increasing complexity of Big Data, however, has come greater attention to the importance of ensuring data quality within complex data sets and analytics operations. Attention to data quality is a core feature of any effective Big Data workflow.
I like to distinguish between intelligence and consciousness. Intelligence is a matter of the behavioral capacities of these systems: what they can do, what outputs they can produce given their inputs. When it comes to intelligence, the central question is, given some problems and goals, can you come up with the right means to your ends? If you can, that is the hallmark of intelligence. Consciousness is more a matter of subjective experience. You and I have intelligence, but we also have subjectivity; it feels like something on the inside when we have experiences. That subjectivity — consciousness — is what makes our lives meaningful. It’s also what gives us moral standing as human beings.
In this age of fake news, facts aren’t necessarily the answer. The news is embedded within a broad political spectrum, and acknowledging the slants from the messages we receive is more powerful than grasping for facts.
The media is biased; it is funded by advertisers and run by businessmen. Businesses have interests, the media has interests. … Conversations lose nuance and are skewed for the sake of survival.
It’s also no secret that news publications and television networks are politicized. … The news is not neutral — nothing is neutral.
Satellite data enables efficient mapping and monitoring of the Earth’s resources, ecosystems, and events. The information can be used for various scientific, administrative and commercial applications. Accurate information based on satellite data helps users to understand how we humans affect our cities and environments, which in turn enables data-based decisions and actions. Access to timely satellite data gives an opportunity to take action on what is going on right now, on large and small scales.
The use of satellite data helps governments and industries to share information, to make better decisions, to act on time and to provide improved or totally new services. The original raw satellite images contain data with parameters that can be interpreted via remote sensing software. The parameters can be then combined and verified, for example with spatial data, for further analysis. When activities, issues, changes, and trends can be detected, monitored and analysed more efficiently with satellite data, the benefits for people and environment can be tremendous.
Important applications serve the interests of agriculture, forestry, urban development, insurance, energy, and security-related operators and industries, among others. The volume of applications is huge, and it is rapidly increasing thanks to new innovations.
Synspective gathers broad and high frequency monitoring data from our own SAR satellite constellation and extracts information using machine learning technology to better enable decision-making and action by companies and governments,. The information has multiple benefits such as visualization and prediction of economic activity, monitoring of terrain and structures, and immediate understanding of disaster situations.
Since we’re deeply convinced that we need that data, yet it wasn’t there to be found, we went and created some instead. We would like to know about these unknowable things so badly, that we pretend there’s some fact about societal engagement ‘there’, which our surveys tap into.
Russia’s parliament approved a law that might allow the country to cordon off its internet from the rest of the world, creating an unprecedented “sovereign” internet.
If Russia is able to pull this off (a very big if), it will be the most tangible step yet toward fracturing the web.
This law will regulate how internet traffic moves through critical infrastructure for the internet. By November internet service providers will have to adopt new routing and filtering technology and grant regulators the authority to directly monitor and censor content it deems objectionable. But the real groundbreaker is the intent to create a national domain name system (DNS) by 2021, probably as a back-up to the existing global system that translates domain names into numerical addresses. If Russia builds a workable version and switches it on, traffic would not enter or leave Russia’s borders. In effect, it means turning on a standalone Russian internet, disconnected from the rest of the world.
In our age of digital connection and constantly online life, you might say that two political regimes are evolving, one Chinese and one Western, which offer two kinds of relationships between the privacy of ordinary citizens and the newfound power of central authorities to track, to supervise, to expose and to surveil.
The first regime is one in which your every transaction can be fed into a system of ratings and rankings, in which what seem like merely personal mistakes can cost you your livelihood and reputation, even your ability to hail a car or book a reservation. It’s one in which notionally private companies cooperate with the government to track dissidents and radicals and censor speech; one in which your fellow citizens act as enforcers of the ideological consensus, making an example of you for comments you intended only for your friends; one in which even the wealth and power of your overlords can’t buy privacy.
The second regime is the one they’re building in the People’s Republic of China.
Most of the administration’s case for that war made absolutely no sense, specifically the notion that Saddam Hussein was allied with Osama bin Laden. That one from the get-go rang all the bells — a secular Arab dictator allied with a radical Islamist whose goal was to overthrow secular dictators and reestablish his Caliphate? The more we examined it, the more it stank. The second thing was rather than relying entirely on people of high rank with household names as sources, we had sources who were not political appointees. One of the things that has gone very wrong in Washington journalism is ‘source addiction,’ ‘access addiction,’ and the idea that in order to maintain access to people in the White House or vice president’s office or high up in a department, you have to dance to their tune. That’s not what journalism is about.
We had better sources than she (Judith Miller) did and we knew who her sources were. They were political appointees who were making a political case.
I first met him (Ahmed Chalabi) in ’95 or ’96. I wouldn’t get dressed in the morning based on what he told me the weather was, let alone go to war.
Deep learning is a subset of what we call Artificial Intelligence. I would say that AI is about developing machines (computers, smartphones, websites, robots) able to perform tasks that normally require human intelligence, thanks to algorithms mixing mathematics and computer science. It can be seen as a science of automation that can affect many industries. It is like a science of automation that applies to any type of industry.
Deep learning is a family of algorithms in artificial intelligence inspired by the interactions between neurons in the human brain, namely « neural networks ». It has recently boomed after outstanding results have been observed in applications such as image detection, natural language processing and speech recognition, sometimes exceeding the human-level performance.
I believe three fundamental problems explain why computational AI has historically failed to replicate human mentality in all its raw and electro-chemical glory, and will continue to fail.
First, computers lack genuine understanding. The Chinese Room Argument is a famous thought experiment by US philosopher John Searle that shows how a computer program can appear to understand Chinese stories (by responding to questions about them appropriately) without genuinely understanding anything of the interaction.
Second, computers lack consciousness. An argument can be made, one I call Dancing with Pixies, that if a robot experiences a conscious sensation as it interacts with the world, then an infinitude of consciousnesses must be everywhere: in the cup of tea I am drinking, in the seat that I am sitting on. If we reject this wider state of affairs – known as panpsychism – we must reject machine consciousness.
Lastly, computers lack mathematical insight. In his book The Emperor’s New Mind, Oxford mathematical physicist Roger Penrose argued that the way mathematicians provide many of the “unassailable demonstrations” to verify their mathematical assertions is fundamentally non-algorithmic and non-computational.
My formulation of what others have since called the “AI Effect”. As commonly quoted: Artificial Intelligence is whatever hasn’t been done yet.
What I actually said was: Intelligence is whatever machines haven’t done yet.
Many people define humanity partly by our allegedly unique intelligence.
Whatever a machine—or an animal—can do must (those people say) be something other than intelligence.