Category Archives: learning





Darwin’s Unfinished Symphony (Kevin N. Laland)

The first finding that jumped out at us was that it is possible to learn too much ! In the tournament, investing lots of time in learning was not at all effective. In fact, we found a strong negative correlation between the proportion of a strategy’s moves that were INNOVATE or OBSERVE, as opposed to EXPLOIT, and how well the strategy performed. Successful strategies spent only a small fraction of their time (5-10%) learning, and the bulk of their time caching in on what they had learned, through playing EXPLOIT. Only through playing EXPLOIT can a strategy directly accrue fitness. Hencem every time a strategy chooses to learn new behavior, be it through playing INNOVATE or OBSERVE, there is a cost corresponding to the payoff that would have been received had EXPLOIT been played instead. This implied that the way to get on in life was to do a very quick bit of learning and then EXPLOIT, EXPLOIT, EXPLOIT until you die. That is a sobering lesson for someone like myself who has spent his whole life in school or university.





[類語] あやす・なだめる・なだめすかす

Blockchain and Cryptocurrency

The question that I would pose to the SEC is, what else are you doing that so much more important than pursuing these large and obvious frauds, which are hitting many people who were basically mom and papa on Main Street, don’t understand what goes on in the world in crypto, and wanna catch a little piece of the magic. All rright. You know, they wanna be as rich as the people who got in on Bitcoin when it was a nickel, and it rose up to $20,000 only now to collapse doen to six. All right. They want a piece of that too, and many of them are losing everything as they’re chasing that dream.


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アレックス・ベアード(Alex Beard)



In mathematics and applied mathematics, perturbation theory comprises methods for finding an approximate solution to a problem, by starting from the exact solution of a related, simpler problem. A critical feature of the technique is a middle step that breaks the problem into “solvable” and “perturbative” parts. In perturbation theory, the solution is expressed as a power series in a small parameter ε. The first term is the known solution to the solvable problem. Successive terms in the series at higher powers of ε usually become smaller. An approximate ‘perturbation solution’ is obtained by truncating the series, usually by keeping only the first two terms, the solution to the known problem and the ‘first order’ perturbation correction.



 ゆく河の流れは絶えずして しかももとの水にあらず
 淀みに浮かぶうたかたは 久しくとどまりたるためしなし

 心にうつりゆくよしなしごとを そこはかとなく書きつくれば
 いでやこの世に生れては ねがはしかるべきことこそ多かめれ

 春はあけぼの 夏は夜
 秋は夕暮れ 冬はつとめて

百年経っても 千年経っても






一方で塩谷節山が活躍したのとほぼ同時期である1989年に出版された『少年文庫 第二集』の中には、「吉田丹三郎」の漢文である「晴耕雨読楼記」が掲載されています。「晴耕雨読楼記」にも「晴耕雨読」という文字があることから、この漢詩が語源になったという説を支持する意見も少なくありません。

Jean-Michel Jakobowicz

Timidité, hyperactivité, sentiment de rejet, peur du noir, cauchemars, stress de la rentrée… Entre 2 et 12 ans, les enfants rencontrent parfois des problèmes qui perturbent leur quotidien et celui de leur famille. Pour en venir à bout, Jean-Michel Jakobowicz les aborde sous l’angle de l’ hypnose. Cette méthode, qu’il pratique depuis des années, est particulièrement adaptée aux enfants et peut être facilement mise en oeuvre à la maison.
Une approche simple et douce pour aider vos enfants à mieux grandir !




中国ではe コマースが発達しておりショッピングなどの決済(支払い)はデジタル決済が当たり前となっています。現金を持たなくてもスマホがあればどこでも買い物や飲食が可能で、仮想通貨の取り扱い店舗も増加中です。それだけに人民銀行では将来法定通貨が消滅するのではないかと危惧しています。

Kate Murphy

When was the last time you listened to someone? Really listened, without thinking about what you wanted to say next, glancing down at your phone or jumping in to offer your opinion? And when was the last time someone really listened to you? Was so attentive to what you were saying and whose response was so spot on that you felt truly understood?
We are encouraged to listen to our hearts, our inner voices and our guts, but rarely are we encouraged to listen carefully and purposefully to other people. Instead, we talk over one another at cocktail parties, work meetings and even family dinners. Online and in person, it’s all about defining yourself, shaping the narrative and staying on message.
And yet, listening can be more valuable than speaking. Wars have been fought, fortunes lost and friendships wrecked for lack of listening. It is only by listening that we engage, understand, empathize, cooperate and develop as human beings. It is fundamental to any successful relationship — personal, professional and political.

David Thurman

In an age where the entire knowledge-base of the human race is at the tips of our fingers, there is no excuse for people to spread ideas based on their misunderstandings. We seem to be pushing the notion that everyone should have an opinion and everyone’s opinion matters. While this seems nice in theory, this concept is deeply flawed in the fact that not every opinion is backed by understanding. An informed opinion is the only opinion that has reason and comprehension behind it. As writer Harlan Ellison put it, “You are not entitled to your opinion. You are entitled to your informed opinion. No one is entitled to be ignorant.” Instead of telling everyone their opinion matters, perhaps we should instead tell them to ask themselves whether they deserve to have an opinion on the matter.

Harlan Ellison

Everybody has opinions: I have them, you have them. And we are all told from the moment we open our eyes, that everyone is entitled to his or her opinion. Well, that’s horsepuckey, of course. We are not entitled to our opinions; we are entitled to our informed opinions. Without research, without background, without understanding, it’s nothing. It’s just bibble-babble. It’s like a fart in a wind tunnel, folks.

David Thurman

Throughout any given day, we encounter thousands of machines and technologies. The inner workings and principles behind these machines are hidden from view. For instance, most people do not know how a plane’s design allows it to be aerodynamic while maintaining a certain altitude. The underlying principles behind how this machine was designed are hidden away. Despite this, most people still trust that a plane will fly us from destination A to B safely. We have had the inner workings of the plane abstracted away to the point that, unless we so desire, we do not deem it necessary to understand how it really works.

Gary Vaynerchuk

How many books from these ‘experts’ do you need to read before you can actually do something? You can only read so much and at some point, you just have to do. Stop being a student.


Whence things have their origin,
Thence also their destruction happens,
According to necessity;
For they give to each other justice and recompense
For their injustice
In conformity with the ordinance of Time.








A five-dimensional space is a space with five dimensions. If interpreted physically, that is one more than the usual three spatial dimensions and the fourth dimension of time used in relativitistic physics. It is an abstraction which occurs frequently in mathematics, where it is a legitimate construct. In physics and mathematics, a sequence of N numbers can be understood to represent a location in an N-dimensional space. Whether or not the universe is five-dimensional is a topic of debate.

Juan Ramos

The 5th dimension remains in debate but many believe it could represent an undefined or unknown dimension in space that is unknowable to humans. Einstein’s general theory of relativity defines the 4th dimension as time and another 5th dimension yet to be discovered.


Concrètement, il sera défini par le terme “anthropomorphisme” le fait d’attribuer des caractéristiques comportementales ou physiques propres aux humains à d’autres entités telles que des dieux, des objets, des phénomènes, des idées ou bien des animaux.



  㤅  哀  爱  悲  愛


  悲 哀 愛(爱) 㤅 惻 愴 悼 悽



Cambridge English Dictionary


[ U ] a situation in which you have a close friendship or sexual relationship with someone:

Intimacy between teachers and students is not recommended.

[ C usually plural ] things that are said or done only by people who have a close relationship with each other:

It was obvious from their witty intimacies that they had been good friends for many years.


美的なダメ出しをすることになんの理由があるのか? 良いものを選別すればいいのであって、だめなものは放っておけばいいのではないか? 答えは単純だ。われわれは、肯定的な批評も否定的な批評も両方必要としている。成功から学べるものと同じくらい失敗から学べることはある。




Écru désigne une matière qui n’a pas été préparée, spécialement un tissu qui n’a pas été blanchi ni teint, ou par analogie avec la couleur de la soie écrue ou du fil écrus, une couleur beige clair jaunâtre.
Au xixe siècle et auparavant, les teinturiers ne pouvaient garantir que les produits qu’ils utilisaient, tant pour le blanchissage que pour le mordançage et la teinture, étaient inoffensifs, ni que les teintures pouvaient résister à un lavage poussé. Pour cette raison, les sous-vêtements étaient généralement écrus. La nuance d’un tissu écru, au sens cru, non préparé, est très variable.
Les fabricants de tissu fournissaient des échantillons de tissu écru.




Stephen Harrod Buhner

All organisms encounter a specific kind of environment from the moment they are born. And every one of them has to be able to percieve that environment, take in information about it, and process that information in order to survive. There are no organisms that can or do exist in complete isolation from their environment and there never can be.
In human beings, as in most animals, informational environmental inputs are processed through the sensory modalities all of us are familiar with: sight, sound, taste, touch, smell and feeling – which is similar to touch but different from emotion, i.e. How a place feels to you when you encounter it. (this is in fact a primary and sixth sense that all humans possess – we could not survive without it.)

Enchanted Learning

Without plants, there would have been no dinosaurs (or any other land animals).
Plants are at the base of the food web (also called the food chain). Plants convert solar energy (sunlight) into chemical energy, which animals can eat. Plants are called “producers” or autotrophs because of this; they produce the fundamental food energy that all animals use.
Another amazing thing that plants do is change the composition of the air. Plants actually changed the chemical makeup of the Earth’s atmosphere by giving off oxygen and absorbing carbon dioxide. They also contribute to erosion and the creation of soil. Also, since plants are stationary, they determine where plant-eating animals live.
The development of plants was closely tied to the fate of the dinosaurs. Since most dinosaurs were plant-eaters, the nature and amount of available plants dictated whether a plant-eating dinosaur would thrive or die (and indirectly, would even influence the fate of meat-eating dinosaurs). As plants evolved through the Mesozoic Era, their distribution changed drastically, leading to the demise of some dinosaurs and the rise of new types of dinosaurs.

教員 ひろこ


Le Parisien

  • VS : deux lettres pour Very Special, l’entrée de gamme que l’on trouve parfois sous l’appellation Trois Etoiles. Un armagnac composé de diverses eaux-de-vie, dont la plus jeune a été vieillie au moins deux ans. Autour de 15-20 € la bouteille.
  • VSOP : Very Special Old Pale, pour la présence d’une eau-de-vie vieillie au moins quatre ans.
  • XO : Extra Old, également appelé Napoléon pour l’export, avec une eau-de-vie d’au moins six ans.
  • Hors d’âge : un armagnac vieilli au moins dix ans.

Houyuan Lu, Jianping Zhang, Yimin Yang, Xiaoyan Yang, Baiqing Xu, Wuzhan Yang, Tao Tong, Shubo Jin, Caiming Shen, Huiyun Rao, Xingguo Li, Hongliang Lu, Dorian Q. Fuller, Luo Wang, Can Wang, Deke Xu, Naiqin Wu

Phytoliths and biomolecular components extracted from ancient plant remains from Chang’an (Xi’an, the city where the Silk Road begins) and Ngari (Ali) in western Tibet, China, show that the tea was grown 2100 years ago to cater for the drinking habits of the Western Han Dynasty (207BCE-9CE), and then carried toward central Asia by ca.200CE, several hundred years earlier than previously recorded. The earliest physical evidence of tea from both the Chang’an and Ngari regions suggests that a branch of the Silk Road across the Tibetan Plateau, was established by the second to third century CE.



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Warning: XXXXXX …




Amartya Sen

It is, in fact, arguable that economics has had two rather different origins, both related to politics, but related in rather different ways, concerned respectively with ‘ethics’, on the one hand, and with what may be called ‘engineering’, on the other.



Math Goodies

An experiment is a situation involving chance or probability that leads to results called outcomes.
An outcome is the result of a single trial of an experiment.
An event is one or more outcomes of an experiment.
Probability is the measure of how likely an event is.

In order to measure probabilities, mathematicians have devised the following formula for finding the probability of an event.
(Probability of an Event) = (the number of ways Event a can occur) / (the total number of possible Outcomes)

NASA Ozone Watch

ozoneEach year for the past few decades during the Southern Hemisphere spring, chemical reactions involving chlorine and bromine cause ozone in the southern polar region to be destroyed rapidly and severely. This depleted region is known as the “ozone hole”.
The area of the ozone hole is determined from a map of total column ozone. It is calculated from the area on the Earth that is enclosed by a line with a constant value of 220 Dobson Units. The value of 220 Dobson Units is chosen since total ozone values of less than 220 Dobson Units were not found in the historic observations over Antarctica prior to 1979. Also, from direct measurements over Antarctica, a column ozone level of less than 220 Dobson Units is a result of the ozone loss from chlorine and bromine compounds.

NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center Conceptual Image Lab

In the early 1990s, one thing was fairly certain about the expansion of the Universe. It might have enough energy density to stop its expansion and recollapse, it might have so little energy density that it would never stop expanding, but gravity was certain to slow the expansion as time went on. Granted, the slowing had not been observed, but, theoretically, the Universe had to slow. The Universe is full of matter and the attractive force of gravity pulls all matter together. Then came 1998 and observations of very distant supernovae that showed that, a long time ago, the Universe was actually expanding more slowly than it is today. So the expansion of the Universe has not been slowing due to gravity, as everyone thought, it has been accelerating. No one expected this, no one knew how to explain it. But something was causing it.
Eventually theorists came up with three sorts of explanations. Maybe it was a result of a long-discarded version of Einstein’s theory of gravity, one that contained what was called a “cosmological constant.” Maybe there was some strange kind of energy-fluid that filled space. Maybe there is something wrong with Einstein’s theory of gravity and a new theory could include some kind of field that creates this cosmic acceleration. Theorists still don’t know what the correct explanation is, but they have given the solution a name. It is called dark energy.


Windows 10 のロック画面に、見覚えのない美しい写真が表示される。「Windows スポットライト」という新機能。マイクロソフトがおすすめする画像をランダムに表示してくれる。壁紙とは違って常に鑑賞できるわけではないが、きれいな画像が表示されるのは悪くない。

高橋寿郎, 大阪市立自然史博物館

松村博士の研究材料を提供されていた人に鈴木元次郎氏があり、その頃各地を採集していたが、晩年は明石に花園昆虫研究所を開いておられ、私もその頃お伺いしたことがある (昭和15年頃)。氏はその後宝塚昆虫館にもおられた。


suzukiiDrosophila Suzukii: Originaire d’Asie du Sud-Est, cette petite mouche polyphage s’est répandue rapidement depuis quelques années à travers le monde. Repérée pour la première fois aux Etats-Unis en 2008, elle a été signalée ensuite en Europe en 2009, en Italie puis en Espagne. En 2010, elle a été repérée en France pour la première fois en Corse, puis en PACA, en Aquitaine, dans le Languedoc-Roussillon, en Midi-Pyrénées et en Rhône-Alpes. Depuis, l’insecte a continué son expansion, et une grande partie de la France est désormais concernée.

Tristan Gooley

naturalexplorerPractice improves our awareness, but awareness is also a state of mind, one that develops from a need or desire to register details. Having noticed something in our environment, we need to make a decision about how keen we are to think about it and consequently to remember it. Awareness and memory form two parts of our conscious experience, both of which are fed initially by our senses, but which then depend on our choice to hone them.

二瀬由理, 行場次朗

It is a well-known observation that when a Kanji character is viewed steadily and continuously, the viewer often becomes unable to recognize the Kanji as a whole pattern and it becomes difficult to judge whether or not the Kanji is orthographically correct. Such a phenomenon is called the “Gestaltzerfall” of Kanji characters.

David Z. Hambrick, Alexander P. Burgoyne

Are you intelligent — or rational? The question may sound redundant, but in recent years researchers have demonstrated just how distinct those two cognitive attributes actually are.
Irrationality — or “dysrationalia” — correlates relatively weakly with I.Q. A person with a high I.Q. is about as likely to suffer from dysrationalia as a person with a low I.Q.
If an I.Q. (intelligence quotient) test measures something like raw intellectual horsepower (abstract reasoning and verbal ability), a test of R.Q. (rationality quotient) would measure the propensity for reflective thought — stepping back from your own thinking and correcting its faulty tendencies.
There is evidence that rationality, unlike intelligence, can be improved through training.

Thorin Klosowski

The best productivity tricks used by evil dictators

  • Force difficult decisions on people when their willpower is weak
  • Create a “five-year plan” for personal goals
  • Purge threats to your power
  • Embrace your “cult of personality”
  • Give direct, powerful speeches
  • Learn from experiences, not books



Christophe Guilluy

Le concept de France périphérique est souvent mal interprété.
La «France périphérique» recouvre des espaces urbains, ruraux, périurbains, des petites villes, des villes moyennes, des villes-centres et des périphéries ! L’opposition France des métropoles et France périphérique qui est de nature géographique ne recouvre donc que partiellement la répartition sociale. Il y a des populations «fragiles» dans les deux types d’espaces.

Dominic Martin

A government debt is the debt owned by a government in the form of bonds, securities or bills, or in the form of direct loans made to other states and supranational organizations. There is widespread belief among political decision makers, the general public, and finance scholars that such debt ought to be repaid, no matter what. One thinks, for example, of the recent Greek crisis and the strong position taken by the European Union under the leadership of Germany. Other examples include the restructuring of the Argentine debt in 2005, and the cases of many other debtor states of the World Bank or the International Monetary Fund (IMF).



GenealogyInTime Magazine

This is the official family tree of Charles II of Spain. Notice how unlike a normal family tree, it loops back on itself. Several people are related to each other in more than one way, which is not natural.

The Ancestry of King Charles II of Spain




小平駅前 3番のりば 青梅車庫前行 時刻表

平日 休日
06:   35
07:   11   48
08:   24
09:   19   49
12:   18
15:   19
17:   30
18:   38
08:   26
10:   18
18:   07 (大和操車所行)



  • 大根の辛み成分ジアスターゼ
  • 長いものムチン
  • 鶏肉のたんぱく質、抗酸化成分
  • ヨーグルトの乳酸菌
  • 茶そばのルチン、ビタミンA・C・E
  • 小松菜のクロロフィル、ビタミンA・C・E
  • 納豆のイソフラボン、ビタミンK2
  • 梅干しのクエン酸、特効成分
  • にらの硫化アリル、ビタミンA・C・E
  • にんにくの硫化アリル




Before the accident, there was a basic assumption in Japan that the design of NPPs and the safety measures that had been put in place were sufficiently robust to withstand external events of low probability and high consequences.
Because of the basic assumption that NPPs in Japan were safe, there was a tendency for organizations and their staff not to challenge the level of safety. The reinforced basic assumption among the stakeholders about the robustness of the technical design of NPPs resulted in a situation where safety improvements were not introduced promptly.
The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP showed that, in order to better identify plant vulnerabilities, it is necessary to take an integrated approach that takes account of the complex interactions between people, organizations and technology.


blueberryブルーベリー   樹があまり大きくならず、和洋どちらの庭にも適する樹形で、春には釣り鐘状の魅力的な花が咲き、夏には果実、秋には真っ赤な紅葉と、1年を通じて楽しめます。今では「ベリーの王様」として、フルーツとしての利用以外にも、ガーデニング素材としても広く親しまれています。

Idris Fassassi

One concluding remark should be made about the arrest warrant issued against Omar Al Bashir in 2009 at the request of Luis Moreno-Ocampo. It is not a remark from a brilliant World Chess Champion, but rather a piece of wisdom possessed by the king in Saint-Exupéry’s Le Petit Prince. By requesting an arrest warrant against a sitting President, the Prosecutor sent a powerful signal of his commitment to fight impunity. In actuality, however, the arrest warrant led to the radicalization of the conflict, the forced departure of NGOs in the field, and the strengthening of the sentiment that ICC prosecutions were skewed against African states. Moreover, after four years, President Al Bashir remains in power. Each day that he spends in office is a defeat for the Court. Each day that he manages to spend abroad is an affront to the Prosecutor. It illustrates her weaknesses and demonstrates that she cannot checkmate her opponent. One could of course argue that issuing the arrest warrant was the “right” decision, that international criminal law is precisely about doing what may look impossible, that the Prosecutor should not abdicate in front of difficulty or that President Al Bashir is becoming more and more isolated. Maybe. But maybe the Prosecutor simply made his move too early. Maybe he should have followed the advice offered by the King in Saint Exupéry’s novel, “[use your] science of government and wait until conditions are favorable.



  • 頭部をパンチ状、または遠目から角刈かと誤認される短髪に施す例が多い
  • 豹柄の服を着ている
  • ウェストにくびれがなく、むしろスリーサイズの中でウェストが最大である
  • 会話中に「いや~ん」を連呼する習癖を持ち、加えて互いに声が大きいのを誇る
  • 「激安」「タダ」という言葉にめっちゃ弱い
  • 人のものを見て『なんぼしたん』と聞く
  • 安く買った値段を自慢する
  • 機械のお知らせ(ピー♪)にはかならずお返事「はいはいはいはい」
  • 雨天でも自転車に載って出撃できるよう、道路交通法を無視してでも自転車へ傘を立てる武具(通称サスベー)を必ず装備している。道交法より何より、自分優先の傾向が強くて「そんなもん、いちいち知らんわ」などと吐き捨てる
  • 他人の話に『ウソッ』と大げさに相槌をうつ
  • 「あんたやから言うけどな」と言いながら皆に同じ話
  • ただで配っているティッシュは行きと帰りで2個もらう(実際は行きだけで4個以上もらう)
  • 大阪のおばちゃんのバッグには必ず飴玉が入っているともいわれる
  • 見知らぬ人にあめをあげる


「生物的な快楽」とは、おいしいものを食べたり、セックスをしたときに得られる直接的な快楽です。「報酬的な快楽」とは、農作物を育てたり受験勉強をするなど、ある目的を達成するため努力しているときに得られる快楽です。ランナーズハイなどもこれに当たります。そして、報酬的な快楽のほうが、直接的な快楽より強いんです。よく、「ゲームにハマっていてご飯を食べるのを忘れていた」ということがありますが、それは食欲によって得られる快楽をゲームが代替しているからなんですね。そして、こうした報酬的な快楽のなかでも特に強いのが“自分語りの快楽”です。SNS などで自分の行動や考えを書くと世界中の人から「いいね!」などと肯定されます。こうした社会的報酬はセックスの快楽よりもすごく大きい。今は少子化が問題になっているので、本来ならばもっと性欲を発揮してもらわなければ困るのですが、現代はこうした強い快楽があるので、皆さんセックスをしなくなっているのではないでしょうか。



無料辞典, 二字熟語


Chris Martenson

  • Congress doesn’t have any money, so the request for additional spending gets passed over to the Treasury Department.
  • The Treasury Department, in order to raise cash, will print up a stack of Treasury bonds, which are the means by which the US government borrows money.
  • Treasury bonds are sold in regularly scheduled auctions, and the majority of these bonds are bought by big banks, such as those of China and Japan.
  • Money gets sent into the Treasury coffers, where it can be disbursed for the usual array of government programs.
  • When the Fed buys a Treasury bond from a bank, they simply transfer money in the amount of the bond to the bank and take possession of the bond.
  • This money comes out of thin air, as the Fed creates money when it ‘buys’ this debt. New Fed money is always exchanged for debt. – All dollars are backed by debt.
  • Each year enough new money must be loaned into existence to cover the interest payments on all of the past outstanding debt.
  • Perpetual expansion is a requirement of modern banking. The banking system must continually expand – simply because that is how it was designed.

Federal Reserve Bank of Boston

When you or I write a check there must be sufficient funds in our account to cover the check, but when the Federal Reserve writes a check there is no bank deposit on which that check is drawn. When the Federal Reserve writes a check, it is creating money.







Robert McNeel

Why does VBScript have Null, Nothing and Empty, and what are the differences between them?
When you declare a variable in VBScript, the variable’s value before the first assignment is undefined, or Empty.

Dim varValue ‘ Empty value

So basically, Empty says I am an uninitialized variant. If you need to detect whether a variable actually is an empty variant and not a string or a number, you can use IsEmpty. Alternatively, you could use TypeName or VarType, but I prefer IsEmpty.
Nothing is similar to Empty but subtly different. Empty says I am an uninitialized variant, Nothing says I am an object reference that refers to no object. Objects are assigned to variables using the Set statement. Since the equality operator on objects checks for equality on the default property of an object, any attempt to say:

If varValue = Nothing Then

is doomed to failure – Nothing does not have a default property, so this will produce a run-time error. To check to see if an object reference is invalid, use:

If varValue Is Nothing Then

Null is more obscure. The semantics of Null are very poorly understood, particularly amongst people who have little experience with programming. Empty says I’m an uninitialized variant, Nothing says I’m an invalid object and Null says I represent a value which is not known. Null is not True, not False, but Null! The correct way to check for Null is much as you’d do for Empty: use IsNull (or TypeName or VarType.)


Does “nothing” exist?
No, nothing does not exist, concretely. It’s an abstract thing. A name for the opposite of ‘everything’, that inevitably exists and whitout which, we could not live. Everything and nothing are clear opposites. Everything is relative, but nothing is not, everything has to exist, but nothing can not. Almost exactly like black and white, that are spectres. White is all light, while black is no light. Therefore you can say white and black are symbolic colours for everything and nothing.