Category Archives: Eurocentrism

Rwanda asylum plan (UK)

Under the five-year trial – first announced in April 2022 – some asylum seekers arriving in the UK would be sent to Rwanda for processing.
On arrival, they could be granted refugee status and allowed to stay. If not, they could apply to settle there on other grounds, or seek asylum in another “safe third country”.
The government said that “anyone entering the UK illegally” after 1 January 2022 could be sent there, with no limit on numbers.
But, so far, no asylum seeker has actually been sent.

Faster migrant returns (Germany)

Anyone who has no right to stay must leave Germany again. We must be able to enforce this principle; otherwise we will harm our community.
In order for us to be this country, we also need clear rules and laws. This means that those who do not have the right to remain must leave the country again — quickly and reliably.
This is a prerequisite for migration to be accepted in society.

Net migration measures (UK)

  • Stopping overseas care workers from bringing dependants and requiring social care firms in England who wish to sponsor care worker visas to be providing services regulated by the Care Quality Commission (CQC).
  • Increasing the minimum earnings threshold for Skilled Worker visas from £26,200 to £38,700 and raise the individual occupation ‘going rate’ thresholds in line with the median full-time wage for equivalent jobs in 2023.
  • Those coming on the Health and Social Care Visa route will be exempt from the £38,700 salary threshold applied to skilled workers, so that we can continue to bring the healthcare workers that our care sector and NHS need. We are also exempting education workers on national pay-scale occupations.
  • Reform the Shortage Occupation List into an Immigration Salary List (ISL), ending the 20% going rate salary discount for shortage occupations – commissioning the Migration Advisory Committee (MAC) to review the composition of the list in line with the increased salary thresholds.
  • Raise the minimum income requirement for family visas. Our intention remains to bring this in line with the new minimum general salary threshold for Skilled Workers, £38,700. This will ensure people only bring dependants to the UK they can support financially and will apply to all British and settled sponsors under the five-year partner route.
  • We will raise the minimum income for family visas incrementally, in stages, to give predictability to families.
  • In Spring 2024 we will raise the threshold to £29,000, that is the 25th percentile of earnings for jobs at the skill level of RQF3[1], moving to the 40th percentile (currently £34,500) and finally the 50th percentile (currently £38,700 and the level at which the General Skilled Worker threshold is set).
  • There will no longer be a separate child element to the minimum income requirement, to ensure that British nationals are not treated less favourably than migrants who are required to meet the General Skilled Worker threshold as a flat rate, regardless of any children being sponsored.
  • We will also ask the MAC to review the Graduate route.

La loi immigration (France)

« Victoire idéologique » pour Marine Le Pen, un texte « qui respecte nos valeurs » selon Elisabeth Borne… Le projet de loi de réforme de l’immigration adopté par le Parlement dans la soirée mardi 19 décembre a fait couler beaucoup d’encre et a été la source de nombreux débats, jusqu’au sein de la majorité.

Emmanuel Macron

Le président Macron et le rabbin Haïm Korsia dans la salle des
fêtes de l’Elysée, 7 décembre 2023

« L’Élysée, ce n’est pas l’endroit où allumer une bougie. J’ai été surpris. Je me demande pourquoi Macron l’a fait, ce n’est pas son rôle »
— Yonathan Arfi

-centricism (Bing, Wikipedia)、観(View)



いつの間にか 技術中心主義(Industrocentrism)や
テクノロジー中心主義(Technocentrism)が 蔓延っていて
それに対抗するかのように エコ中心主義(Ecocentrism)だとか
生命中心主義(Biocentrism)が 大きな顔をしている

人間中心主義のまやかしや エコ中心主義の胡散臭さは
すべて 主義(-ism)という魔物から来ているのだ

まてよ こちらには 観(view)がある
自然観(View of Nature)
生命観(View of Life)
そうだ そのほうがいい

自然主義でなく 自然観
生命中心主義でなく 生命観
自然主義も生命中心主義も ついでに資本主義も共産主義も捨て



Britain has become a libertarian laboratory

Set in a maze of streets flanking the Palace of Westminster, the red brick townhouses of Tufton Street are anonymous; no corporate logos attempt to catch the curiosity of passers-by. In fact, the street itself is usually deserted. But this sleepy facade conceals a welter of activity. For the past decade or more, Tufton Street has been the primary command center for libertarian lobbying groups, a free-market ideological workshop cloistered quietly in the heart of power.
In September, it stepped out of the shadows. The “mini-budget” presented on Sept. 23 by Kwasi Kwarteng, Britain’s finance minister and key ally of Prime Minister Liz Truss, clearly owed a debt to Tufton Street. Claiming that “higher taxes on capital and labor have lowered returns on investment and work, reducing economic incentives and hampering growth,” Mr. Kwarteng took a sledgehammer to Britain’s economic consensus, announcing billions in tax cuts, particularly concentrated among the richest.
The plan spooked the financial markets, sent the pound crashing and forced the Bank of England to intervene to halt a run on Britain’s pension funds. It was, in economic and political terms, a disaster — something made plain on Monday by the government, in an attempt to mitigate the damage, scrapping a planned tax cut for high earners. But the package was more than folly. It was the consummation of plans designed on Tufton Street, and of an alliance with Ms. Truss stretching back years. Under her watch, Britain has become a libertarian laboratory.

Queen Elizabeth’s death

“We were colonised by the British and the Queen never changed the nature of that relationship.”
“Most people are saying the Queen didn’t apologise – and that is what they wanted from her.”
“We’re not all doom and gloom. We think that the future relationship the monarchy could possibly have with Africa could be one of taking responsibility – of coming to the table to have this conversation with African countries.”
“It’s sad that we lost a soul. But what they did to the African culture, to the African nations, to our wealth, to our organisation of society – really they need to come out and apologise to us.”
“We still feel we’re treated as subjects not as equals.”
“It is crazy that we’re even in that wealth – whatever that Commonwealth is – I have tried to research how we benefit as Kenyans by being in the Commonwealth and it looks like it just benefits a few leaders, a few people.”

European news

  • China’s car exports are taking off, many of them are electric vehicles and most are going to Europe. From almost nothing a few years ago, China exported half a million electric vehicles in 2021, and its market share in Europe was second only to Germany’s. As the car market goes electric, Europe could quickly find itself running a trade deficit with China in automobiles.   (Financial Times)
  • “The very fact that the Ukrainian regime is being supplied with German-made lethal weapons, which are used not only against Russian military service members, but also the civilian population of Donbass, crosses the red line,” Ambassador Sergey Nechaev said in an interview with Izvestia newspaper.
    He added that Berlin should have known better, “considering the moral and historic responsibility that Germany has before our people for the Nazi crimes.”
    “They have crossed the Rubicon,” Nechaev stated, using an idiom for passing the point of no return.   (RT)

永世中立国 スイス


全球去殖民化 歐洲博物館收藏大洗牌

歐洲殖民者在殖民時代,通過不同方式獲得的文物可說是包羅萬象。全球規模最大、成立於1753年的大英博物館(British Museum),收藏來自非洲、埃及、希臘、中國大陸等國家地區的歷史古物,估計超過800萬件。不少國家要求英國歸還文物,但最終獲英國方面允准者,寥寥無幾。
英國倫敦霍尼曼博物館(Horniman Museum)本月7日宣布,歸還在奈及利亞掠奪的數十件文物,包括12件著名的貝南青銅器(Benin Bronzes);法國則在去年將26件殖民時期掠奪文物,歸還西非國家貝南。此外,荷蘭、比利時,也願意歸還殖民時期掠奪的文物,其中比利時在2021年1月將一批重要藝術作品的所有權,歸還給民主剛果。


森の中の 曲がりくねった道を

国境には 警備隊が

それとも 監視カメラが

もし 通れなかったら

そもそも この道は

まさか 通行禁止だなんて






何の仕掛けもない みすぼらしい橋を

誰もいない 何もない国境を




振り返ると 石標が目に入る


Tribune de Genève

Un tiers de l’argent russe à l’étranger est géré en Suisse, 80% du pétrole russe y est vendu. Un business devenu plus risqué depuis 2014 – et ce n’est que le début.

Genève est devenue la capitale mondiale du négoce de pétrole russe.

e-Estonia (AI)

Being the world’s one and only Digital Republic and “E-nation”, Estonia has given an entirely different outlook on what a truly human-centric society entails for digital citizens. Under the government’s flagship program e-Estonia, which has leveraged AI and advanced technologies to take the country full digital, programs such as e-Governance, e-Tax, e-Voting, e-Health and e-Residency have completly digitized and reinvented societal life in the nation. Indeed, 99% of government services are available online––a statistic that has yet to be matched by any other nation. Therefore, AI powered social innovation is the rule rather than the exception in Estonia, it is second nature.

Tribune de Genève

Ils sont des milliers à vouloir passer la frontière à tout prix

Depuis le 16 mars, les douanes ont déjà refoulé 55 000 personnes tentant d’entrer en Suisse. Par jour, 150 amendes sont distribuées.

The Connexion

France’s medicines watchdog Agence Nationale de Sécurité du Médicament is suspending the sales of several generic pharmaceuticals made by Indian laboratory GVK Bio – including some versions of everyday drugs – because of doubts over their quality.
In all, 25 pharmaceutical generics will no longer be for sale after December 18, including versions of painkillers ibuprofen and tramadol, antihistamines desloratadine and ebastine, anti-depressant escitalopram, high blood pressure treatment candesartan, dementia treatment donepezil, migraine treatment rizatriptan and anti angina drug rimetazidine.

Pyotr Pavlensky

C’est l’unique candidat qui parle de la famille, pas Hidalgo, Dati ou Villani. Utiliser sa famille, c’est cynique, dégueulasse. […] Je ne révèle pas sa sexualité, je révèle sa contradiction, son mensonge, son hypocrisie dangereuse.

La ressource porno a duré moins de 3 jours et a été bloquée par les autorités françaises. Mais les Français avaient vraiment besoin de ce nouveau média.

Benjamin Griveaux

Je ne souhaite pas nous exposer davantage, ma famille et moi, quand tous les coups sont désormais permis, cela va trop loin. C’est pourquoi j’ai décidé de retirer ma candidature à l’élection municipale parisienne. Cette décision me coûte, mais mes priorités sont claires, c’est d’abord ma famille.

European Union

The European Union Delegation, the Heads of Mission of EU Member States and the Heads of Mission of Norway and Switzerland issue the following statement in Japan:
On 11 November 2016, an execution was carried out in Japan, adding to the twenty three other persons that have been executed since March 2012. It comes roughly one month after the Japan Federation of Bar Associations adopted a declaration calling for the abolition of capital punishment by 2020. The European Union (EU), its Member States, Norway and Switzerland have consistently and repeatedly called on the Japanese authorities to adopt a moratorium on executions, recalling the period of 20 months before March 2012 when no executions in the country took place.
We hold a strong and principled position against the death penalty and we are opposed to the use of capital punishment under any circumstances. The death penalty is cruel and inhuman, and has not been shown in any way to act as a deterrent to crime. Furthermore, any errors – inevitable in any legal system – are irreversible. We will continue our active pursuit of its abolition worldwide.
We join all of those who, in Japan and abroad, have asked for a thorough review of Japan’s current policy.

Pour réduire la pollution, protéger votre santé et lutter contre le dérèglement climatique, Paris travaille depuis novembre 2016 à un nouveau Plan Climat Air Énergie territorial, qui sera soumis en novembre prochain au vote du Conseil de Paris.
Ce plan projette de faire de Paris une ville neutre en carbone en 2050. Cela se décline dans tous les domaines. En ce qui concerne les transports, il fixe pour ambition la fin des moteurs diesel à Paris en 2024 et à essence en 2030.
Cette ambition coïncide avec celle du gouvernement. Nicolas Hulot a annoncé le 9 juillet dernier la fin des véhicules thermiques dans toute la France en 2040.

Danuta Hubner

The European Parliament is aiming to soften plans to give European Union regulators the power to force London’s main clearing house to relocate if it wants to continue doing business in the single market after Brexit.
We don’t want to give those bodies this right to use total discretion in deciding what is cleared where.
We take additional criteria, and among them is the costs for the economy.

Cédric Hugrée, Étienne Pénissat, Alexis Spire

Cartographie des inégalités sociales (niveaux d’éducation, logement, pratiques culturelles…) au-delà du revenu : une synthèse inédite des classes sociales à l’échelle européenne
Les classes populaires européennes ont été touchées de plein fouet par la crise : l’expérience du chômage et de la précarité fait partie de leur quotidien et constitue un marqueur qui les distingue des autres classes. Un autre trait récurrent est la pénibilité physique au travail, qui touche davantage les actifs peu ou pas qualifiés dans la quasi-totalité des pays européens. Pourtant, ces inégalités dans le monde du travail n’ont guère été prises en charge politiquement : la délégitimation du monde ouvrier s’est accompagnée d’une occultation de la déstabilisation des classes populaires.

Direction de l’information légale et administrative

Tout employeur occupant au moins 20 salariés est tenu d’employer à plein temps ou à temps partiel des travailleurs handicapés dans une proportion de 6 % de l’effectif total de l’entreprise. Les établissements ne remplissant pas ou que partiellement cette obligation doivent s’acquitter d’une contribution à l’Agefiph, le fonds pour l’insertion professionnelle des personnes handicapées.

Ministère de l’Education nationale

  • Suffit-il d’observer pour connaître ?
  • Tout ce que j’ai le droit de faire est-il juste ?
  • La raison peut-elle rendre raison de tout ?
  • Une oeuvre d’art est-elle nécessairement belle ?
  • Défendre ses droits, est-ce défendre ses intérêts ?
  • Peut-on se libérer de sa culture ?
  • Y a-t-il un mauvais usage de la raison ?
  • Pour trouver le bonheur, faut-il le rechercher ?

Judit Hidasi

Despite of successful integration processes in the fields of trade, economy, finance, and legal harmonization, Europe seems to resist cultural integration. On the contrary, partly as a reaction to unification on the legislative level, peoples of Europe appear to manifest their cultural identities on the national level more extensively than before. Cultural and linguistic pluralism in Europe is a part of the historical heritage and as such is treated as an asset.

Peter Gumbel

PeterGumbelEvery country has its back-to-school rituals. In France for the past few years, la rentrée — the return to classrooms after the two-month summer break — has been accompanied by teacher strikes.
Last year, one in four teachers didn’t show up for work on some September days to protest against changes in the school timetable. The year before, some struck because of losing a day’s vacation. This year, the largest teachers’ union has called for a daylong strike next Thursday and a mass rally in October to voice discontent with the government’s plans to alter the middle school curriculum. Among other things, there will be fewer possibilities to teach Latin and German, and a new emphasis on interdisciplinary studies.

Pierre Breteau

Un Irlandais qui passe ses vacances en Slovaquie paie sa bière en moyenne 2,5 fois moins cher qu’au pub au coin de sa rue. S’il veut un peu plus de soleil et opte pour la Grèce, il paiera le même demi de blonde deux fois moins cher que chez lui.


Andrew Watt

The creditors are insisting that Greece adopt “a ‘zero deficit’ system that would end budget subsidies for the pension system”. It is worth noting that a ban on the state budget subsidising the pension insurance system, if it were applied in Germany, would almost immediately bankrupt the system. Very substantial sums are pumped into the German pension insurance system by the federal government every year. And, in principle at least, there is no reason why this should not be the case. The provision of some pension entitlements can be seen as a task for society as a whole, and thus financed out of general taxation, rather than just by those paying pension contributions. (Of course this may not be behind the subsidies in Greece, but the point is that the “institutions” want a blanket ban on this practice, which I consider wrong as a matter of principle.)

C J Polychroniou

Astronomers tell us that a black hole is not what most people imagine it to be – ie, empty space-time. A black hole is an object, or a point in space, sucking things in with its powerful gravity that not even light can escape. However, Stephen Hawking sort of dismisses this idea, suggesting instead that we conceive of a black hole as an “apparent horizon”, which only temporarily holds light and matter before releasing them back in “garbled form”.
The closest thing on earth resembling a black hole is the economic mass known as the euro area. It is a physically deformed economic and monetary union where the centre of gravity is a currency (the euro) that sucks economies into a downward spiral of recession, deflation and debt. Its apparent horizon boundary condition is derived by the enforcement of neoliberal policies and the implementation of expansionary fiscal austerity.
However, unlike black holes in space, the euro area is not an irreversible process even if the masters of the euro universe treat it as such. If one of its sucked up satellites is released back into normal economic space-time, the entire object may disintegrate in air.



James Elkins

(Art history depends on Western conceptual schemata.)
Perhaps the most surprising fact about worldwide practices of art history is that there may be no conceptually independent national or regional traditions of art historical writing. Chinese art history, for example, demands expertise in very different kinds of source materials and formal concepts, but its interpretive strategies remain very Western. Chinese art historians, both in China and in universities in the West, study Chinese art using the same repertoire of theoretical texts and sources — psychoanalysis, semiotics, iconography, structuralism, anthropology, identity theory. They frame and support their arguments in the same ways Western art historians do: with abstracts, archival evidence, summaries of previous scholarship, and footnoted arguments.
I think it can be argued that there is no non-Western tradition of art history, if by that is meant a tradition with its own interpretive strategies and forms of argument.

Janine di Giovanni

It’s a stretch, but what is happening today in France is being compared to the revocation of 1685. In that year, Louis XIV, the Sun King who built the Palace of Versailles, revoked the Edict of Nantes, which had protected French Protestants – the Huguenots. Trying to unite his kingdom by a common religion, the king closed churches and persecuted the Huguenots. As a result, nearly 700,000 of them fled France, seeking asylum in England, Sweden, Switzerland, South Africa and other countries.
The Huguenots, nearly a million strong before 1685, were thought of as the worker bees of France. They left without money, but took with them their many and various skills. They left France with a noticeable brain drain.
Since the arrival of Socialist President François Hollande in 2012, income tax and social security contributions in France have skyrocketed. The top tax rate is 75 percent, and a great many pay in excess of 70 percent.
As a result, there has been a frantic bolt for the border by the very people who create economic growth – business leaders, innovators, creative thinkers, and top executives. They are all leaving France to develop their talents elsewhere.

Pouria Amirshahi, Louise Beaudoin

A l’occasion de la Journée internationale de la francophonie, nous souhaitons réaffirmer ensemble qu’une ambition francophone est résolument possible. Noire et blanche, maghrébine et latine, américaine et africaine, elle est même une promesse.
Le monde nouveau qui s’annonce voit s’organiser des aires géoculturelles autour de langues centrales. Nous francophones, au même titre que les arabophones, les hispanophones, les sinisants et les lusophones, prenons pleinement conscience des potentiels de rayonnement, d’influence et aussi de solidarité qu’offrent les espaces linguistiques coordonnés. La francophonie, c’est une aire d’interactions et d’échanges privilégiés pour bâtir ensemble de grands projets concrets, qu’il nous faut traduire en actes, en réalisations et en créations.
En nous saisissant de son enjeu culturel, politique, scientifique et aussi économique, nous voulons porter une vision moderne de la francophonie. Cette francophonie d’aujourd’hui et de demain est fondée sur une alliance des Etats, des nations et des peuples francophones, soucieux de cultiver dans la mondialisation un sentiment d’appartenance et de défendre une communauté d’intérêts. Elle s’organise autour du rapprochement de nos sociétés par la convergence des contenus (éducatifs, scientifiques), la convergence des outils (culturels, linguistiques), la circulation des œuvres et des personnes.

Dave Keating

Members of the European Parliament’s civil liberties committee today (9 January) voted to invite Edward Snowden, the former US National Security Agency contractor, to testify as part of its investigation into US surveillance practices.
Snowden will testify from Russia via a pre-recorded video-link, in response to questions provided in advance by MEPs.
The hearing, likely to be held at the end of this month, is designed to provide evidence for the committee’s special inquiry into allegations of mass surveillance by US intelligence services. On 18 December the committee heard video testimony from Glenn Greenwald, the journalist who, based on Snowden’s information, blew the lid on the US operation to collect global communications data.
The move could endanger relations with the United States, with some members of the US Congress saying that ongoing EU-US negotiations would be affected. Today, 36 MEPs voted in favour of the move, with just two voting against and one abstaining.

John J. Lothian

Robin Hood made his mark robbing from the nobility – wealthy landowners and such – and sprinkling the proceeds among the subsistence-level workers, or so the story goes.
In that regard, calling a tax on financial transactions a “Robin Hood Tax” is a bit of a misnomer. Such a tax burden would not be shouldered by the supposed rich banking barony, but rather by the retail end users and the institutional investors who manage and invest on behalf of pensions and retirement accounts. In other words, the “little guys.”
True, such a tax would harm the banks, brokers, exchanges and service providers doing business in countries subject to such a tax, but it would likely ignite an exodus to friendlier tax regimes. When that happens, there will be fewer transactions to tax, and less overall revenue flowing through the sector and into the local economy. That idea does not sit well with Christian Noyer, governor of the French central bank.

“I do not believe it was ever the intention of the French government to do something that would trigger the destruction of entire sections of the French financial industry, trigger a massive offshoring of jobs and so damage the economy as a whole.”
– Christian Noyer, French central bank governor, on the proposed financial transaction tax

For what it’s worth, the truest form of a Robin Hood Tax is a progressive income tax. France already has one of those.

Roger Cohen

Europe needs a persuasive idea of its future that can rebuild democratic support. It needs growth. For that it needs competitiveness. These truths must be told.
As the 100th anniversary of World War I approaches, the European killing fields of the 20th century fade. Their story, and how the Union stopped the cycle of bloodshed, and how it later cemented the freedom of ex-Communist states, needs to be retold.
The euro is a political idea born of calamitous European experience. Unraveling would provide a sharp reminder of the calamities. That truth also needs to be retold.
Crisis can still be the federator if leaders have a sense of history and a view of the future that extends beyond tomorrow.

Paul Zimmer

L’Europe n’est certainement pas sortie de la crise financière. Les mesures prises pour surmonter le désastre chypriote, péniblement élaborées par les responsables politiques, nourrissent de sérieux doutes quant à la gestion des tensions futures.
Ce qui a surtout irrité les observateurs avertis, ce sont les propos – certes redressés et démentis endéans quelques heures – du nouveau ‘chef de l’Eurogroupe’ Dijsselbloem, laissant entendre que pour toute crise similaire on appliquera le même schéma de sauvetage. En clair, il faut donc redouter désormais que le secours européen porté à un État national ou débiteur souverain ne laissera plus forcément indemnes les dépôts en banque et notamment les placements des petits épargnants.
Or, si les pompiers politiques, européens et nationaux, viennent à se désintéresser du sort des clients des banques et s’ils n’assurent plus le respect strict des mécanismes de ‘garantie des dépôts’ pour les premiers 100.000 € par déposant (200.000 € pour un compte commun à des conjoints), la conséquence en est évidente. À l’avenir, tout pays à problèmes connaîtra, à la première alerte, des retraits de fonds sensibles et des transferts bancaires vers des endroits plus sûrs. La méfiance généralisée accélérera la dégradation de toute nouvelle situation critique.
Certes, le malheur qui a foudroyé les Chypriotes était dû, avant tout, à des imprudences et excès. Les structures du système bancaire étaient peu sérieuses, avec la concentration d’énormes montants dans un couple de banques à modèle d’affaires simpliste et aventureux. On se contentait d’engranger des dépôts d’oligarques et ploutocrates russes, peu bienvenus ailleurs, pour les réinvestir surtout en Grèce, dans des fonds de l’État et des dépôts bancaires à haut rendement et à risque élevé.
Ces circonstances particulières n’empêchent pas pour autant le public de se demander si, un de ces jours, nous n’allons pas découvrir dans d’autres pays des surprises similaires, restées tout aussi inaperçues et tolérées par une autorité de surveillance.

Le Gouvernement du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg

Le gouvernement luxembourgeois a ainsi décidé d’introduire, au 1er janvier 2015 et sur base du champ d’application de la directive 2003/48/CE, l’échange automatique d’informations sur les paiements d’intérêts que des agents payeurs établis au Luxembourg effectuent en faveur de personnes physiques qui ont leur résidence dans un autre État membre de l’Union européenne, afin que ces bénéficiaires soient imposés conformément aux dispositions législatives de leur État de résidence tout en sauvegardant la confidentialité de données qui sont sans incidence fiscale.
Les dispositions législatives en vigueur pour les personnes physiques résidant au Luxembourg resteront inchangées; ces bénéficiaires continueront à être soumis à une retenue à la source de 10% sur leurs revenus de l’épargne et bénéficieront du secret bancaire tel qu’il existe aujourd’hui.
Le traitement fiscal de citoyens ou résidents des Etats-Unis d’Amérique qui sont clients d’instituts financiers au Luxembourg, feront l’objet d’un accord bilatéral actuellement en négociation entre le Luxembourg et les Etats-Unis.
Le traitement fiscal des paiements d’intérêts effectués au bénéfice de personnes physiques résidant dans d’autres pays restera inchangé et régi par les accords de non double imposition liant le Luxembourg à ces pays.


1968年、世界は燃えていた」などということが言われることがある。本当だろうか? 韓国から日本にきた客員教授で、「68年世代」にあたる女性は、こう言っていた。「1968年? 何もなかったわ。学生運動なら、1960年の李承晩政権打倒や、1988年の民主化運動のほうがずっと重大だった」。インドで会った「68年世代」のNGOリーダーは言った。「1968年? ベンガルで農民蜂起があったな。デリーは何もなかったよ」。

Desmond Tutu

The then leaders of the United States and Great Britain fabricated the grounds to behave like playground bullies and drive us further apart. They have driven us to the edge of a precipice where we now stand – with the spectre of Syria and Iran before us.
The question is not whether Saddam Hussein was good or bad or how many of his people he massacred. The point is that Mr Bush and Mr Blair should not have allowed themselves to stoop to his immoral level.
… On these grounds, alone, in a consistent world, those responsible should be treading the same path as some of their African and Asian peers who have been made to answer for their actions in The Hague.

Emmanuel Todd

Quant à Genève, c’est une grande ville francophone qui a un tel rôle international. Genève est une vraie chance pour la France. Si la France veut se suicider elle n’a qu’à critiquer Genève. Ou Bruxelles. La France doit immensément plus qu’elle ne le croit à ces deux grandes villes francophones qui échappent à l’influence de Paris. Car sans elles, avec son centralisme, la France serait morte depuis longtemps.


The eurozone crisis is over two years old now. It’s no longer crawling. This baby is walking and has a mind all her own. And my, what an ugly little critter this kid is, isn’t she?
Ask a money manager from London to New York when the crisis will be done and they will tell you within the next two years, with the most dire saying that it will end only when France is in the spotlight with all her mega government debt, as bad or worse than Italy’s.
When will it end? Nobody’s knows! But it won’t end this year, and probably not next year either.

Eric Lionel Jones

For most of its history Europe had been culturally a backwater of Asia. By late preindustrial times, however, Europe had the edge over other parts of the world in education and literacy, which are both correlates of investment and consumption. Europe experienced ahead of the other continents the prolonged and widespread process of development that eventually blurred into industrialisation. While there is no proven connection between very long-term well-being and the final mushrooming of growth, we may assume that, slight though it was by modern standards and distorted by distributional peculiarities, it was not a handicap.

Alexandre Forestier

Vous comptez louer une voiture pour visiter la Grande-Bretagne ? N’oubliez pas que nos voisins ont pris l’habitude de rouler à gauche !
L’histoire la plus répandue sur le sujet estime que cette spécificité britannique trouve son origine au Moyen-Âge. En marchant du côté gauche de la route un chevalier pouvait dégainer son épée et se protéger de ceux qui arrivaient sur sa droite.
Cette division entre la conduite britannique et la conduite européenne serait liée aux décisions de Napoléon. Car justement, l’Empereur français était gaucher et les traditions des chevaliers anglais ne l’intéressaient guère. Il tenait à pouvoir tenir son arme entre-lui et l’ennemi. Tout comme les anciennes colonies britanniques ont pris l’habitude de rouler à gauche, tous les pays qui ont vécu sous l’autorité française se sont mis à conduire à droite.
Au niveau des exceptions, on note que les Etats-Unis, une ancienne colonie britannique rappelons-le, a fait le choix de conduire à droite, sans doute dans le but d’éradiquer tout lien avec l’Empire Britannique. Le Japon, bien que n’ayant jamais été occupé par la Grande-Bretagne, a fait construire ses voies ferrées par des anglais… Ce qui expliquerait pourquoi le pays du soleil levant a également fait le choix de la conduite à gauche.

Office fédéral de la protection de la population (OFPP)

L’Office fédéral de la protection de la population (OFPP) assume le rôle d’organe central dans le développement stratégique et conceptuel du système coordonné de protection de la population et de ses bases d’existence ainsi que des biens culturels. Il est chargé de la gestion et de la coordination du système de protection de la population en prévision d’éventuelles catastrophes, de situations d’urgence mais également de conflits armés.
L’OFPP est responsable de la protection ABC sous tous ses aspects conceptuels et techniques (Laboratoire de Spiez). Grâce à la Centrale nationale d’alarme qui lui est rattachée, il est en train de mettre en place un centre d’annonce, de suivi de la situation et d’alerte axé sur les besoins de la Confédération et des cantons. Dans le domaine de la formation, l’OFPP revêt aujourd’hui le statut d’un centre de compétences reconnu, en particulier pour l’instruction des membres des états-majors cantonaux de conduite. En matière d’infrastructure, l’OFPP veille au maintien de la valeur des ouvrages de protection, à l’entretien et à la disponibilité opérationnelle du matériel dont en priorité les systèmes de transmission d’alarme et équipements télématiques utilisés par la protection civile.




>Samir Amin

>While theory would suggest that stronger groups, in asymmetric relationships, will seek to perpetuate their dominance with autocentric constructs, this was not always the case. The ancient Greeks adopted an attitude of superiority towards the Asiatics only briefly, during the fourth century BCE, when the Persians threatened them. In fact, Hellenic civilization moved east after Alexander’s conquest, and it was there, in partnership with the Asiatics, that it continued to flour-ish for several more centuries. Similarly, the power of Islamic socie-ties was rarely founded, in theory or practice, on a racial stratification. The Islamic elites claimed cultural superiority not for particular races, but for peoples living in central climatic zones, which included peoples other than themselves. While the Chinese empires claimed centrality, this too was based on cultural distinctions, not race. It was always their official policy to assimilate the barbarians, not to exclude them.

It would appear that the Europeans are the exceptions to this. The evidence suggests that stronger groups in Europe, as early as the twelfth century, rather quickly moved towards autocentric constructs with a racial content. This may be observed in their relations with subjugated populations that were ethnically or racially different, both inside and outside Europe. Moreover, the autocentric myths were also translated into discriminatory policies–sometimes, genocidal policies–against the weaker groups.

>Alison Baile


Philosophical methods are well suited for unpacking the political, ontological, and epistemological conditions that foster racism and hold white supremacy in place. However, on the whole, philosophy as a discipline has remained relatively untouched by interdisciplinary work on race and whiteness. In its quest for certainty, Western philosophy continues to generate what it imagines to be colorless and genderless accounts of knowledge, reality, morality, and human nature.